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STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 



Twelfth Annual Report 



STORRS 



Agricultural Experiment Station, 



STORRS, CONN 
1899. 



Printed by Order of the General Assembly. 



MIDDLETOWN, CONN.: 

PELTON & KING, PRINTERS AND BOOKBINDERS. 

igOO. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



His Excellency George E. Lounsbury. 



W. E. Simonds, 
T. S. Gold, 
Wm. D. Holman, 
E. S. Henry, 



E. H. Jenkins. 



S. O. Bowen, 
Geo. A. Hopson, 
Edmund Halladay, 
Martin M. Frisbie, 



Officers of the Station. 

Executive Committee. 

T. S. Gold, West Cornwall, ) ( °f the Board °f Trustees of 

\ - < the Connecticut 

S. O. Bowen, Eastford, ) ( Agricultural College. 

G. W. Flint, Storrs, ------ Presidefit of the College. 

Treasurer. 
William D. Holman, West Willington. 

Station Staff. 
W. O. At water, --------- Director. 

C. S. Phelps, ------ Vice-Director and Agriculturist. 

F. E. Singleton, --------- Secretary. 

Francis G. Benedict, -------- Chemist. 

Philip B. Hawk, ------- Assistant Che??iist. 

Herbert Kirkpatrick, ----- Assistajit Agricidturist. 



The Station is located at Mansfield (P. O. Storrs), as a 
department of the Connecticut Agricultural College. The 
chemical and other more abstract research is carried out at 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, where the Director may be 
addressed. 



Contents. 



PAGE. 

Trustees of the Connecticut Agricultural College, ----- 2 

Officers of the Station, ---------- 2 

Report of the Executive Committee, ------- 4 

Report of the Treasurer, --------- 5 

Report of the Director, ---------- 7 

Classification of Dairy Bacteria, - - - - - - - - 13 

Discussion of Terms, Digestibility, Availability and Fuel Value, - - 69 

Availability and Fuel Value of Food Materials, ----- 73 

Composition of Common Food Materials — Available Nutrients and Fuel 

Value, - - - - - - - - - - -in 

Studies of Dietaries of College Students and Members of Professional 

Men's Families, ---------- 124 

Studies of Dietaries in Connecticut Hospital for Insane, - 142 

Experiments with Tuberculous Cows and the Use of their Milk in Feed- 
ing Calves, -----------150 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers, - - - - - - -168 

An Experiment on Soil Improvement, ------- 205 

Analyses of Fodders and Feeding Stuffs, ------ 209 

Meteorological Observations, -- - - - - - - 219 



Report of the Executive Committee. 



To His Excellency George E. Eounsbury , 

Governor of Connecticut: 

In accordance with the resolution of the General Assembly 
concerning the congressional appropriations to the Agricultural 
Experiment Stations, and an Act of the General Assembly 
approved March 19, 1895, relating to the publication of the 
Reports of the Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, we 
have the honor to present herewith the Twelfth Annual 
Report of that Station, namely, that for the year 1899. 

The accompanying report of the Treasurer gives the details 
of receipts and expenditures. We refer you to the report of 
the Director and his associates for a statement of the work 
accomplished during the past year. We are confident that the 
funds have been wisely expended, and that the work, accom- 
plished is such as will result in great benefit to our agricultural 
and other interests. 



Respectfully submitted, 

T. 

W. E. SIMONDS, 



T. S. GOLD, ■) 

f Executive 

I Committee. 
G. W. FLINT, ) 



Report of the Treasurer 

For the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1899. 



The following summary of receipts and expenditures, made 
out in accordance with the form recommended by the United 
States Department of Agriculture, includes, first, the Gov- 
ernment appropriation of $7,500, and, secondly, the annual 
appropriation of $1,800 made by the State of Connecticut, 
together with various supplemental receipts. These accounts 
have been duly audited according to law, as is shown by the 
Auditors' certificates, copies of which are appended. 

GOVERNMENT APPROPRIATION — RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

RECEIPTS. 

United States Treasury, - -.-- - - - - $7, 500 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries, -- $3,199 76 

Labor, ------------- 1,088 94 

Publications, ----------- 326 08 

Postage and stationery, -------- 368 69 

Freight and express, - - - - - - - - - 8514 

Heat, light, and water, --------- 458 94 

Chemical supplies, - - - - - - - - - 154 69 

Seeds, plants, and sundry supplies, ------ 154 37 

Feeding stuffs, ---------- 264 64 

Tools, implements, and machinery, - -- - - - 160 

Furniture and fixtures, --------- 543 15 

Scientific apparatus, - - ... - - - - - 516 07 

Live stock, ----------- 40 44 

Traveling expenses, - - -'- - - - - - 99 32 

Contingent expenses, --------- 10 00 

Building and repairs, - - - - - - - - - 188 17 

Total, ---------- $7,500 00 



AUDITORS CERTIFICATE. 



This certifies that we have this day examined the accounts of Henry C. 
Miles, Treasurer of the Storrs College Experiment Station, for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1899, and have compared said accounts with the vouchers 
and find the same to be correct, showing receipts and expenditures both 
amounting to the equal sum of ($7,500) seven thousand five hundred dollars. 

Theodore S. Gold, | Auditors of 

_,_ _ _ r Connecticut Agricultural 

W. E. Simonds, ) College. 

Hartford, June 30, 1899. 



STATE APPROPRIATION AND SUPPLEMENTAL RECEIPTS — 
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

RECEIPTS. 

State of Connecticut, --------- $1,800 oo 

Miscellaneous receipts, - - - - - - - - -1,174 32 

Total, ---------- $2,974 32 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries, $1,399 62 

Labor, ------------ 375 10 

Publications, - - - - - - - - - - 17 67 

Postage and stationery, - - - - - - - - 51 60 

Freight and express, - - - - - - - - - 1756 

Heat, light, and water, including electric power, - - - - 184 09 

Chemical supplies, - - - - - - - - - 168 05 

Bacteriological investigations, ------- 500 00 

Seeds, plants, and sundry supplies, ------ 34 4S 

Furniture and fixtures, - - - - - - - - - 51 50 

Scientific apparatus, - - - - - - - - - 170 43 

Live stock, ----------- 35 

Traveling expenses, --------- 3S7 

Total, ---------- $2,974 32 

HENRY C. MILES, Treasurer. 



AUDITORS CERTIFICATES. 

This certifies that we have this day examined the accounts of Henry C. 

Miles, Treasurer of the Storrs College Experiment Station, " Investigation 

of food economy," for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, and have compared 

the said accounts with the vouchers and find the same to be correct, showing 

receipts and expenditures both amounting to the equal sum of ($i,Soo) eighteen 

hundred dollars. 

Theodore S. Gold, ) Auditors of 

r Connecticut Agricultural 
\\ . E. SlMONDS, ) College. 

Hartford, June 30, 1S99. 

This certifies that we have examined this day the miscellaneous accounts of 
Henry C. Miles, Treasurer of the Storrs College Experiment Station for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, and have compared said accounts with 
the vouchers and find the same to be correct, showing receipts and expendi- 
tures both amounting to the equal sum of ($1,174.32) eleven hundred and 

seventy-four 32-100 dollars. 

Theodore S. Gold, ) „ Auditors of 



Hartford, June 30, 1S99. 



. Connecticut Agricultural 
\V. E. SlMONDS, ) College. 



Report of the Director for the Year 1899. 



During the year 1899 the work of the Station has been along 
lines similar to those followed for several years past. It in- 
cludes experiments on the effects of fertilizers upon the growth 
and composition of plants, studies of dairy bacteriology and of 
bovine tuberculosis, and investigations upon the food and nutri- 
tion of man. The digestion experiments with sheep which 
have been carried on for a number of years have been discon- 
tinued. Studies of milk production by cows, carried out with 
the college and private herds, by Prof. C. L. Beach, of the 
Connecticut Agricultural College, were reported in Bulletin 20 
of the Station. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The usual observations of temperature, barometric pressure, 
wind velocity, humidity and precipitation have been made at 
Storrs. In addition, records of rainfall during the growing 
season have been made in other places by farmers who have 
cooperated with the Station. 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS UPON THE 
YIELD AND THE COMPOSITION OF CROPS. 

Plot experiments. — From the time of its establishment the 
Station has been engaged in experiments for testing the effects 
of fertilizers upon the amounts and composition of the crops 
produced. These have been made principally with grasses, 
grains, and legumes. Several series have been carried out 
continuously on the same land year after year. The larger 
number have been made in the field, but some, with grasses, 
have been conducted on a smaller scale in the experimental 
garden. The results have been reported from year to year. 
During the past year these experiments have been made with 
corn, cow peas, soy beans, and various species of grasses, in 
both the field and in the garden. 



8 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

In the Report of the Station for 1898 a detailed account was 
given of the results of these experiments, especially in their 
bearing upon the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers. It has long 
been known that nitrogenous fertilizers increase the yield of 
grasses and cereals, but have comparatively little effect upon 
the yield of legumes. The most important result of these 
experiments is to show that the nitrogenous fertilizers increase 
also the proportion of nitrogen in the grasses and cereals, 
although they have but very little effect upon the composition 
of the legumes. This principle, which has hitherto been but 
little understood, is of much importance to the farmer. 

Pot experiments. — Experiments for the study of the effects 
of nitrogenous fertilizers upon the proportion of nitrogen in 
the plants have been made on a small scale in such a way that 
moisture and other external influences might be more com- 
pletely under control. In these experiments the plants are 
grown in large pots by the use of the same kinds of nitrogenous 
and other fertilizers as are used in the plot experiments, the 
total produce being weighed and taken for analysis. The 
details of these experiments are withheld from publication 
until more data shall have accumulated. 

DAIRY BACTERIOLOGY. 

For a considerable number of years Prof. Conn and his 
assistants have carried on investigations upon dairy bacteri- 
ology. One of the special objects of the latter work has been 
to get information concerning the species of bacteria that are 
more common in Connecticut dairies, their sources, and espe- 
cialty their effects upon milk and cream and upon butter made 
from the cream ripened under their influence. For several 
years past Prof. Conn has been assisted in this work by Mr. 
W. M. Esten, who has devoted much time to these investiga- 
tions and has made an especial study of the organism B. acidi 
lactici, which is the most common cause of the souring of milk, 
and which he isolated in 1896. These investigations have been 
continued during the past year, special attention being devoted, 
as previously, to the ripening of cream and to the bacteria 
concerned in the process. 

The results of the investigations by Prof. Conn and his asso- 
ciates have been published year by year in the Reports and 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 9 

Bulletins of the Station. With the progress of the inquiries 
and the increase in the number of species isolated, it has been 
found necessary to devise a method of classification in order to 
make it easier to determine whether any particular organism 
which may be isolated is identical with some one already found 
or is a new species. In the present Report Prof. Conn dis- 
cusses a method which he has developed for use in his own 
laboratorjr. and classifies according to it the species which he 
has isolated there. This method of classification has proved 
so useful that Prof. Conn has given it herewith in considerable 
detail, in the hope that it may prove useful in establishing a 
means by which American bacteriologists can compare their 
results. 

BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 

The experiments with tuberculous cows and with their milk 
for feeding calves, which were begun in 1896, have been con- 
tinued during the past year. The present Report gives a 
statement concerning the condition of the cows and details of 
the experiments for the year 1899. These studies are being 
continued. 

ANALYSIS OF FOODS, FEEDING STUFFS, ETC. 

In connection with the inquiries of the Station a large num- 
ber of chemical analyses are required. During the past year 
these have included analyses of samples of crops grown in the 
tests with fertilizers, and of foods and other materials used in 
the metabolism experiments with man. 

In addition to the chemical analyses of the various foods, 
feeding stuffs, etc., the heats of combustion of these materials, 
which are used in determining their fuel values, have been 
determined by the use of the bomb calorimeter. 

FOOD AND NUTRITION OF MAN. 

Investigations upon human nutrition have been carried on 
during the past } 7 ear as usual. These are conducted in coop- 
eration with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, which 
defrays a considerable share of the expense. In this way 
much more extensive and accurate inquiries are made than 
would otherwise be possible. The lines of research during the 
past year have been chiefly metabolism experiments with a 



IO STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

man in the respiration calorimeter, studies of the digestibility 
of mixed diets, and studies of actual dietaries. Summaries of 
the work done and statements of the most important results 
obtained and conclusions reached, have been given in publica- 
tions of the Station for the past few years and may be found 
in this Report. The full details, which are too voluminous 
for publication by the Station, and are of such general interest 
as to call for wider distribution than it could give them, are 
published by the Department of Agriculture. These investiga- 
tions form a part of a more general inquiry which is authorized 
by Congress and is carried out in different parts of the country 
under the authority of the Secretary of Agriculture, who has 
placed them in charge of the Director of this Station. 

Dietary shidies. — The studies of actual food consumption of 
groups of people and of individuals form as in the past one of 
the important lines of inquiry of the Station. During the past 
eight years the results of over 350 dietary studies in the United 
States have been reported, the majority of which were con- 
ducted by experiment stations and other institutions in coop- 
eration with the U. S. Department of Agriculture as a part of 
the general inquiry just mentioned. Of these studies about 
fifty were carried out by this Station. The work of the past 
year includes the study of the actual food consumption at two 
of the buildings of the Connecticut Hospital for the Insane 
during one week, and several dietaries of families and indi- 
viduals for various periods. 

Digestion experiments. — Twelve experiments upon the diges- 
tibility of food by man were made during the past year. The 
results obtained in these and similar investigations elsewhere, 
together with those obtained from analyses of food materials 
and from determinations of heats of combustion by use of the 
bomb calorimeter, have been utilized in deriving the data for 
the availability and the nutritive value of American food 
materials which are summarized in one of the articles of this 
Report. 

Metabolism experiments. — Eleven metabolism experiments 
were carried on during the past } r ear, the details of which will 
appear in Bulletins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Some of the results of the work are given in the present Report. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. II 

Such research is elaborate, time consuming and costly, but the 
results are already such as to give great encouragement, and 
it is my belief that no work which the Station has attempted 
is producing or would produce results so valuable, whether 
viewed from the standpoint of pure science or that of practical 
utility, as this and kindred lines of investigation. 

Respiration calorimeter. — The metabolism experiments just 
referred to have been made by the use of the respiration calori- 
meter. Concerning the nutrition investigations in general and 
this apparatus in particular, the following statement may not 
be out of place here. It is taken from Bulletin 80, of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, a volume which was prepared to accompany the 
exhibit of American Agricultural Experiment Stations at the 
Paris Exposition of 1900: 

"From the scientific standpoint, the most noteworthy feature of these 
inquiries is found in the researches with the Atwater-Rosa respiration calori- 
meter, by means of which the study of the application of the laws of the con- 
servation of matter and of energy in the human body, are being carried out 
with a completeness not previously attained. Indications of the value of this 
apparatus and method of inquiry are already apparent in the fact that an 
apparatus on the same general plan, but large enough for experiments with 
domestic animals, is already in process of construction at the Experiment 
Station of the State College of Pennsylvania, under the direction of Prof. H. 
P. Armsby, and in cooperation with the Bureau of Animal Industry of this 
Department. The Prussian Government has provided means for the con- 
struction of a similar apparatus for the Institute of Animal Physiology at 
Bonn, under Prof. Hagemann. An appropriation, under government author- 
ization, has also been made for the construction of a like apparatus in con- 
nection with the Institute of Animal Physiology at Budapest, under- Professor 
Tangl." 

EXHIBIT OF THE STATION AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 

By invitation of the Committee of the Association of Ameri- 
can Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations on a Col- 
lective Station Exhibit at the Paris Exhibition, a cabinet of 
forty-eight cultures of bacteria, isolated from various dairy 
products, and prepared by Prof. Conn, a bomb calorimeter 
with all its accessory apparatus, and a model of the respiration 
calorimeter were contributed to this general Experiment Sta- 
tion exhibit. The selection of these subjects was in accord- 
ance with the suggestion of the committee mentioned above, 



1 2 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

whose object was to exhibit at Paris such things as would best 
exemplify the most valuable scientific as well as practical work 
of the experiment stations of the United States. 

PUBLICATIONS. 
Two Bulletins have been issued during the past year: Bulle- 
tin No. 20, "A Study of Dairy Cows," by Prof. C. L. Beach, 
of the Connecticut Agricultural College, and Bulletin No. 21, 
"The Ripening of Cream," by Prof. H. W. Conn. Other 
Bulletins are now in preparation and will be issued from time 
to time. These are printed in numbers sufficient to supply 
the entire mailing list of the Station, whereas the number of 
Reports issued will be somewhat smaller than in previous 
years. This change, which it is believed will prove very 
advantageous, has been made practicable by the Act of the 
last General Assembly, which permits the publication of the 
more technical details in the Annual Report for a permanent 
record and for the especial use of those interested in such mat- 
ters, while it also provides for the printing of popular Bulletins 
of a more practical character in larger editions for more general 
distribution. 

W. O. AT WATER, 

Director. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 13 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 

BY H. W. CONN. 



COLLECTION OF THE BACTERIA. 

For the last ten 3 r ears, in which the work upon dairy bacte- 
riology has been carried on for this Station, I have been 
gradually collecting from the dai^ products of the vicinity a 
variety of forms of bacteria. These have been obtained from 
milk and cream and occasionally from butter. During that 
time a very large number of different cultures have been iso- 
lated from these dairy products, and have been studied in the 
laboratory by bacteriological methods with more or less com- 
pleteness. Of the many hundreds thus collected, large numbers 
of course have proved to be duplicates. As fast, however, as it 
became apparent that any particular form isolated and studied 
was distinct from those previously characterized, the bacterio- 
logical characteristics of the new variety were carefully detailed 
and the form was entered in a list by number, together with 
the characteristics as they were determined. In this way there 
has accumulated a list of over 200 different types of bacteria 
which have been regarded as more or less distinct from each 
other. It may be assumed that this list contains probably all 
of the common species of bacteria which are likely to be found 
in dairies of this vicinity. Of this long list many of course 
have been found to be very commonly, some indeed almost 
universally, present in milk. Others are more uncommon, 
being found only a few times, and many indeed have been 
isolated only a single time and must therefore be regarded as 
purely accidental. It has been found, as would be expected, 
that the species of bacteria in a sample of milk vary somewhat 
with the locality from which the milk is obtained, and also 
with the season of the year in which the examination is made. 
A few forms of organisms are so widely distributed as to be 
almost universal, both as to locality and as to season. 

Of the bacteria in my list there are quite a number that have 
not been described with sufficient accuracy to make the descrip- 
tion of any considerable value. This is true especially of some 



14 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

of the earlier varieties that were isolated before the methods of 
description were sufficiently worked out; and it is also true of 
some of the later ones which were by accident lost before a 
complete description was obtained. Moreover, during the 
period in which these experiments have been going on the 
methods of bacteriological work and description have been 
quite materially changed, and it is now considered essential 
to determine certain characteristics which in early years were 
not much attended to. The result is that the descriptions 
given beyond of the different bacteria are of varying value. 
No one can be more fully aware of the incompleteness of some 
of these descriptions than myself, and for this reason a consid- 
erable number of the bacteria in the list which I have collected 
will be left out from the following classifications because the 
descriptions are too incomplete to be of any particular value. 

NEED OF CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA. 

As the list of dairy bacteria in my hands has thus been 
increased, it has been found more and more necessary that 
some kind of classification and grouping of these different bac- 
teria should be devised. When the number reaches into the 
scores it is a matter of very great difficult} 7 to determine 
whether the new culture isolated from milk is really new or 
is identical with some of the forms previously studied, and it 
becomes therefore absolutely necessary that some simple means 
of grouping the different bacteria should be obtained to make 
this determination possible. During the past few years I have 
gradually developed a method of grouping these bacteria which 
has proved extremely useful in my laboratory and has very 
greatly simplified the problem of the further study of new 
varieties isolated. 

Inasmuch as it has proved so useful in the determination of 
the forms found here, I have thought it not unwise definitely 
to formulate the method of grouping which has been used, and 
to publish along with it the descriptions of all of the more 
important of the varieties of bacteria which have been isolated 
here. There are at the present time a number of American 
bacteriologists working upon dairy bacteriology, and it is emi- 
nently desirable that they should be able to compare their 
results with each other. As long as the species found by one 
bacteriologist are described only in private notes, the} 7 cannot 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 1 5 

of course be compared with those found b} r another, and the 
work of the different observers in different parts of the country 
cannot be brought into relation. It is certainly time that our 
dairy bacteriologists should begin to compare results. For the 
purpose of making a beginning in this direction, the following 
classifications and descriptions of bacteria have been put together 
and are now published. It is hoped that it may serve to enable 
the different dairy bacteriologists to compare the species of bac- 
teria in one locality with those in another, and thus may aid 
in simplifying the problem of the species of dairy bacteria. 
Hitherto there has been nothing of this sort published in this 
country, nor indeed in Europe. Isolated descriptions of a few 
dairy bacteria have been published in one place and another, 
but no attempt has been made to get together under one list 
the types of bacteria which are found in dairy products. The 
water bacteria have been much more carefully studied and 
classified; and it is clearly a matter of importance that the 
dairy bacteria should in a similar way be brought under more 
or less distinct classification. The present list will therefore 
serve as a start in this direction. 

METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION. 

No one can be more fully aware of the incompleteness of the 
following list than I am myself. Strictly anaerobic species I 
have not yet studied, nor have I as yet made any study of the 
spore forming species which remain in milk after boiling. 
Some of the species are imperfectly described. Doubtless 
some of my species should be divided, and perhaps others that 
I have regarded as separate will subsequently be united into 
one. But all pioneer attempts at classifying bacteria must be 
open to criticism. It is my hope that this classification may 
be the beginning of a work which shall be slowly perfected, 
and may be at all events of use as a point of departure for the 
adoption of better plans in future. If it shall serve as a means 
of bringing together the work of American dairy bacteriologists 
its purpose will be accomplished. 

Every one who has had anything to do with the descriptions 
of bacteria has been impressed with the difficulty of following 
through those given in the ordinary way and comparing them 
with each other. This is due partly to the great detail which 
is given in some cases and to the lack of detail in others. In 



1 6 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

many of these descriptions nonessential features are given with 
great detail, and the whole becomes immensely confusing. It 
has seemed to me that the method adopted by Fuller and 
Johnson in a recent publication on water bacteria* marks a 
very decided advance in our method of arranging the charac- 
teristics of bacteria. They have devised a scheme whereby all 
of the important characteristics of a given species of bacteria 
may be briefly indicated by positive or negative signs, so that, 
by the proper arrangement of tables, it is possible by the use 
of a few of these signs to give in a very brief compass all of 
the important characteristics of the organisms to be described. 
The advantages of this scheme are manifold. In the first place 
it avoids the needless confusion of details which is so likely to 
arise from the verbose descriptions which may be given. In 
the second place it makes possible a direct comparison of species 
with each other, and enables one to determine at a glance 
whether two forms are in agreement so far as regards their 
chief characteristics. If then further details be given else- 
where, with more careful descriptions, the task of determining 
whether a new variety is identical with one already described is 
an easy one. The success of this method as applied to water 
bacteria has led me to adopt the same in the description and 
classification of the dairy bacteria, and the tables in the follow- 
ing pages are therefore based upon the same principle as those 
which have been used by Fuller and Johnson in their classifi- 
cation of water bacteria. 

In these tables, however, I have found it necessary to adapt 
the plan to the descriptions which I have in my possession, 
and consequently to change the character of the table some- 
what. In the study of dairy bacteria certain characteristics 
have been inevitably regarded as of more importance than 
others; and in the descriptions of the bacteria which I have 
been accumulating some factors, particularly those in connec- 
tion with the action of the bacteria upon milk, have been 
studied in more detail than would be possible to indicate in 
the table of Fuller and Johnson. On the other hand, some of 
the characteristics which they have included in the study of 
water bacteria have not been determined at all, or only inci- 
dentally, in the case of the bacteria studied here. This is to 
be regretted, since it is eminently desirable that the different 

* Jour, of Exp. Med., 1899. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 1 7 

bacteria should be comparable with each other. It is, how- 
ever, at present unavoidable, because most of these species 
have not been preserved in culture in the laboratory, and it is 
now impossible to determine the characteristics which have not 
hitherto been made out. For these reasons the tables which I 
have been obliged to make out and to use differ in some details 
from those of Fuller and Johnson. I have, however, followed 
them as closely as possible. 

SOURCES OF THE SPECIES. 
A word as to the sources of the different species of bacteria 
which are here described. All have been obtained from dairy 
products. A majority of them have come from cream either 
from neighboring creameries or from private dairies, some 
being obtained from ripened cream, others from unripened 
cream. Some of them have been obtained from milk as deliv- 
ered in Middle town by milkmen. Some have been obtained 
from the milk after it has stood in the pantries of private 
houses. Some of the species have been obtained directly from 
milk as drawn from the teats of the cow into sterilized vessels, 
others again from the dust which falls into the milk pails 
during the milking. Two of these species have been obtained 
from some samples of special milk which had been sent in cans 
from Uruguay; and some of the species have been obtained from 
samples of milk that were sent to Middletown from a large num- 
ber of States in the Union, ranging from Maine to California. 
All, however, are strictly dairy organisms, being found in milk 
or its products. 

METHOD OF ISOLATION AND STUDY. 

The method of isolation and study requires little description , 
inasmuch as it has been, in general, that commonly used in 
bacteriological study. For the isolation of the bacteria from 
the milk ordinary gelatin has been used. In most of the early 
years the gelatin was made in the ordinary way, but in recent 
years it has been found that a much more satisfactory result is 
obtained if there is added to the gelatin three per cent, of milk 
sugar. The reason for this is manifest. Milk always contains 
a considerable portion of milk sugar. Naturally, therefore, it 
is to be expected that the typical dairy bacteria will grow much 
more rapidly in gelatin provided with milk sugar. Indeed, some 



1 8 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

of the characteristic species are isolated with great difficulty 
from cream by the use of ordinary gelatin, but are found with 
the greatest of readiness by the use of sugar gelatin. Practi- 
cally also it has been found extremely useful to employ for this 
purpose only gelatin which has been rendered blue with litmus 
solution, as this makes it possible readily to distinguish the 
acid organisms from those that do not produce acids. It has 
been found that one species of bacterium which is par excel- 
lence a dairy species, namely B. acidi ladici, No. 206, produces 
in such gelatin a colony which is most readily distinguished 
from any other species of bacteria, and this of course makes it 
extremely convenient for use. 

After isolation of the bacteria they have been purified by 
replating in the customa^ manner, and then inoculated into 
the ordinary media for the purpose of determining their char- 
acteristics, which have been obtained as usual. Special atten- 
tion, however, has always been given to the effect of the 
organisms upon milk at ordinary room temperature and at 
higher temperatures. In many cases also the action of the 
organisms upon sterilized cream has been determined, and in 
a considerable number of the cases the influence of the organ- 
isms upon the character of the butter obtained from cream 
ripened by means of them has been made out. 

Unfortunately, the use of the fermentation tube has not been 
adopted so widely as would be desired. lu the study of some 
species the fermentation tube has been used, but in the majority 
of cases it has not. In the work that is done now it is used 
in all cases, but in many of the descriptions which have been 
given in past years this important test was omitted. For this 
reason the production of gas in glucose bouillon has not been 
determined in many cases. In determining the characteristics 
of these bacteria no attempt has been made to determine their 
action upon nitrites or the production of indol, nor has any 
attempt to determine pathogenic characteristics been made. 
These features have not yet been regarded as of significance 
enough in the study of dairy bacteria for dairy purposes to 
warrant the time which would be taken in determining them. 

GROUPING THE BACTERIA. 
In dividing the dairy bacteria into groups I have tried so far 
as possible to follow the methods already adopted, and have 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 1 9 

used as the foundation of irty grouping that of Fliigge given 
in the last edition of his Die Microorganismen . This grouping, 
as will be seen below, is based partly upon the power of pro- 
ducing pigment and partly upon morphological data. This 
arrangement is quite similar to that which has been adopted 
by Fuller and Johnson, and is easily compared with that which 
has been adopted by Chester in his valuable study of the clas- 
sification of bacteria. As I have arranged these groups it 
results that in some cases there are placed together under one 
table the two genera which Migula has distinguished as Bacillus 
and Bacterium. According to Migula 's classification a distinc- 
tion between these two genera is based upon the formation of 
spores. The genus Bacillus produces spores, while the genus 
Bacterium does not produce spores. By the method of grouping 
which I have adopted, it has resulted that in groups IV. and 
VII. both of the genera Bacillus and Bacterium are included. 
This confusion, however, is not a serious one, since it involves 
only a few organisms. The grouping that has been adopted 
in the following pages is one which I have found to be the 
easiest to use in laboratory practice. The groups which I 
have recognized are as follows: 
Group I. Fluorescent bacteria. 

II . All red chromogenic forms. 
III. All orange chromogenic forms. 
IV. All lemon yellow chromogenic forms. 

V. All non-liquefying micrococci not included in II, III., aitd IV. 
VI. All liquefying micrococci not included in II, III, and IV. 
VII. All non-liquefying rods which are not chromogenic. These are 
mostly of the species Bacterium, but -the table includes two of 
the genus Bacillus. 
VIII. All liquefying Bacteria without spores. 

IX. All liquefying Bacilli with spores no larger than the rods. 
X. All liquefying Bacilli with large spores causing the rods to be 
swollen at the time of ' sporulation. 

NAMING THE SPECIES. 

In regard to the question of naming the species described, I 
have been somewhat at a loss as to the best method of pro- 
cedure. Some of the species which are described are unques- 
tionably entirely new and are very distinctly characterized. 
Others are very obscure in their diagnostic character, so much 
so that it has been difficult or impossible to give characters 
which very clearly define them. In these cases I have been 



20 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

uncertain whether I was dealing with wholly new species or 
not. Some of the species described are very abundant and are 
found very frequently in dairy products, while others are rare, 
being found only once or twice. In my original laboratory 
notes each of these species has been entered by number. But 
it has seemed to me wisest in the following pages to apply 
names to such species as are clearly distinct and new. I have 
looked through the literature of systematic bacteria as carefully 
as possible, and wherever I could do so I have identified the 
species I have found with those described elsewhere. This, 
however, has not been possible in a majority of cases. It must 
be regarded as doubtful whether the identification of species 
found in milk with those found in water, soil, and air is accu- 
rate, and when the attempt is made to identify American 
species with those of Europe the uncertainty becomes very 
great. A few well marked species may be thus readily recog- 
nized, but for most species we must, in the present condition 
of bacteriology, recognize that any identifications of American 
dairy bacteria with bacteria from other sources and localities is 
very uncertain. For the most part the dairy bacteria must at 
present be considered by themselves. Where I have been able 
to class my species with those elsewhere described, the classifi- 
cation has been indicated by applying to the organism here 
described the name of the species with which it has been 
identified. 

In regard to the rest of the species which cannot be identified 
with any described species, I have adopted the following plan. 
Wherever the species in question is an extremely common one 
or one that is very easily described and recognized from descrip- 
tion, I have given it a specific name. In using these names I 
have in most cases added the word lactis for the purpose of 
indicating the fact that the organism in question is of a species 
found in milk. In the following pages, therefore, where a new 
name has been applied to a described organism this indicates 
either that it is a very abundant dairy organism or that it is 
one whose characters are so distinct as to indicate clearly that 
it differs from any other described species, and moreover so 
distinct that it can easily be recognized from the description. 
Where the organism in question, however, is found only rarely 
in dairy products and has characteristics so obscure as to make 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 21 

it difficult to define it with accuracy, I have simply retained 
the original number by which this species has been entered in 
my laboratory notes. It is hoped that further study in future 
years may enable me to determine more accurately whether the 
species should be subsequently kept isolated and given specific 
names or whether they may eventually be merged into some of 
the other more common types. 

METHOD OF TABULATION. 

In the use of the tables the following methods have been 
adopted. At the top of the table in parallel columns are given 
certain characteristics which are indicated for each organism in 
the proper column by the sign + or — . The sign -j- indicates 
always that the species possesses the characteristic in question^ 
the sign — that it does not possess the characteristic in question. 
In some places the sign ± has been inserted, which indicates 
that the characteristic in question is doubtful. For example, 
under the column headed "Diameter greater than i/x" the ± 
means the diameter is practically i/a. In the column referring 
to the reaction of milk, the ± sign indicates that the reaction 
is unchanged or is amphoteric. The other places where the 
± sign is used explain themselves. In the use of this table 
the word bacillus merely refers to the fact that the organism 
is a rod rather than a coccus, and it does not mean that the 
organism is a bacillus in the sense of Migula's classification. 

The tables when thus filled out give in a brief compass the 
chief diagnostic characters of the different species of bacteria. 
But these are not sufficient to give a complete description. 
There is therefore given in the pages following the table, under 
the proper numbers and names, such description of diagnostic 
characters as may be needed, in addition to those inserted in 
the tables, for the proper diagnosis of the species. By the use 
of the tables and these descriptions together each species is 
described as fully as possible from the data which are in my 
possession. These tables will be found extremely simple to 
use if one has a species of bacterium which he wishes to iden- 
tify with those described. My method is as follows: I make 
a ' ' trial slip ' ' giving the characters included in the tables. 
Upon this slip I enter the characteristics of the species being 
studied with the + and — signs in spaces corresponding to 

3 



22 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

the columns in the tables. Then by moving the trial slip up 
and down the table it is possible to determine at a glance 
whether it agrees with any of the described species. If it is 
found that the characteristics agree practically with those of 
any species given in these tables, reference to the descriptions 
following will give further details and will make identification 
in most cases a simple matter. The whole comparison takes 
only a very few minutes and is a great saving of time over the 
old method of comparing long detailed descriptions. 

THE CHIEF DAIRY SPECIES. 

It is necessary to give here a brief statement concerning the 
bacteria which are to be regarded as the distinctive dairj^ 
organisms of this region. Although the number of species 
found in dairy products as seen by the following pages is 
large, the number of those which are found with very great 
uniformity in dairy products is small. Indeed, as the result 
of my experiments I have concluded that the dairy organisms 
of this region are chiefly of four species. Strictly speaking, it 
is probably more correct to say three groups of closely related 
bacteria rather than four single species. They are as follows: 

The most abundant of our dairy organisms is No. 206, which 
is the B. acidi lactici (Esten). As already mentioned in a pre- 
vious publication,* it is almost universally found in samples of 
milk or cream. This appears to be true not only of milk and 
cream in this region but of milk from a very wide territory. 
Samples of milk that have been sent us from a large number 
of States have in almost all cases shown the presence of this 
organism in abundance. In sour milk it is almost alwaj^s 
present. In all samples of ripened cream which we have 
studied it has been found to be by far the most abundant 
species. In most samples of ripened cream this No. 206 forms 
over 75 per cent, of the bacteria present, and sometimes over 
90 per cent. 

The source of this organism in our milk has been a matter 
of some little interest, and has been studied b3 T experiment in 
the last few months. Its almost universal presence in milk, 
together with the marked^ anaerobic character, would seem 
to indicate that it probably comes from the milk ducts. This 

* vSee Report of this Station for 1896. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 23 

conclusion has not been borne out by the direct studies of bac- 
teria in the milk ducts. Our recent experiments seem rather 
to point to the conclusion that this organism comes from exter- 
nal contaminations. When we have collected samples from 
large numbers of cows, drawing the milk directly from the 
teats into sterilized vessels with little or no chance for contam- 
ination, it has been found that milk thus obtained only in very 
rare cases contains the organism No. 206. In the experi- 
ments, which now number over 200 and involve 75 well kept 
cows, there have been only five instances where such milk 
contained this organism, and the cows concerned in these five 
cases did not show the same result with a second test. The 
milk obtained directly from the cows in this way contained many 
species, commonly including liquefying bacteria, but not this 
common lactic species. When, however, the milk is drawn 
from the cow into sterilized vessels with a more widely open 
mouth, the organism in question has been found in most cases 
to be present, and becomes abundant in a few hours. This 
indicates that the B. acidi lactici should be regarded as an 
organism which comes from external contamination, and is 
not a normal inhabitant of the milk duct. On the other hand, 
up to the present time I have not succeeded in finding the 
organism in question present in any considerable numbers in 
gelatin plates which have been exposed to the air underneath 
the cow during the milking process. My present belief is that 
this organism is not a normal inhabitant of the milk duct, but 
commonly is derived from external sources, and is practically 
always present in the milk vessels into which the milk is drawn. 

Next in abundance to the organism just described is No. 
202. This may perhaps be a variety of the last, but it differs 
from it in being more markedly anaerobic, and in producing a 
colony in gelatin which is extremely minute and indeed invis- 
ible to the naked eye, whereas No. 206 produces a good sized 
colony. This is also very abundant in nearly all samples of 
sour milk or cream, although the numbers are much less than 
those of the last species. This organism I have not been 
able to find in the milk ducts any more than the last, and I 
regard it also as being derived from external contamination. 

These two species undoubtedly belong together, not only 
from their morphological similarity and their general likeness 



24 STORKS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

in growth upon various media, but also from their action on 
milk. They certainly represent a type of dairy organisms 
common everywhere. Many of the lactic organisms hitherto 
described by different bacteriologists clearly belong to this 
type, although slight differences in described characteristics 
perhaps indicate different varieties. This is true of the Bacte- 
rium acidi lactici of Giinther and Thierfelder, Bacterium lactis 
acidi of L,eichmann, Bacillus XIX. of Adametz, Bacillus a. of v. 
Freudenreich, M. acidi laevolacidi and B. acidi laevolactici of 
L,eichmann and several of the types described by Storch. The 
pure culture used in cream ripening and put on the market by 
Hansen is a culture of one of this type of lactic organisms, and 
the same is true of the pure cultures of Witte and Barnekow. 
All of these organisms agree very closely in general characters 
and are doubtless closely related. In this region this type, 
represented by No. 206 and No. 202, is the most abundant 
milk bacterium, at least in milk obtained in the ordinary man- 
ner and allowed to stand for several hours before testing. 

The next most important dairy species in this vicinity is 
No. 208, which I have regarded as identical with B. lactis aero- 
genes. This is found almost universally, although never in 
very great numbers. The organisms included under this 
number, however, have shown very wide variations, and it is 
quite possible that a number of distinct types are here included. 
At all events, it is quite certain that if all these forms are to be 
regarded as one species, several quite distinct varieties must 
be recognized among them. The distinctive characteristics of 
these species are, (1) the intense acid that the colonies produce 
in litmus gelatin; (2) the abundance of gas which is developed 
when they grow in milk sugar bouillon or in milk; (3) the 
uncertainty as to their power of curdling milk, this occurring 
commonly at high temperatures though not commonly at room 
temperatures; and (4) the distinctive odor of sour milk which 
is found in milk that has been curdled by means of them. 
B. acidi lactici, I. and II., Nos. 206 and 202, although they 
curdle milk with the production of lactic acid, do not give rise 
to the typical sour milk odor, and neither of them develop any 
trace of gas in the milk. I am therefore convinced that the 
ordinary souring of milk is produced in part by the action of 
this No. 208, and that typical sour milk, with its tendenc}- to 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 25 

fragmentation and its sour odor, is never developed unless some 
of the organisms included in my No. 208 species are present. 
Ordinary sour milk, according to my observations, is produced 
by these three organisms, and probably in the spontaneous 
souring of milk all three are present. 

I am convinced that here also the various bacteria which 
I have included under No. 208 do not represent a single 
bacterium, but rather a group of allied varieties, and as a 
group represent a most important dairy organism. In looking 
through the literature upon dairy bacteria, it appears to me 
that many of the lactic organisms that have been described by 
different observers belong to this group. The original B. acidi 
lactici of Hueppe apparently belonged here. Here, too, prob- 
ably must be placed Bacterium lactis acidi, Marpmann, Bacillus 
lactis acidi, Marpmann, Bacillus acidi lactici, I. and II., of Gro- 
tenfelt, No. 8 of Eckles, and doubtless several others. In the 
pure cultures used for cream ripening in European countries, 
known as the culture of Eorenz, the organisms appear to belong 
to this same type. The two forms recently isolated from Edam 
cheese by L-eichmann and Bazarewski and called Bacterium caesi, 
I. and II. , also belong to this series. It is quite unlikely that 
these different organisms are the same, although their morpho- 
logical and cultural characters in general accord. All of these 
facts indicate that in the species which I have at present called 
Bacillus lactis aerogenes there are grouped together a number of 
types with great similarity, but with at least different physi- 
ological characters. 

The third type of bacteria which I have found so abundant 
as to call it a distinctive dairy bacterium of this region is 
ni3 T . M. lactis varians, No. 113. This has been sufficiently 
described elsewhere, and as already mentioned is a very highly 
variable Micrococcus both as to chromogenic powers and power 
of liquefying gelatin. This species is common in fresh milk 
and probably exists in the milk ducts. It is commonly over- 
grown by the lactic organisms and is less common in old milk. 
It is hy no means universally found and ma3 r be ov\y a local 
species. 

Several other species in my list are quite common in milk, 
but I think that these four must be regarded as the chief dairy 
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+ + +II 11+ N++I+ + +I+ +++ + + + + 1 : + 


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+ + + + + + + + 1 1 1 II II II 1 M 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 


i | I | i I |l + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 


GROUP VI. 
rococci. Liquefying, non-chromogenic. 

M. citreus lactis, - 

Sarcina alba, "--."- 
M. communis lactis, - - - - 
M. liquefaciens acidi I., - 
M. liquefaciens acidi II., - 
M. acidi lactis, - 

GROUP VII. 
and Bacteria. Non-liquefying and non- 
chromogenic. 

Division A. 
[• B. coli communis, \ 
B. lactis aerogenes, - - 

B. ubiquitus lactis, - 

B. acidi lactici I., 

B. acidi lactici II., - 

Division B. 

> B. communis lactis II. , - - -j 

B. communis lactis I., ... 
B. radiata lactis, - - - - - 
Proteus Zenkeri, - 

B. viscosus lactis II., - 


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32 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF BACTERIA. 

GROUP I. FLUORESCENT BACTERIA. 
Bacteria which produce a blue-green color either in agar or gelatin or bouillon 

or in all three. 

No. 21. (Very common.) B. fluorescens Schuylkilliensis. (?) 
(Wright.) 

Morphology ; . 8/x by 2/x. Chains. 

Gelatin plate; a large liquefying colony, greenish and granular, later becom- 
ing surrounded by a clear pit. Later the granular center breaks up into a 
diffused mass. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow pit, becoming deep and broad. Later a horizontal 
liquid layer is formed with a scum and a precipitate, and a clear, green liquid 
between. Growth is very slow. 

Agar; a thin, white, not very opaque, moist growth. Agar green. 

Potato; diffusely spreading, very thin, moist and brown. 

Milk; sometimes curdles in 3 days at 20 , and at other times fails to curdle. 
Alkaline, and there is a slight digestion. 

This bacterium appears to agree most closely with B. fluorescens Schuylkil- 
liensis (Wright), the differences being only within the range of variation. 

No. 31. (Very common.) B. fluorescens liquefaciens. 
(Fliigge.) 

Morphology; size, 1.5/* by .g/x, forming long chains. 

Gelatin plate; small round colonies, with radiating marking under the sur- 
face. Surface colonies become surrounded by a clear, granular pit, the center 
gradually disseminating into the pit. 

Gelatin stab; slowly liquefying in a rather deep funnel. The liquid is 
intensely green. 

Agar; white, smooth, moist and glistening. 

Potato; thick and brownish. 

Bouillon; liquid becomes very green. 

Milk; a soft, slimy curd is produced at 20 , which begins to digest at once 
into a yellowish green alkaline liquid. 

This seems to be one of the varieties of B. pyocyaneus (Gessard), and closely 
related to B. fluoresce7is liquefaciens. It is a very slow liquefier. 

The many cultures of No. 21 and No. 31 which have been isolated and 
studied show considerable variation, and possibly several varieties have been 
here included which might be properly separated. But since they seem to 
belong to two types, I have recognized only the two above described. 

Both of these species have been found many times in milk from all the 
localities studied, and while these organisms cannot be regarded as distinctively 
characteristic of milk or cream, they are so commonly found that their presence 
is not unusual. Whether they indicate, as has been sometimes assumed, that 
the milk has been adulterated or contaminated with water is a question that I 
do not feel that I have data for determining. 

No. 128. 

No. 128 is only slightly different from No. 21 and No. 31. The chief differ- 
ences are the following: Its size is considerably smaller, being only .j/jl by ./(J., 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 33 

whereas the other two have a diameter of .8/j. and a length of 1.5^. In gelatin 
stab culture No. 128 produces a very shallow pit, whereas No. 21 and No. 31 
produce a deeper pit; and, moreover, the liquefied gelatin is not rendered green, 
or only slightly so, by No. 12S. The effect of this organism upon the milk is 
also very slight. While the milk is curdled in two or three days, there is little 
or no digestion of the casein; whereas, as shown by the tables, the casein is 
readily digested by Nos. 21 and 31. 

That Nos. 21 and 31 are varieties of the same species seems to me almost 
certain. No. 128 is probably a different variety of the same species, and 
possibly is B. flitorescens minutissimus. (Unna.) 

No. 5. B. viscosus. (Frankland.) 

Morphology ; size, iw by 2/x, but variable. Showing bi-polar staining. No 
threads are produced, but a capsule is present. No true spores, but the double 
stain gives the appearance of spores. 

Gelatin filate; a small white colony is produced, which sinks into a pit and 
rapidly liquefies the gelatin. The pit has a granular center and a clear rim, 
and grows into a uniformly granular colony with a radiating rim. Only a slight 
tinge of green. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow funnel is produced, with a thick tenacious scum on 
the surface, with a tendency to crack and wrinkle. The liquid becomes green 
and later yellow and slimy. 

Agar; upon agar there is produced a thin, rough, white, dry skin, which is 
marvelously sticky, almost like glue. The agar becomes slightly green. 

Potato; abundant, brownish yellow growth. 

Milk; the milk is curdled at the room temperature in two days into a soft, 
slimy mass, with no whey, the reaction being alkaline. This becomes rapidly 
digested into a lemon yellow liquid; after the casein is all dissolved, the whole 
liquid is yellow and slimy. The odor is sickish, and the mass is very slimy. 
At 35° there is no digestion. It is further to be noted that after cultivation of 
about four months in the laboratory, this organism ceased to have the power 
of coagulating milk, although it continued to digest the casein at room tempera- 
ture. The production of the lemon color also ceased. 

The most distinctive characters of this organism are its bi-polar staining and 
its production of a slime. Experiments were performed with this specie, show- 
ing that it produced a soluble enzyme. The organism was cultivated in milk 
for some time, and then filtered through porcelain. The filtrate, which con- 
tained no bacteria, was found to have the power of coagulating milk in an 
hour's time at room temperature. From such filtrate an enzyme was isolated, 
as described in a previous publication.* 

This organism appears similar to B. viscosus. (Frankland.) 

Nos. 82 and 90. B. fluorescens non-liquefaciens . 

Nos. 82 and 90 are without much doubt the same organism, and are probably 
identical with Bacillus fluorescens non-liquefaciens of Fliigge. Slight differ- 
ences led me to recognize two varieties, which appear in the descriptions. The 
organisms are not very common. 

* Cent. f. Bact. u. Par., XII., 1892. 



34 vSTORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Morphology; a bacillus .6/x by i.2^i to 2/x. No. S2 forms chains, while they 
were not found in No. go. 

Gelatin plate; the colony of No. 82 is at first round and opaque, but white. 
When reaching the size 1 mm. it becomes surrounded by a green halo. Later it 
becomes rough, irregular in shape, but still surrounded by the green halo. 
The colony of No. go spreads over the surface in a bluish white, clear colony, 
which frequently shows a darker granular center. No green halo appears. 

Agar; a very thin, hardly visible growth is produced, which spreads over the 
surface, and the agar is turned green. 

Bouillon; there is formed a thin scum with a very slight cloudiness, and 
subsequently a sediment appears. After several weeks the liquid is quite 
cloudy and a sediment is noticeable, which is greenish in the case of No. 82, 
and brownish in the case of No. go. 

Milk; this organism produces no noticeable effect upon milk at any tempera- 
ture. 

Both of these cultures were inoculated into pasteurized cream, and after the 
cream was allowed to ripen 24 hours it was churned. The butter produced had 
a moderately good flavor, though not strong, and hardly different from butter 
made from pasteurized cream without inoculation. 

These six varieties which, as indicated, probably belong to four species, 
include all of the fluorescent forms which have been found in the dairy products 
in this vicinity. 

GROUP II. CHROMOGENIC TYPE. (RED.) 
No. 209. Bacillus prodigiotis. 
Bacillus prodigious has been found a few times in milk in this vicinity. 

No. 62. Micrococcus rubidus lactis. (n. sp.) 

This species has been found only once, but it appears to be different from 
any previously described bacterium. It is a coccus form, non-motile , and fails 
to render milk red or to curdle it. In other characters it resembles B. pro- 
digious. 

Morphology; a coccus about J/x, enveloped in a non-staining capsule. 

Gelatin plate ; rapidly liquefying colonies, commonly with red pigment, 
although many colonies fail to produce the pigment. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow funnel, soon widening and depositing red pigment. 
The whole gelatin liquefies and becomes red. 

Agar and potato; a blood red, thick, luxuriant growth. Pigment not pro- 
duced at 35. . Pigment most profuse at 23°. 

Milk; no curdling, although the milk becomes thickened slightly, with red 
margin. No change in reaction. In' old cultures a mass of casein is seen 
floating in a clear liquid. 

No. 42. Micrococcus rosaceus lactis. (n. sp.) 
This specimen was obtained originally from Uruguay, but there was later 

isolated from milk in Middletown a culture that agreed with it in all essential 

respects. 

Morphology; a micrococcus, .8ju in diameter, grouped in fours. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 35 

Gelatin plate; colonies i mm. in diameter, of a light pink color. Under a 
low power they show a nucleus with a lighter zone. Upon the surface the 
edges are thin and the center raised. 

Gelatin stab; there is a slight needle growth and a slight surface growth, 
which is pink. 

Agar and potato; a moist, thick,. not widely spreading, pink layer. 

Bouillon; after a few days a pinkish sediment makes its appearance. The 
liquid is cloudy, with no scum. 

Milk; no curdling takes place. Reaction becoming slightly alkaline, with 
no digestion. After two weeks a very slight pinkish tinge is noticed in the 
milk, which becomes quite decided in a month. Later a pink scum forms, and 
the milk becomes somewhat slimy. 

The distinctive characteristic of this species is the pink color produced, 
which shows in the gelatin colony, in the gelatin stab growth, in the growth on 
agar and potato, and in the sediment in the bouillon. 

No. 115. (Somewhat common.) Bacillus ruber lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a rod .qm by 2\x to 4/U in length, occasionally forming long bent 
chains. 

Gelatin plate; a white opaque bead, .7 mm. in diameter, formed on the sur- 
face of the gelatin, coarsely granular and broken around the edge. Gelatin 
liquefies rapidly, with a central mass and an outer granular zone, which is 
broken and lobed at first. Later the outer zone becomes clear as it expands, 
and the inner mass is broken into fragments. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow funnel formed, with a thin liquid layer of gelatin 
•over the whole surface of the tube, which gradually deepens. A dense sedi- 
ment appears in a clear liquefied gelatin, but no scum. 

Agar; a thick, coarsely folded growth, which may be at first yellow, but 
later pink. 

Potato; smooth, thick, glistening growth, with a decidedly pink or salmon 
tinge. A very striking characteristic. 

Milk; curdled in 4 days at body temperature. The curd is soft and alka- 
line, and soon digests into a colorless liquid. At 20 the milk does not curdle, 
but digestion occurs. When used for ripening cream it produces a good 
flavored butter, with a pleasant aroma, though neither taste nor smell are 
those of typical butter. 

No. 151. (Rare.) 

Morphology; Bacillus .6/x by .7/* to 1.2/x, .blunt ends. 

Gelatin plate; surface colony round, semi-transparent, liquefying gelatin 
slowly, with an orange pink color. 

Gelatin stab; slight needle growth, with slow liquefaction. A slightly cloudy 
liquid is produced, with a thin scum. 

Agar; moist, salmon pink growth. 

Potato; a moist, light orange growth, which later becomes deeper and shows 
various shades, from orange to a brilliant red. 

Milk; no effect for 10 days, except a slight pink scum around edge and a 
pink tinge to milk. Then it curdles into a soft curd, which later digests into 
an orange colored liquid. Is alkaline. 



36 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The two following groups, III. and IV. , are separated from 
each other by the color of a pigment which they produce, the one 
giving a lemon yellow and the other an orange yellow pigment. 
It has been found by experience that brownish colors, especi- 
ally upon potato, have no significance, but that lemon and 
orange yellow colors are quite distinct from each other, and 
may be used to characterize different groups. Occasionally 
forms may be found in which it is a little difficult to determine 
to which of these two groups they belong. For convenience 
in classification some of these forms have been included under 
both groups, but as a rule the yellow and orange are sharply 
separated. 

GROUP III. CHROMOGENIC TYPE. (ORANGE.) 
No. 199. Sarcina /lava. 
This species has been occasionally found in milk. 

No. 188. M. aureus lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a coccus, size, .8/x, in pairs or in clumps. 

Gelatin plate; a round, opaque colony, surrounded by a halo which is uni- 
formly granular, somewhat indented and cracked. This increases to a large, 
uniformly granular liquid zone, which spreads in all directions. The lique- 
faction at first is chiefly below the surface. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow pit is produced, which deepens into a horizontal layer 
with a yellow sediment and slightly cloudy liquid. Liquefaction becomes complete. 

Agar and potato; an abundant, moist, glistening Naples yellow growth. 

Milk; after three weeks becomes curdled and rendered alkaline. Later is par- 
tially digested into a transparent liquid, with considerable undigested sediment. 

No. 103. (Quite common.) B. aureus minutissimus. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .41* by 1.6^. Three or four may be united 
together, and in bouillon, long tangled threads. 

Gelatin plate ; surface colony at first thin, irregular, branching and creeping. 
The deeper colonies are burr like, with a yellow center and radiating processes. 
After two days a liquefying pit is formed, with a yellow center and irregular 
processes extending into the gelatin. The whole is quite characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; a deep, narrow funnel, with a brilliant yellow sediment and 
scum, and a somewhat cloudy liquid. 

Agar; an orange yellow growth, spreading over the whole surface. 

Potato; a dark orange growth of a very deep color and striking appearance. 

Bouillon; a slight scum on a uniformly cloudy liquid, and a yellow sediment 
collects after some weeks. 

Milk; at 20 becomes somewhat pasty and dark colored. Slightly slimy, 
and is alkaline in reaction. Butter made from cream ripened with this organ- 
ism develops an aroma of decay which is unpleasant. No very decided flavor. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 37 

Nos. 113 and 104. Micrococcus varians lactis. (n. sp.) 

This is one of the most common of our dairy species, being found very com- 
monly in milk and cream. It is frequently found in plates made by collecting 
dust that falls from the body of the cow during milking. It is a very widely 
variable species.* Its power of producing pigment varies from a deep orange 
to a pure white. It commonly liquefies gelatin rapidly, but some cultures have 
been found with this power only slightly developed and some in which it is 
wholly absent. In the table I have included two of the extreme types, and the 
variations are mentioned below. 

Morphology; a coccus form, slightly variably in size, but about i/x in 
diameter. It never forms chains, and stains easily. 

Motility; none. 

Temperature ; grows readily at ordinary temperature. Grows rapidly at a 
temperature of 38 , but with less color. 

Mica plate; grows under the mica plate, but not much in the middle. Evi- 
dently an aerobe with slight anaerobic powers. 

Gelatin plate; colonies, at first forming a whitish or yellowish bead on the 
surface, which sinks into a slight pit with an irregular edge. The pit broadens, 
liquefying the gelatin rapidly, and the colony breaks up into irregular yellow 
masses. The pit is sometimes very deep, and contains the irregular floating 
masses of bacteria. The general character of the colony is very characteristic, 
and can be readily distinguished at a glance from other liquefying colonies. 
The non-liquefying variety, No. 104, simply forms a yellow colony, not 
characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; a broad, shallow funnel is produced, with a broken yellow scum 
and a yellow flaky sediment. Sometimes there is liquefaction along the needle 
track, and sometimes not. The liquefaction is rapid, and in a few days the 
gelatin is completely liquefied. No. 104 forms a shallow, dry pit, with a dense 
yellow surface growth. 

Agar; a very characteristic, dry, rough, yellow growth. The color is slightly 
orange, though not very deep. From this the color varies to a pure white. 

Potato; a dry, granular, orange yellow growth, abundant and characteristic. 
Color varies to a white, and sometimes the growth is moist rather than dry. 

Bouillon; in two days a slight cloudiness is produced. In six days the 
liquid is very cloudy, but with no sediment. In four weeks very cloudy, 
with a yellow sediment. 

Milk; curdles at 36 in three days into a soft curd, with an amphoteric re- 
action. At 20° it curdles in the same way in ten days. The curd is not 
subsequently digested, or only very slightly. When used for ripening cream in 
butter making, it produced very little flavor or aroma. 

No. 159. (Rare.) 

Morphology ; a bacillus, size, .7^ by .gn. 

Gelatin plate; characteristic. A mounded, yellowish, spreading colony, 
which becomes / centimeter in diameter, thin and almost invisible on the edge. 
Is irregular shaped and very yellow. 

* The variations of this species have been previously described in the Cent. f. Bact. 
u. Par., II., V., p. 665. 



38 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Gelatin stab; a good needle growth, with a thick yellow orange surface 
growth. 

Agar and potato; thick, moist, glistening yellow, of a very deep orange shade. 
Milk; no effect produced on milk. 

Nos. 162 and 141. 
See the same numbers under Group III. They are listed here also, since 
the pigment sometimes approaches an orange color rather than a lemon yellow. 

No. 169. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a. bacillus, size, .5/x by l/x. Has an irregular stain, with light 
spots in the middle that are not true spores. On potato they grow to a length 
of 4/u, with square ends, still showing irregular stain. 

Gelatin plate ; deep colonies are round and yellow, with a dark center and a 
yellow rim. Surface colonies are about .5 mm. in diameter. They are yellow 
and transparent, the transparent colony being the most distinctive character. 

Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, with a thin, widely spreading, 
transparent surface. 

Agar; an orange yellow, transparent, moist growth. 

Potato; A widely spreading, moist, orange growth, sometimes very deep in 
color and almost brown. 

Bouillon; orange flakes appear on the surface, and later a yellowish sediment. 

Milk; is not curdled, but an orange scum and an orange sediment are pro- 
duced, and the milk rendered alkaline. 

No. 170. B. aureus acidi. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .b/j. by .7/x. Occasionally somewhat longer. 

Gelatin plate; colonies under the surface round, yellowish and slightly 
opaque. Surface colonies rather transparent, spreading, slightly irregular, 
1.5 mm. in diameter, and of an orange color. 

Gelatin stab; a deep, dry pit is produced, with a dry orange yellow skin 
lining the pit. 

Agar and potato; both show an orange yellow growth. 

Milk; is curdled in from two to four weeks into a moderately hard curd, 
which is acid, showing no whey and having no digestion. 

No. 205. B. aureus lactis I. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .6fx by i/u., with rounded ends. No chains, 
though three or four may adhere together. 

Gelatin plate; under the surface a yellowish orange, slightly irregular colony. 
On the surface an orange bead, .5 mm. in diameter, which is in the middle of a 
slightly depressed ring, but no liquefaction of gelatin occurs. 

Gelatin stab; a good needle growth and a slight orange surface growth 
appears. 

Agar; a moist, thick, smooth ground glass growth, orange yellow in color. 

Potato; a dry, or moist, orange growth. 

Bouillon; an orange yellow, tenacious scum appears with a clear liquid. 

Milk; no effect produced, except an orange scum and an alkaline reaction. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 39 

No. 100. B. aureus lactis II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .5/x by .7/x. No chains, though two or three 
adhere together. 

Gelatin plate; a bead with a smooth edge and a dark center is produced, 
1.5 mm. in diameter, which, aftera few days, becomes decidedly yellow. 

Gelatin stab; a slight needle growth, with an irregular, opaque, white surface 
growth, not very thick. 

Agar; smooth, whitish growth, which, after a few days, acquires a lemon 
color, and later a Naples yellow color. 

Potato; an abundant growth, which is at first white, or slightly yellow and 
quite thick, later becoming decidedly yellow. 

Bouillon; a thick, tenacious scum is produced, which sinks in the form of 
flakes, and produces a sediment. 

Milk; no effect produced on milk, except that a slight slimy scum sometimes 
appears. Butter made from cream ripened with this organism has a prominent 
flavor, which is not normal and unpleasant. There is a slight and tolerably 
pleasant aroma. The butter on the whole is of a good quality. Nos. 205 and 
100 are perhaps the same. 

No. 137. 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .6/x by i.2,u, or occasionally larger, with round 
ends. 

Gelatin plate; the deep colonies are round and slightly granular. On the 
surface they spread into a thin, transparent colony, which later becomes thicker 
and brown and yellowish. It may occasionally form a thick, yellowish bead. 

Gelatin stab; a moderate needle growth, with a yellowish irregular surface 
growth, with a slightly raised edge. 

Agar; a not very abundant dull yellow growth. 

Potato; spreads over the surface of a thin, decidedly yellow growth. 

Milk; commonly curdled at room temperature in about two weeks, though 
sometimes becomes simply slightly lumpy. At body temperature it curdles 
completely, though the curd is rather soft. The action is amphoteric, and 
there is no digestion. No effect on butter. 

No. 78. (See Group V.) 

GROUP IV. CHROMOGENIC TYPE. (LEMON YELLOW.) 
Nos. 48 and 116. B. lactis erythrogenes. Varieties I. and II. 
These two cultures I regard as varieties of B. lactis erythrogenes, although one 
is a typical bacterium and the other a coccus. Variety I. appears to agree with 
B. lactis erythroge7ies of Hueppe. They have each been found several times 
and differ from each other in a few constant characters. But since the few 
differences remained constant with cultivation, I have found it convenient to 
separate them as Varieties I. and II. Variety I. liquefies gelatin very slowly, 
or not at all, while Variety II. liquefies rapidly. Variety I., moreover, does not 
grow, on potato, and turns milk red; while Variety II. grows on potato, form- 
ing an abundant yellow growth, but it does not turn milk red. The characters 
of Variety II. are as follows: 



4-0 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 116. B. lactis erythrogenes. Variety II. 

Morphology; a large coccus, .8m in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; the colony is at first a bead, or flat and brownish under the 
microscope. Grows into a flat colony, 1.5 mm. in diameter, in four days, and 
then sinks into a shallow pit. 

Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, white, with a flat, white surface 
growth sinking into a shallow pit, the bacteria mass forming a dense scum on 
the surface of the liquefying gelatin. Liquefaction occurs slowly and hori- 
zontally. 

Agar; a thick, white, opaque growth, giving to the agar a pinkish tinge, 
which later becomes somewhat red. The growth on the surface becomes yellow. 

Potato; an abundant yellow, moist, opaque skin. 

Milk; is rendered slightly alkaline, but not curdled. After four weeks it is 
digested into a watery or semi-transparent liquid, yellowish in color, with a 
peculiar smell. It produces no effect upon butter when used for cream ripening. 

No. 174. (Uncommon.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .9(1 by 1.5;*, with rounded ends. No chains, 
though three or four may hang together. 

Gelatin plate; the deep colonies are oval, dark, opaque, and the surface 
colonies are at first white and about half a millimeter in diameter, thin, sinking 
into a pit, with a large, yellowish nucleus. 

Gelatin stab; a moderately shallow funnel is produced, gradually liquefying, 
with a cloudy liquid and abundant sediment, but no scum. 

Agar; slightly lemon yellow growth on the surface, and the agar acquires a 
pink tinge. 

Potato; white or yellow growth, which later becomes quite abundant and 
lemon yellow. 

Milk; curdles at body temperature in three days into a soft, alkaline curd. 
Digests into a cloudy, colorless mass, which sometimes may be reddish yellow 
of amber colored, and with a slimy scum. 

This organism is very similar to No. 116, above described, and is perhaps 
identical with it. The pink fluorescence is very slight, and the lemon yellow 
color more noticeable, and this has led me to separate the two. 

No. 201, Sarcina lulea, and No. 199, Sarcina flava, have both been found 
occasionally in dairy products. 

No. 117. (Rare.) Micrococcus citreus lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a coccus, .q/J. in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a smooth, opaque surface colony, 1 mm. in diameter, which 
in about five days becomes 2.5 mm. in diameter; very thin and flat and de- 
cidedly yellow. Gelatin ordinarily becomes dry before liquefaction begins. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth abundant. A flat, depressed, yellow surface 
growth, which is sunken in the middle and slowly spreads over the surface of 
the gelatin. After about two weeks a slow liquefaction begins, with a floating 
scum on the surface of the liquid. (One variety of this species was found 
which liquefied the gelatin more rapidly and produced a narrow funnel.) 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 41 

Agar; abundant moist growth of a brilliant yellow. 
Potato; a rather dry but abundant lemon yellow growth. 

Milk; rendered strongly alkaline, but no further change produced. No 
noticeable effect produced upon butter when used in cream ripening. 

No. 167. (See Group VI.) 
I regard this as a variety of No. 117. It grows, however, at 35°, and under 
a mica plate, and liquefies more slowly. 

No. 91. (Rare.) B. citreus acidi. (n. sp.) 

Alorphology; a bacillus, size, . 5/i by .8/a, with no chains. 

Gelatin plate; large, white, opaque colony, becoming 2 mm. in diameter, and 
later turning yellow. 

Gelatin stab; a good needle growth, with a spreading surface, slightly raised 
on the edge and depressed in the centre. This becomes lemon yellow and 
spreads slowly over the surface. 

Agar; an abundant, spreading, lemon yellow surface growth. 

Potato; a thick, white and slightly transparent growth, the center of which 
soon becomes yellow, and later the whole turns to a lemon yellow. 

Bouillon; a slight scum is formed, which sinks in the form of flakes and 
produces an abundant sediment. 

Milk; curdled at ordinary temperatures in 6 to 9 days with a clear, hard 
curd and a deep yellow layer of milk on top. Is acid and has a decidedly sour 
odor, with no digestion. Cream is also curdled and filled with gas bubbles. It 
is acid, and has a pleasantly sour odor, with no separation of whey. Used for 
cream ripening, it produces a good butter flavor, though slight, but no aroma. 

No. 72. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .8/1 by r.4M- Produces very short chains with 
spores. In old cultures long threads may be developed. 

Gelatin plate; produces a perfectly transparent surface colony, with an 
irregular edge, half a millimeter in diameter. 

Gelatin stab; a moderate needle growth and a dry, white, moderately abun- 
dant surface growth. 

Agar; opaque, white and shining at first and abundant. Later becomes a 
lemon yellow. 

Potato; thick, smooth growth, which may be white where moist, but soon 
becomes lemon yellow. 

Milk; curdles at 36° in two days, but not at room temperature. Is acid. 
No effect is produced on cream, except an acidity and sour smell and taste. 
Butter made from such cream has a sour, unpleasant taste. When fully 
ripened, has an unpleasant aroma, and is decidedly poor. 

No. 105. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a short rod, size, . 5/a by .9/*. 

Gelatin plate; colonies under the surface are rounded or oval, with a dark 
center and a lighter outer zone, which is sometimes lobed or striated. On the 
surface large, moderately opaque beads are formed. 



42 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Gelatin stab; slight needle growth, but a moderately thick, white surface 
growth, which later becomes dry, with a slight yellow tinge. 

Agar; the agar develops on the surface a very decidedly lemon yellow 
growth, which is thick and abundant. The agar may, at the same time, be 
turned green, but not universally so. 

Potato; growth thin and moist, but lemon yellow. 

Bouillon; slightly cloudy, and with a slight tinge of green near the surface. 

Milk; no effect upon milk at any temperature. Butter made from cream 
ripened with this species has no special flavor or aroma. 

No. 149. (Common.) B, citreus lactis I. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a rod, size, i/x by .7/*, with rounded ends. On potato and agar 
the rods are connected with a slimy capsule. 

Gelatin plate; a minute colony, 1 mm., or a little larger. On the surface 
there is frequently produced a raised bead, with a central dot. The color is 
lemon yellow, brilliant, and even under the microscope the colonies appear 
brilliant lemon yellow, smooth and clear. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth moderate to the bottom of the tube. A rough 
surface growth, rather thick, but not opaque. 

Agar; a thin, moist, transparent lemon yellow growth. 

Potato; a moderately thick, brilliant lemon yellow growth. 

Milk; no effect is produced on milk or upon cream. 

While quite similar to No. 105, this species differs in its gelatin colony and 
its intense lemon yellow pigment. It is quite common in milk. 

No. 161. B. citreus lactis II. (n. sp.) 
This organism agrees with the last described in all respects, except two. 
First, it liquefies gelatin slowly, producing a dense yellow liquid in the gelatin 
stab. Second, associated with this characteristic it is found that it curdles 
milk, producing a weak alkaline curd at ordinary room temperature. 

These two organisms are apparently the same species, differing in the power 
of liquefying gelatin, and consequently curdling milk. 

Both No. 149 and No. 161 have been found quite commonly in the milk in 
this vicinity, and in one case both of these types have been isolated from a 
single colony. 

No. 187. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a rod, size, . S/« by i/" to 1.2/x. No chains, spores nor capsules. 

Gelatin plate; a round, semi-opaque, slightly yellow colony produced, with 
no characteristic features. 

Gelatin stab; a moderate needle growth, with a slightly raised surface 
growth. Faint yellow, but not characteristic. 

Agar; a moist, smooth, glistening, lemon yellow growth. 

Potato; an abundant, moist, glistening, lemon yellow growth. 

Milk; no effect upon milk or cream. 

This organism has no characteristic features, except the lemon yellow color 
which is produced on gelatin, agar and potato. I separate it from No. 149 
because of the very moderate pigment it produces. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 43 

No. 141. (Rather common.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, .6,u by t/x to 2/x. 

Gelatin plate; the deeper colonies are round, brown and opaque. Surface 
colony is more transparent, whitish and finely and uniformly granular. 

Gelatin stab; a moderate needle growth, with a dry, white, spreading surface 
growth. Moderately thick. Somewhat irregular edges. 

Agar; a thick, moist growth, which is at first white, with a tinge of yellow, 
later becoming lemon yellow. 

Potato; coarse or fine folded skin, with a yellow color. 

Milk; no effect produced on milk or cream. 

No. 162. 
This agrees with No. 141 in all respects, except that the growth on potato is 
very scanty, and there is scarcely any growth in bouillon. The two probably 
are the same. 

No. 191. (Rare.) B. citreus arborescens. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a rod, size, .8/x by 4/x. Two or three may adhere together, but 
no long chains. Is joined by a capsule that does not stain. 

Gelatin plate; a widely spreading colony, with fine radiating rods growing 
from the center, and some growing over the whole plate, with fiber permeating 
the gelatin in every direction. These fibers have frequent knobs. The fibers 
from two colonies will extend over a whole plate in three days. To the naked 
eye they look like a mould. This growth is very characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth is slight, but a thick ground glass surface 
growth is produced. 

Agar; white, moist and irregular, spreading in streaks over the surface. 

Potato; dry and thin, but lemon yellow in color. 

Milk; no effect, except a slight transparency and an alkaline reaction. 

GROUP V. NON-LIQUEFYING COCCI, NOT CHROMOGENIC. 
Division A. 

Organisms which curdle milk zvith an acid reaction. 
No. 60. (Very common.) M. acidi lactici I. (Marpmann.) 

Morphology; a coccus, .6fx in diameter, growing in masses. 

Gelatin plate; forms rounded beads, finely granular, but with a smooth edge, 
and not characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; moderate needle growth, rough and beaded. The surface is 
rough and irregular, moderately thick. 

Agar; an opaque, white growth, which may grow down into the agar from the 
needle track, later becoming Naples yellow. 

Potato; white, somewhat thick and spreading, and later becoming yellow. 

Milk; at 20° is rendered acid, but not curdled, though such milk will curdle 
when boiled. At 35 is curdled into a hard curd which is acid. Cream is 
slightly thickened, rendered acid and sour. Butter made from the same has a 
decidedly good flavor, but practically no aroma. 



44 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 78. M. acidi lactici II. 
This organism agrees with No. 60, except that it occasionally produces yellow- 
pigment, and does not so readily grow without oxygen. The two are probably 
the same, and they are very similar to the following. 

No. 58. M. acidi lactici III. 

Morphology; diameter, .8/x. 

Gelatin plate; a colony, at first yellowish, then raised into a white bead. 
Not characteristic. 

Gelatin stab and agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; an extremely abundant, thick, shining growth. It may sometimes 
be 2 mm. to 3 mm. in thickness, of a flesh color, and is especially characteristic. 

Milk; is rendered strongly acid, but does not curdle at 20 , though it curdles 
at 35°. Cream acquires a rather strong, sharp, penetrating, pleasant odor. 

These three organisms appear to me to be similar to B. acidi lactici of 
Marpmann. 

No. 168. (Rare.) 

Morphology; coccus, .9/*, and diplococci. 

Gelatin plate; the deep colonies are round and opaque. On the surface they 
grow into a snow white bead, extremely opaque, which grows to the size of 
2 mm., and then sinks into a pit, which sometimes liquefies and sometimes does 
not. 

Gelatin stab; a beaded needle growth. On the surface there is formed a 
white skin, which sinks into a pit. commonly dry, though sometimes with a 
slight liquid. 

Agar; an abundant snow white growth. 

Potato; a hardly visible thin white streak. 

Milk; is rendered acid and curdles when heated, but does not curdle 
normally. 

This organism may be identical with No. 147 (Group VI.). As seen from 
the above description, it is probably a liquefier whose power of liquefaction is 
sometimes completely lost. In other respects it agrees very closely with 
No. 147. 

No. 130. (Rare.) M. viscosus lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a coccus, .qm in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; surface colonies are smooth and shining white; colonies l / z mm. 
in diameter, and not opaque. 

Gelatin stab; slight needle growth. An abundant shining white surface 
growth, raised into a mound. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 

Milk; becomes acid, but does not curdle. It soon becomes extraordinarily 
slimy, and can be drawn out into long threads. The sliminess does not affect 
the churning of the cream, and produces no flavor or aroma in the butter. 

This coccus does not appear to be like any of the previously described slimy 
milk bacteria, and I have therefore regarded it as new, and given it the name, 
M. viscosus lactis. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 45 

Division B. 

Organisms which do not curdle milk nor render it acid. 
The first three agree in producing chains {Streptococci), and differ only 
slightly from each other. They may perhaps be the same. 

No. 70. (Common.) 

Morphology; .6/x in diameter, forming chains in bouillon. 

Gelatin plate; a surface colony, 1 mm. in diameter, rather opaque, with an 
irregular border, or sometimes a thick, raised bead. 

Gelatin stab and agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; cream white or yellowish white. Abundant and somewhat trans- 
parent, moist and slimy. Used for ripening cream, it produces a good flavored 
butter, without any sour taste. 

No. 75. (Common.) 

Morphology; diameter, ;6/x; in bouillon growing into chains, with a capsule. 

Gelatin plate; smooth, thick and transparent, 2 mm. in diameter, with 
occasional tendency toward roughness, and warts on the surface. 

Gelatin stab; a slight needle growth, tapering rapidly below the surface. 
The surface is rather thick on the edge, with a smooth center. Is dry and 
transparent. 

Agar; is yellowish white, quite thin and dry, and not widely spreading. 

Potato; a dirty white or snow white growth. Used for cream ripening, it 
produces butter without taste or flavor. 

No. 186. (Common.) 

Morphology; diameter, .8/* to .opt, occasionally forming short chains of 6 to 
20 elements, especially in bouillon. 

Gelatin plate; a round, opaque, slight yellow colony, spreading into a white, 
slightly raised colony, finely granular, .5 mm. in diameter. 

Gelatin stab; a typical nail colony, with a round, smooth head, quite thick, at 
first white, but later showing a tinge of yellow. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 

No. 80. (Rare.) 

Morphology; diameter, i/j. to i.2fi. Slightly longer than broad. Forms 
chains of 6 or 8, which resemble rods, but which break up into cocci in old 
colonies. 

Gelatin plate; a slightly granular, white rather transparent colony, 1 mm. in 
diameter. Not characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth slight; thin, smooth, semi-transparent surface 
growth. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 

Milk; is rendered somewhat slimy and alkaline, but otherwise unchanged. 
Produces butter without flavor or aroma. 



46 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 118. (Rare.) M. giganteus lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; extremely large coccus, 1.5/u in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; produces an opaque, white bead. Not characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, but no surface growth. 

Agar and potato; no visible growth, and the same is true of bouillon. 

Milk; produces no effect upon milk. 

The essential characteristics of this organism are its very great size and its- 
markedly anaerobic characters. One type, probably the same, produces a very 
slight acid reaction in the milk after four weeks growth, sufficient to curdle the 
milk when heated. 

No. 47. (Uncommon.) 
Morphology; .6/x in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a round, raised, white bead, 1 mm. in diameter. 
Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, with a thick, moist but not widely 
spreading surface. 

Potato and agar; snow zvhite, moist growth. 

No. 121. (Somewhat common.) M. arborescens lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; diameter, .jfj.. No chains. 

Gelatin plate; deep colonies are irregular, granular, with a broken fuzzy- 
edge. On the surface they are more regular, and become 1 mm. in diameter. 
There is great variation in density and in the amount of irregularity. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth with radiating fibers. The surface growth is 
white, not thick, and spreads over the surface. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 

Bouillon; a very tough, tenacious scum is formed, which does not sink in the 
liquid. 

No. 85. (Somewhat common.) 

Morphology; .b/J. in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a transparent bead, with a darker center and a scolloped 
border, 1 mm. in diameter. This bead is rather transparent, and spreads- 
slightly. 

Gelatin stab and agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; thick and whitish, or yellowish, or sometimes creamy white. In 
cream the organism produces a pleasant odor, but butter made from it has no- 
flavor or aroma. 



GROUP VI. MICROCOCCI. LIQUEFYING, BUT NON-CHROMOGENIC. 
No. 167. (Somewhat common.) M. citreus lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a coccus, J/x in diameter, in groups of 4. or irregular masses. 

Gelatin plate: produces an opaque bead in a slight depression, which in- 
creases to 1 mm. in diameter, then sinks in a pit. in which the bead remains 
for some time in the center as a raised mound. The pit may be granular and 
either circular or lobed. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 47 

Gelatin stab; needle growth abundant, with not much surface at first. Later 
a deep, dry, narrow pit is formed, with a dense, white growth covering its 
wajls. Still later the gelatin liquefies, and a yellowish sediment is produced. 

Agar; opaque, abundant growth, with a tinge of yellow. 

Potato; rather dry, whitish or with a yellowish tinge. 

Bouillon; becomes uniformly cloudy, with no scum and with a slimy sedi- 
ment. Another culture of what I regard as the same species produces a liquid 
pit instead of a dry pit, as here described. 

Milk; culture does not curdle milk. This is the only one of the liquefying 
cocci found that fails to curdle milk. 

I regard this as identical with No. 117 of Group IV. 

No. 37. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a minute cocci, . 3/x to .4/jl in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a small, granular colony, surrounded by a clear, liquefying 
ring. Later the nucleus breaks up, diffusing through the liquid, sometimes 
regular, sometimes irregular. 

Gelatin stab; growth is slow. A narrow pit is formed, with an air bubble at 
the surface. Liquefaction complete in six weeks. Liquid is cloudy, with a 
heavy sediment. 

Agar and potato; dirty white growth. Not characteristic. 

Milk; is curdled, with weak alkaline reaction, in two days, at room tempera- 
ture. At 36 in three days. A digestion follows, which is never Complete. 

Chiefly characterized by its minute size. Found only once. 

No. 109. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a coccus, i/u in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a round, smooth surface colony, moderately transparent. 
Grows to the size of 1.5 mm., usually very flat, with a central mound, and 
then sinks into a pit, upon which it forms at first a very dense surface scum. 

Gelatin stab; slight needle growth; a very shallow, dry pit is produced at 
first, in which liquid begins to collect after four or five days. Liquefaction 
produced very slowly in a horizontal layer. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 

Milk; is curdled at body heat in seven days, quite solid, and strongly 
alkaline. At room temperature it digests without curdling. The liquid is at 
first watery, soon becoming amber color, and later the color deepens, some- 
times even to a mahogany color. When used for cream ripening no effect is 
produced on the butter. 

No. 119. (Rare.) Sarcina alba (?) 

Morphology; a sarcina form, . 6/« to .Sfi in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; a slightly yellow, round, raised, opaque colony, which soon 
sinks into a pit. The pit remains clear, with a rough, granular nucleus. 

Gelatin stab; a very narrow liquefying pit is produced, with a cloudy liquid. 
This broadens below the surface. Sometimes, however, a shallow, deep, dry 
pit is formed. 



48 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Agar and potato; a whitish, not abundant and not characteristic growth. 

Milk; curdles in three days at 20 J and in one day at 36 . Reaction ampho- 
teric. Digestion of the curd very slight, or none. When used for ripening 
cream it produces a good flavored butter, with a good and typical butter aroma. 
One culture that I have regarded as the same produces a digestion of milk into 
a very slimy jelly. 

No. 142. (Common.) M. communis lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a streptococcus, with the elements .8//. to i/i in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; around, brownish colony, slightly irregular in shape. Edge 
becomes after a couple of days somewhat lighter and surrounded by a liquefy- 
ing pit, in which the granules spread irregularly. Occasionally a few blunt 
processes radiate from the center. The pit is rather large and at first is dry, 
subsequently liquefying. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow funnel, with a dense, cloudy liquid is produced, with 
a deep, dry pit at the top. Below the air bubble the funnel spreads out into a 
turnip shape. 

Agar; an almost snow white growth. 

Potato; thin and watery, and spreading over the whole surface. 

Milk; is curdled at 36° in three days, with amphoteric reaction. At room 
temperature curdles in three weeks. The curd is soft, with no whey, and the 
subsequent digestion is slight. 

No. 147. (Common.) M. liquefaciens acidi I. (n. sp.) 

Mo?phology; diameter, .7/* to 1.1/x. grouped in fours by dividing in two 
directions. 

Gelatin plate; a densely granular liquid colony is produced, with a granular 
center, which is lobate or with folded edges, and which lies in a clear, liquefy- 
ing pit. Later dense masses are formed outside of the center, and the whole 
pit becomes filled with irregular masses. 

Gelatin stab; slow liquefier, producing a cloudy, shallow pit, with dense sedi- 
ment. A scum with broken fragments appears. Even after three weeks 
gelatin is liquefied only for a quarter of an inch. 

Agar and potato; a dry, snow white growth, quite opaque. 

Milk; at 36° curdles in five days into a hard curd, with little whey. Is acid 
in reaction, and has the smell of sour milk. At room temperature the action is 
the same, although the acid is not quite so prominent. No digestion subse- 
quently occurs, but a large amount of whey separates from the curd. 

No. 168. M. liquefaciens acidi II. (n. sp.) 
This agrees with No. 147 in many points, and may be the same. The fol- 
lowing differences were noted: 

Gelatin plate; a snow white bead, very opaque, is formed, growing to size of 
2 mm. , when it sinks into a slowly liquefying pit. Some colonies do not liquefy 
before the growth ceases. 

Gelatin stab; a granular needle growth and a dense white surface on a slowly 
liquefying mass of gelatin. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 49 

Potato; growth is hardly visible. 

Bouillon; becomes very cloudy. 

Milk; is rendered acid, but the amount of acid is insufficient to ctirdle the 
milk unless it is heated. 

These two cultures appear to me to be new, and their characteristics are so 
marked that I have ventured to give them a name. 



No. 2. M. acidi lactis. (Kriiger.) 

Morphology; i/j. to i.2/x in diameter. 

Gelatin plate; at first a slight pit, which begins to liquefy, the colony being 
uniformly granular. The granules soon break up, distributing themselves 
through the pit, usually producing a nucleus, with a peripheral ring of granules. 
Outside the ring there may be a clear liquid outer zone. Eventually the whole 
becomes densely granular. 

Agar; growth on the surface tends to become wrinkled, tenacious and sticky, 
and develops a yellowish or slight salmon color. 

Potato; an abundant growth, somewhat folded, of a flesh or salmon color. 

Milk is curdled at 20 or at 36° into a hard coagulum, with orange masses 
floating on the top. The reaction is acid. No digestion occurs. After a few 
days yellow lumps of fat frequently appear on the surface. Chemical analysis 
has shown butyric acid and alcohol to be present. 

The last three organisms are peculiar in liquefying gelatin, but curdling milk 
with an acid reaction. This is unusual. Three or four such micrococci have 
been described before by Hueppe, Freudenreich, Kriiger and Kozai. I have 
concluded that No. 2 may be the same as the species described by Kriiger and 
Kozai. 



GROUP VII. NON-LIQUEFYING, NON-CHROMOGENIC BACILLI. 

This group, which is the most important group of dairy bacteria, is a very 
difficult one to arrange in any satisfactory manner. The different species are 
frequently very similar to each other, and the diagnostic characters difficult to 
determine. I am convinced that in some cases quite different bacilli are put 
under the same species because of difficulty in getting diagnostic characters for 
separating them. 

I have found it most convenient to separate them, first in accordance with 
their power of producing an acid reaction in milk, and secondly in accordance 
with their morphological characters. A few are readily distinguished by their 
peculiar gelatin colonies, and some by their spore production. 

Division A. 

Bacilli producing an acid reaction in milk. 
Nos. 125 and 89. B. coli communis. 
This species of bacillus is extremely common in milk, although by no means 
universally found. It seems to show considerable variation. The two num- 
bers above given are two of the many distinct cultures which I have identified 
with B. coli. They differ slightly. No. 125 shows gas bubbles in the gelatin 



50 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

stab, while No. 89 does not, and No. 125 curdles milk more slowly, not curd- 
ling for two weeks, while No. 89 curdles in six days. 

Both have been used for ripening cream, but produce butter with a markedly 
sour taste. 

While this species is very common, it is rarely abundant enough to produce 
much influence upon the milk. It can therefore hardly be regarded as a dis- 
tinctive dairy bacterium. 

No. 208. (Extremely common.) B. lactis aerogenes. (? ) 

Probably identical with B. acidi lactici (Grotenfeld) and B. a. and b. of 
Guilleleau, and No. 8 of Eckels. 

This is one of the most common species found in milk and cream. It is not 
only almost always found, but is also usually very abundant. Sometimes it 
appears to be the cause of the spontaneous souring of milk, since in some 
samples it is the only acid bacillus found. This is unusual, however, for 
though very common, it is usually far outnumbered by No. 206 and No. 202. 
It is also very variable in its physiological characters, as explained on page 24, 
but the many different cultures which I have studied have in general the 
following characters. 

Morphology; size, .JfJ. by i/u, with rounded ends. 

Gelatin plate; deep colonies, opaque and oval. (Litmus gelatin turned very 
red.) Sometimes lobate, as if made up of many colonies. Surface colonies 
may be large (2 mm.), white, opaque beads, which may contain a gas bubble 
(dextrose gelatin). Sometimes they form projecting colonies, growing up from 
the surface of the gelatin to the height of 1.5 mm., though not more than 
.5 mm. in diameter. Sometimes they are like B. coll colonies, only more 
luxuriant. 

Gelatin stab; abundant needle growth and a thick, white surface growth. 

Agar; white, moist, glistening and semi-transparent. Abundant. 

Potato; a creamy white, abundant, not folded growth. Moist. 

Milk; at 20° rendered strongly acid, but commonly not curdling. Some cul- 
tures do curdle. At 35 curdles milk two to four days into a soft curd. In all 
cases the milk is strongly acid. There is a typical sour milk odor. 

Fermentation tube; grows strongly in closed arm and in bulb, and produces 
much gas. 

This includes Nos. 16, 53, 56, described in previous publications (Storrs 
Expt. Sta. Rep., 1890 and 1894). 

The next two organisms belong to the Typhosus type (Fuller) which ferment 
milk sugar, but produce no gas. 

No. 107. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .6/x to .8/U by 1.3/x. 

Gelatin plate; a thin, transparent, spreading colony, elevated into irregular 
ridges, becoming a centimeter in diameter, or larger. 

Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, with a thin, transparent, spread- 
ing, irregular surface growth. Hardly visible. 

Agar and potato; not characteristic. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 5 I 

Milk; not curdled at either 20 or 36 , but rendered acid, and will curdle 
when heated. Butter made from cream has a sour, clean taste, but not much 
flavor. A strong, but not typical aroma. 

No. 137. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .6/x by i.2/u, variable. 

Gelatin plate; spreading into a thin, transparent surface colony, which later 
Decomes thicker and brownish or yellowish. It may even form a thick, yellow- 
ish bead, half a millimeter in diameter. 

Gelatin stab; a good needle growth, white. On the surface an irregular, 
yellowish growth, spreading slightly and rather thick on the edge. 

Agar; a dull yellow, transparent, but not abundant growth. 

Potato; a thin, yellowish layer, which upon some moderately dry potatoes 
may be quite thick, but still yellowish. 

Milk; sometimes not affected in the room, but in other cases is curdled in 
about two weeks into a soft, lumpy, incomplete curd. At 36 the curdling is 
more complete, but still soft, and the reaction is amphoteric. It has no effect 
xipon butter. 

This is the only non-liquefying organism found which curdles milk without 
rendering it acid. 

The next two organisms differ from the others in producing spores. 

No. 93. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, i/x by .6/j., or in old cultures slightly larger. The old cul- 
tures show large oval spores, larger than the rods. 

Gelatin plate; an irregular surface colony, streaked over the surface with 
irregular contorted lines. Grows to the size of 2 mm. on the surface. 
■Colonies under the surface are lobed. 

Gelatin stab; a good needle growth, with a thick, white, surface growth. 

Agar; very thick and opaque and white. Later becoming somewhat 
yellowish. 

Potato; very thick and transparent; of a whitish color, which later becomes 
dry and folded. 

Milk; does not curdle at 20 , though will when heated. At 36 curdles in 
three days. Cream is rendered acid and sour, and butter made therefrom has 
rather an unpleasant, sour, cheesy taste. 

No. 94. B. ubiquitus lactis. (?) 

Morphology; size, . 8/x by 1 . 2fi to 1 . 4/i. In bouillon short chains are produced. 
A bipolar staining is shown, and spores are eventually produced in the middle 
■of the rods. A non-staining capsule developed. 

Gelatin plate; round, white, opaque colonies, with a dark center, frequently 
raised to form a bead. 

Gelatin stab; abundant needle growth. Surface raised, white, forming a 
prominent nail head. The center is more elevated than the edge. 

Agar; extremely irregular, spreading, thick, very white and smooth. 

Potato; grows with extreme rapidity, forming a transparent, white, glisten- 
ing, widely spreading growth, especially characteristic. 



52 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Milk; curdles in eleven to twelve days. Cream rendered acid and sour, and 
butter produced therefrom has especially good flavor, with no aroma. 

I have with hesitation associated this with B. ubiquitus (Jordan). The dif- 
ferences between the two are considerable. Jordan does not describe any 
spore formation, and he states that B . ubiquitus curdles milk very rapidly, 
while No. 94 curdles it only after several days. 

No. 206. B. acidi lacti I. (Esten.) 

This organism, described in a previous Report of this Station (1896), must be 
regarded as the most important milk bacterium in the dairies of this vicinity. 
As described in that paper, it has been found almost universally in samples of 
milk from a very wide range of territory. It is by no means universally pres- 
ent, and if the milk from different cows be carefully studied separately, it is 
found that in many cases samples of milk are obtained with no specimens of 
this particular species present. But when mixed milk is studied it is found in 
almost all cases to contain this organism. Moreover, in the milk of ordinary 
dairies this organism forms the largest proportion of the bacteria present. In 
my studies of the bacteria of ripened cream it has been found that a propor- 
tion varying from 75$ to qo% of the bacteria present in cream are of the species 
here described. It must, therefore, be looked upon as the dairy organism par 
excellence. Its description, though given elsewhere, may be for completeness 
sake best included here, and is as follows: 

Morphology; short, plump rods, size, .j/jl by i.2fA. No chains are produced, 
and no spores are found. 

Gelatin plate; in ordinary gelatin a small, finely granular colony produced, 
pearly white by reflected light, though slightly yellowish by transmitted light. 
In milk sugar gelatin rendered blue by litmus, the shape of the colony is 
characteristic and easily recognized. It is a round, opaque colony, the surface 
of which is always provided with minute spines. This spiny appearance is 
distinctly characteristic of this organism. 

Gelatin slab; grows wholly below the surface as a rough, beaded needle 
track, with no surface. 

Agar; no growth or a very thin, almost invisible layer. 

Potato; growth on potato is scarcely visible. 

Bouillon; becomes turbid and a sediment collects, but there is no scum, and 
no gas is produced. 

Milk; is curdled in from six to twenty-four hours into a homogeneous jelly 
like curd, very hard, and containing no gas bubbles. There is no further 
change in the milk. It is intensely acid, and has a clear taste, with no odor. 

This species is apparently identical with those described by Gunther and 
Thierfelder, Leichmann, Weigmann and Kozai. 

No. 202. B. acidi lactici II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology ; a short bacillus or coccus, .7/* by .S/jl. 

Gelatin plate; an extremely small, clear, slightly yellowish colony is formed, 
never more than 1 mm. in diameter. It grows wholly under the surface or 
under a mica plate, but never on the surface. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 53 

Gelatin stab; grows along the needle track as a beaded, tolerably abundant 
growth, but no surface growth. 

Agar and potato; there is no growth whatsoever upon these, nor is there any 
perceptible growth in bouillon. In a fermentation tube containing milk sugar 
bouillon there is no growth even in the closed arm. 

Milk; is curdled in thirty-six hours to four days into a hard homogeneous 
curd, which is strongly acid. There is no separation of whey and no subse- 
quent change. 

This organism, next to the last, is the most common of our dairy species. It 
is found with practical universality in samples of mixed milk, and is present in 
very great numbers in ripened cream. While the number of this organism in 
ripened cream is not as great as in the case of the last species, the proportion is 
always high, and frequently reaches 20$ in samples of typical ripened cream. 
This organism and the last comprise in many cases over 95% of the bacteria in 
the normally ripened cream, and they must therefore be regarded as the two 
most important dairy organisms in this region. Neither of them produces the 
typical sour milk odor, such as is developed, by No. 20S. 

No. 197. B. lactici aerobans. (n. sp.) 
This agrees with No. 202, except that it has no effect on milk, and its growth 
on agar is visible though very scanty. 

Possibly these are the same as Bacillus a. of Freudenreich. 

No. 41. (Originally found in milk from Uruguay.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, occasionally clinging two together, and on potato 
frequently forming chains. Size, i.i^by .6/*. When growing in potato it is 
slightly longer than in agar. No spores. 

Temperature; grows best at about 20°-23° C; at 35° scarcely any growth; 
killed by temperature of 60° C. in ten minutes. 

Gelatin plate ; a smooth, round colony under surface. On surface a small, 
grey, raised bead-like colony, spreading somewhat, reaching size of 1 mm. 
occasionally. Not characteristic. After several years cultivation the gelatin 
colony was found to be always burr shaped, with irregular, more or less radiat- 
ing margins. 

Gelatin stab; slight needle growth. Spreads over surface as a moist, white, 
thick mound, forming a nail growth. Does not liquefy. 

Agar; an abundant, white, smooth, glistening layer, 

Potato; raised, thick, whitish or slightly "yellow-tinged layer, differing in 
color with amount of moisture, When very moist, is white, but when dry 
tends to a yellowish tinge. Grows profusely. A pleasant aromatic odor 
developed. 

Milk; does not curdle either at 20 or 35 . After two to three weeks be- 
comes slightly translucent and brownish. The reaction is slightly acid. After 
three to four weeks it seems to digest into a translucent mass. It acquires a 
pleasant aroma. 

This bacterium has been used widely for cream ripening, producing a pure 
flavored butter. 



54 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Division B. 

Bacilli not rendering milk acid. 
No. 126. (Rare.) 

Morphology; a bacillus, size, . 7/x by i.2/tt. 

Gelatin plate; an opaque bead, 1 mm. in diameter, slightly scolloped edge. 
Very white, opaque. 

Gelatin slab; typical nail growth. Not characteristic. 

Agar; thick, white and abundant. The agar occasionally tinged green or 
yellow. 

Potato; a yellowish or dirty white growth. Not characteristic. 

Milk, no effect. Butter made from cream ripened with this organism has a 
cheesy aroma and taste. 

No. 66. (Common.) 

Agrees with No. 126, except that the milk is rendered slightly alkaline and 
the cheesy taste does not appear in the butter. Butter on the other hand de- 
velops an excellent nutty flavor of the highest quality. 

Possibly these two organisms should be classified with the fluorescent, inas- 
much as they occasionally render the agar slightly green. 

No. 84. (Common.) 

Morphology; size, .6m by .8/* to 1.2/i. Occasionally six or eight unite together, 
but no long chains. 

Gelatin plate ; a rounded bead, with a smooth edge, finely granular and with a 
dark center. It spreads over the surface as a dry, thin growth, 2 mm. in 
diameter. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth abundant. Surface growth dry, irregular and 
glistening. 

Agar; widely diffused growth, branching irregularly and lobate. Yellow 
color. 

Potato; growth thin and of a yellowish or brownish or even orange color. 

Milk; no effect upon milk, cream or butter. 

No. 198. (Common.) B. communis lactis II. 

Morphology; size, .8// by j/jl. Forms short chains in bouillon. 

Gelatin plate; colony of the B. coli type. Surface colony spreads into a 
white, bluish growth, 1.5 mm. in diameter. They are slightly yellow under 
the microscope, and may have a somewhat raised center. The colony is moist 
and glistening. 

Gelatin stab; abundant needle growth, with a thin, slightly spreading, white, 
dry, surface growth. 

Agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; a slight lemon yellow tinge, but not characteristic. No effect upon 
milk or cream. 

Differs from No. 84 chiefly in the form of the gelatin colony. Probably the 
same as No. 26. Previously described. (Storrs Sta. Rep., 1893.) 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 55 

194. (Very common.) B. communis lactis I. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, .6/* by .S/jl. 

Gelatin plate; a smooth, round, white colony, not very opaque, becoming 
3 mm. in diameter, irregular and rough or lobate, or sometimes round, white, 
moist and regular. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth abundant. A white, flat, glistening surface 
growth, which is first thin, but later becomes thicker and slightly yellow. 

Agar; moderately thick, moist, smooth and transparent. 

Potato; white, moist and thick. 

Milk; no effect upon milk or cream. 

This is very common in milk, though never in great numbers. It is the same 
as No. 55. Previously described. (Storrs Sta. Rep., 1893.) 

No. 191. B. radiata lactis. (n. sp.) (Named also B. citreus arborescens 

on p. 43.) 

Morphology; size, .8/a by 4/j.. No long chains, but two or three may be 
united together. Surrounded by an unstained capsule. 

Gelatin plate; widely spreading colony, with fine lines radiating from the 
center. Grows over the whole plate, with fibers permeating the gelatin. The 
fibers are knobbed. Fibers from two colonies may grow over the whole 
plate in the course of three days. To the naked eye the whole looks like a 
mould. 

Gelatin stab; a slight needle growth, with a characteristic ground glass 
surface growth. 

Agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; a very thin growth, which may be slightly lemon yellow. 

Milk; after three weeks is rendered slightly alkaline and semi-transparent. 

This organism was found only once, and was unfortunately lost before its 
description was complete. Its very unique colony upon gelatin is, however, 
sufficient to distinguish it. 

No. 74. (Rare.) Proteus Zenkeri. (?) 

Morphology; size, iji* by 2/u. to 3/x, forming long threads in bouillon. 

Gelatin plate; colonies especially characteristic. They start as round colonies, 
from which extend fine branches. These radiate widely and are at first fine 
and subsequently polypiform. Sometimes they are simply fine, radiating lines, 
not polypiform, and occasionally the colony is simply lobate, without radiating 
fibers. 

Gelatin stab; along the needle track are lateral extensions forming thin sheets, 
thus producing the form of an inverted fir tree. Surface growth thin and 
irregular. 

Agar; spreads rapidly from the needle track, with radiating fibers rather 
thick. 

Potato; dirty white, brown, rough, with a sandy appearance. 

Milk; no effect except a slight alkalinity. After three weeks it becomes 
slightly slimy. No effect on cream or butter made from the cream. Develops 
no aroma or taste. 



56 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 98. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .7/n by 1.5/x to 2/u. Joining into chains. 

Gelatin plate; around, rough, granular colony, sometimes coarsely granulai 
like a corn ball. 

Gelatin stab; a moderate needle growth, with a thin, transparent, widely 
spreading, hardly visible surface. 

Agar; moderately thick along the needle track, but with a thin, transparent, 
hardly visible, spreading edge growing over the agar. 

Potato ; rather scanty, but not characteristic. 

Milk; no effect upon milk or cream. Butter develops a rather unusual 
aroma, but no flavor. 

No. 12. (Rare.) B. viscosus lactis II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; a rod, four times as long as broad (size not measured), surrounded 
by a mass of slime. 

Gelatin plate; a white bead, I mm. in diameter. Not characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; abundant needle growth, with a thin, irregular rosette surface 
growth. 

Agar; transparent and glassy, very thick and raised in irregular masses. 
The growth is extremely slimy, forming threads several inches long when lifted 
with the platinum loop. 

Potato; growth greyish brown, mottled, abundant, tenacious, and slimy. 

Milk; is rendered slimy and alkaline. Threads of a foot in length may be 
drawn from it with a platinum loop. An odor is developed in the milk, re- 
minding one of strong cheese. After a month the milk becomes almost solid, 
although its sliminess has disappeared. 

This bacillus appears to be similar in its general characters to B. viscosus 
lactis of Adamitz, but its morphology is quite different. While B. viscosus 
is nearly as broad as long, this No. 12 is a long, slender rod. It was isolated 
from milk in 1891, and has not been found since. 

No. 25. 

Morphology; a bacillus, . 7/x by 2,u. 

Gelatin plate; a minute, clear, round colony is produced, which is later 
raised into a bead, with concentric folds. It may spread to a diameter of 
1 mm., and show a central nucleus with a dark outer rim. The edge may be. 
rough and folded. 

Gelatin stab; an abundant needle growth, which is rough and beaded. A 
slightly mounded surface growth, spreads widely and later is thin, transparent 
and dry. Color is white. 

Agar; is white, moist and moderately thick. 

Potato; is white or gray, dry and thick. Later it becomes yellowish and 
even brown. 

The most convenient grouping of the liquefying bacilli has 
been found to be that adopted by Fliigge, depending upon 
the character of the spore formation. It should be stated, 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 57 

however, that less attention has been given to the liquefying 
bacteria than to the non-liquefying bacteria. While they are 
almost always present in milk, their relative number is always 
small in normal milk. The rapid growth of the numerous 
lactic bacteria commonly checks the multiplication of the lique- 
fy ers, so that they are always few in ordinary milk or cream. 
I am now convinced that they are of comparatively little im- 
portance in normal dairy processes. In ripened cream, as will 
be shown in a later paper, they are commonly only to be found 
in very small quantities. For these reasons less attention has 
been given to them in my investigations, and the list given be- 
low is therefore doubtless far from complete. The bacteria 
here listed doubtless include some of those described by 
Duclaux under the name of Tyrothrix, but the incompleteness 
of his description makes sure identification impossible. I 
have therefore not attempted to identify them with Duclaux' s 
species. 

GROUP VIII. LIQUEFYING BACILLI WITHOUT SPORES. 

No. 200. (Rare.) B. musci lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, i/jl by 2fi to 5/i. Forms long chains, which look like 
strings of sausages. These' form a tangled mass, forming a scum on gelatin. 

Gelatin plate; a diffuse colony, 1 inch in diameter, made up of long fibers, 
growing chiefly under the surface of the gelatin, looking like a tuft of moss, 
thick in the center and gradually fading out around the edge. Quite charac- 
teristic network of fibers. 

Gelatin stab; a ground glass, crumpled surface. Below surface there is a 
tree-like growth from the needle track, hardly visible. Liquefaction takes place 
slowly. There is eventually produced, a liquid cone, with a central granular 
axis, shaped like an inverted cone. Eventually the liquefaction is complete. 

Agar; widely spreading, with creeping branches on the surface like cotton 
threads. Eventually covering the whole surface. 

Potato; growth is chiefly under the surface. The surface becomes rough 
and white and somewhat broken. 

& Bouillon; masses are formed floating in a clear liquid, and a scum appears 
later. 

Milk; is curdled after three weeks, and becomes slowly digested into a 
translucent mass, full of flakes and showing a skin on the surface of a ground 
glass appearance. 

No. 196. (Common) B. varians lactis I. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, .8/x by 1.5/*, blunt ends. 

Gelatin plate; a thin, spreading, transparent surface. When reaching a milli- 
meter in diameter it sinks into a pit in a dense, granular mass. Sometimes 



58 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

a few lobe-like shoots extend from the colony into the gelatin, ending in 
prominent knobs, quite characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow cone produced. The gelatin then liquefying regularly 
into a dense, cloudy liquid. 

Agar and potato; scanty growth, but not characteristic. 

Milk; is curdled hard and rendered amphoteric, or sometimes acid. No di- 
gestion can be seen, but a watery whey subsequently deposits from a solid curd. 

Nos. 176 and 139. B. varians laetis II. and III, 
These two cultures I place with No 196. They agree in all points except 
the power of liquefying gelatin. No. 139 in gelatin stab forms a deep, dry 
pit, with no sign of liquid. No. 176 produces a dry pit, but later begins to 
liquefy at the bottom, and the liquefaction slowly deepens, while No 196, as 
shown, liquefies rapidly. The three were obtained from different localities and 
at different times. 

They may be identical with B. cloacae (Jordan). 

No. 64. (Rather common.) B. circttlans II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, .6fx by 1.5/i. Long chains are produced in bouillon, but 
no spores found. 

Gelatin plate; a granular bead is produced, which sinks into a dry pit. The 
pit liquefies, and the bacilli can be seen actively circtilatitig in the liquid. 
Uniformly granular. 

Gelatin stab; there is a growth along the needle track, producing a deep, 
narrow funnel, from which the liquid evaporates, .so that there is a consider- 
able portion of the funnel without liquid. A white sediment forms in the axis 
of the liquefying pit. The whole is peculiar and characteristic. 

Agar; an abundant, yellowish growth. Not characteristic. 

Potato; a somewhat thin, watery, transparent growth. 

Milk; there is no curdling, but the milk digests into a weak alkaline liquid, 
which is cloudy and gives off unpleasant odors. Butter made from cream 
ripened with this organism develops a moderately good flavor and aroma. The 
putrefactive odor in the milk and cream is ordinarily not noticeable in the 
butter. 

This is very similar to B. circulans of Jordan. I have, however, found no 
spores, while Jordan found them in most media. The growth on agar is also 
different. The peculiarities shown in the colony and the gelatin stab lead me 
to put it with the species described by Jordan as a Variety II. 

No. 164. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .5/* by .S/j. to j/x. Tapering ends and showing irregular 
stain. 

Gelatin plate; a yellow colony in a deep pit. As liquefaction begins there is 
a curiously figured central lobate mass, with an outer clear zone. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow, dry pit appears, which soon shows liquefaction at 
the bottom, an air bubble remaining for some time. Later liquefying over the 
whole surface into a cloudy liquid, with a dense sediment. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 59 

Agar; semi-transparent, thick growth. 

Potato; moist, not very abundant growth, which may show an orange or 
brownish pigment. 

Milk; is slowly digested without curdling into a red amber colored, watery 
liquid, with a jelly-like mass of undigested casein at the bottom. Is alkaline. 

No. 129. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .8^ by i/x to 3/x. 

Gelatin plate; colony at first irregular or round. It soon becomes rough and 
margined, and branches arise. It then develops into a liquefying colony, 
with a nucleus and radiating markings. 

Gelati7i stab; a slow liquefaction. There is a shallow pit, becoming a hori- 
zontal layer, of a cloudy liquid. 

Agar; moist, white and thick. It spreads irregularly over the agar. 

Potato; at first smooth, white and moist, but later becoming slightly 
yellowish and folded. 

Milk; is curdled with an alkaline reaction and then slightly digested, the 
liquid becoming slimy. 

No. 120. (Rare.) Bacillus anana. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, . 5£iby ifi to 1.2/j.. 

Gelatin plate ; a round, opaque, granular colony, breaking up to form a pit, 
covered with mottled, granular masses. There is frequently a nucleus and a 
zone of granular fragments. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow pit, with a granular liquid. The pit broadens at the 
surface and contains very cloudy liquid. Later the whole gelatin is liquefied. 

Agar; moist, white, abundant. 

Potato; very thick, white and abundant, and having the odor of pine- 
apple. 

Milk; curdles at 20° into a soft curd. No digestion noticeable. No 
curdling at 36°. 

No. 68. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .6/j. by i[M. Shows uneven stain and a capsule. 

Gelatin plate; a pit forms, filled with irregular masses. It is frequently 
rosette formed at first, but breaks into opaque granules as the liquefaction 
begins. 

Gelatin stab; a deep, dry pit formed, which later liquefies, a scum appear- 
ing on the liquid. 

Agar; white, moist, thick at center of the inoculation line, but with a thin, 
scolloped edge. Later it becomes yellow. 

Potato; a very profuse, abundant, moist, jelly-like growth covering the 
whole potato. May be white or yellowish. Very characteristic. 

Milk; may curdle, or digest without curdling. Is alkaline. In about twelve 
days it becomes a nearly transparent liquid with a yellow scum. No effect on 
butter when used for ripening cream. 

This is similar to No. 120, except for its action on milk. 



60 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 69. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, . 8/x by 2/x. 

Gelatin plate; a liquefying colony, with a nucleus and a broad, granular 
margin, or sometimes uniformly granular without the nucleus. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow funnel, which widens as it liquefies into a broad 
funnel. The liquid has a granular tinge at the surface, and is cloudy, with a 
slight granular sediment. 

Agar; rapid growth, spreading widely into a white, opaque layer, with 
irregular, glistening edge. 

Potato; white, or cream white, and semi-transparent. 

Milk; curdles in five to six days into a soft curd, which is alkaline. It then 
digests into a colorless liquid, with a bitter taste. Produces butter with a 
sharp, sour taste, but a thoroughly typical butter aroma. 



GROUP IX. LIQUEFYING BACILLI WITH SPORES NO LARGER THAN 

THE ROD. 

No. 207. Bacillus sub ti lis. 
Not an uncommon inhabitant of milk. 

No. 177. Bacillus megatherium . 
This species has been found once or twice. It is easily recognized from its 
great size, 2.5/x, in diameter, and its spores of much less diameter. Its com- 
plete characters have not been studied here. 

No. 184. (Rare.) B. lactis V. (?) (Fliigge.) 

Morphology; a large rod, with square ends forming long chains. 

Gelatin plate ; liquefies rapidly. Under the surface appear opaque, rough 
gelatin colonies, with a fibrous rim. Colonies liquefy rapidly, spreading into a 
uniformly granular or fibrous colony, 2 cm. in size in two days. When the 
colonies are near together the fibers become twisted and look like anthrax 
colonies. 

Gelatin stab ; needle growth abundant. There is a horizontal liquefaction, 
with a rough, white, wrinkled, tough skin, looking like a mould. The skin 
later becomes somewhat yellow, and the gelatin is finally completely liquefied, 
with a yellow scum. 

Agar; abundant, rough, whitish yellow skin, with an irregular edge. 

Potato; a very abundant growth, thick and dry, forming an almost powdery 
-white surface. 

Milk; no curd appears, but the milk digests in one to two weeks into a 
translucent liquid, with a thick, folded scum on the surface. It is strongly 
alkaline. 

This appears to me to be quite similar to B. lactis V. (Fliigge). It differs, 
so far as can be determined from his description, only in its action on milk, 
which, in Flugge's organism, did not produce the folded skin on the surface of 
the digested milk. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 6 1 

No. 145. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, i/u by 3.5/*, blunt ends. Long chains occasionally pro- 
duced. Spores spherical. 

Gelatin plate ; colony liquefies when it reaches the size of 1 mm., forming a 
dense, white layer, covering the whole surface of the liquefying pit. 

Gelatin stab; liquefies at first as a small cone, and this slowly spreads over 
the whole surface, becoming covered with a dense, white film. 

Agar ; not characteristic. 

Potato; very thick, dirty white layer, slightly transparent and gelatinous. 

Milk; no effect upon milk either at 20° or jj°. 

No. 114. (Rare.) B. viesejttericus fuscus. 

Morphology ; size, .8/x by 2fJ., forming long chains. 

Gelatin plate ; deep colonies are round, smooth and transparent. The sur- 
face colonies are raised, with a thin, transparent edge and irregular rim, creep- 
ing over the surface in irregular lobes. In five days it reaches the size of 
1 mm., then it sinks into- a liquefying pit, the colony remaining as a dense 
growth over the whole surface, with no clear liquid ring surrounding it. 

Gelatin stab; needle growth abundant. A very shallow pit, with an air 
bubble in its center. The pit later spreads over the whole surface. 

Agar; a somewhat dry, slightly folded growth. 

Potato; a gray or yellowish, thick, highly folded skin. 

Milk; at 20 does not curdle but digests slowly and becomes alkaline. At 
26 curdles in six days and digests. Cream ripened with this organism pro- 
duces butter with no aroma nor flavor. 



GROUP X. BACILLI WHICH LIQUEFY GELATIN AND FORM SPORES 
LARGER THAN RODS. 

These easily recognizable bacteria I divided into three divisions, according 
to the position of the spore. 

Division A. Spores in the middle of the rod (spindle formed). 
Division B. Spores at one end of the rod (tetanus type). 
Division C. Two spores (?), one at each end of the rods. 

Division A. 

Spores in the center of the rods. 
No. 123. (Rather common.) B. arborescens lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, i.8/x by 3^, growing into long chains. Large spores 
produced of a size i.2,u by 2^1, causing the rods to swell in the middle. 

Gelatin plate; colony grows into a large felted ground glass mass, which 
sinks slowly in a shallow pit. 

Gelatin stab; a thick, ground glass surface growth forms as a scum floating 
on a shallow funnel. This eventually becomes much folded. Later the whole 
becomes liquefied, and the scum remains folded and tenacious. 

Agar; grows into remarkably spreading branching filamentous masses which 
cover the whole surface and even grow under the surface. Quite characteristic. 

Potato; almost snow white, abundant growth which extends into the potato. 
The surface is raised into folded mounds. 



62 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Milk; rapidly curdled at 20° and at 35 , and digested into a cloudy, colorless 
or amber colored liquid with alkaline reaction. Butter made from cream 
ripened with this organism has an unpleasant flavor and aroma. 

No. 154. 
This organism is probably a variety of No. 123, differing only in growth on 
potato and in bouillon. The potato growth is scanty, the surface becomes 
covered with a slight, fuzzy growth, and later with small, rounded knobs con- 
taining spores. There is an abundant growth below the surface. In bouillon 
a jelly-like, tenacious, flocculent mass is formed in the liquid. In other respects 
this agrees with No. 123. 

No. 131. (Rare.) B. filiformis lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, ifi b) r 2/U. The rods have a thick capsule with a central 
staining body. Spores are 1.2/u, by i.8^t in size. 

Gelatin plate; colony has a fine, granular center, breaking at its edge into a 
granular margin surrounded with a clear, liquefying zone. Later the margin 
shows contorted lacing threads. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow, cylindrical liquefying funnel is formed, with a cloudy 
liquid. Much gas is produced showing as bubbles on the surface of the liquid 
as well as the gelatin. Sometimes, after long cultivation, it grows without 
producing this gas. Liquefaction becomes complete and a dense scum and 
sediment is formed. 

Agar; may be dry and thin, but commonly forms a thick, widely spreading 
lobate or branching mass, which is dry, white and quite characteristic. 

Potato; a moist, yellowish, slimy mass grows over the surface. 

Milk; curdled in two days with little change in reaction. Cream is rendered 
slightly acid with a sour cream taste, and butter made therefrom has a good 
flavor, but no aroma. 

No. 88. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, 1.5//. by 3/*. Chains of a dozen elements are formed and 
large spores produced in bouillon. 

Gelatin plate; a liquefying pit filled with filaments. A central granular 
nucleus forms with coarse granular masses, which become uniformly distributed 
in the surrounding zone. 

Gelatin stab; a simple pit is formed which at first contains no liquid, but 
later liquefaction occurs slowly. 

Agar; yellowish or white, not characteristic. 

Potato; decidedly lemon yellow at first and later becoming dry, wrinkled and 
quite yellow. 

Milk; curdles at 20° in six days with a thick scum and a little whey. Is 
alkaline in reaction. Digests into an especially clear liquid with a tenacious 
scum and sediment. Cream develops an unpleasant odor and the fat separates 
as masses floating in the whey. Butter made therefrom has no taste nor aroma. 

The following three organisms show considerable similarities, especially in 
their morphology. But the type of colony they produce in gelatin is so 
different that I cannot regard them as identical. They resemble somewhat the 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 63 

B. mycoides of Fliigge, although each shows distinct points of difference from 
Fltigge's organism. I have therefore named them B. mycoides lactis I. , II, 
III. 

No. 102. (Common.) B. mycoides lactis I, (n. sp.) 

Morphology; i/j. by 2fi in length, forming long chains with oval spores. 

Gelatin plate; deep colonies are at first irregular and show irregular radiating 
fibers. A proteus-like colony. The surface colonies form a pit with a large 
nucleus and a loosely granular outer zone. Liquefaction slowly extends. 

Gelatin stab; a narrow funnel broadening at the top is formed, with a dense 
sediment. It liquefies then over the surface of the gelatin, and the liquefaction 
deepens uniformly with a very granular liquid containing a dense white sediment. 

Agar; growth is tough and dry and broken easily into fragments . Later 
becomes very zvhite from being covered with spores. 

Potato; dry and rough and even, becoming snow white. 

Milk; curdles in two days at 36 into a soft curd, faintly alkaline. Curdles 
also at 20°. Digests slowly producing a rancid odor. The digested liquid is 
colorless, though when the digestion is complete the liquid may be amber col- 
ored. It is without effect upon the flavor or aroma of butter. 

No. 124. (Common.) B. mycoides lactis II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, i/x by 2/x. Grows into long threads. The individual 
elements show square ends. A capsule is developed and large spores are 
prominent. 

Gelatin plate.; a pit is formed in which a tangled mass of threads is formed 
very much like anthrax colonies. It is quite characteristic. Becomes half a 
millimeter in diameter and then liquefies. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow funnel is produced which liquefies in a horizontal 
layer. The liquid is clear with a dense scum and a dense sediment. 

Agar; a tough, white growth is formed, readily breaking into lumps. 

Potato; growth thin and dry, almost snow white, commonly a putty-like 
texture. 

Milk; curdles rapidly at 36° in one day and at 20 in a week. Digests into a 
cloudy liquid which is colorless or amber colored. 

No. 111. B mycoides lactis III. (n. sp.) 

Agrees with No. 124 except in the following points: 

Gelatin stab; peculiar radiating growth arises from the needle track. This is 
unlike the common "fir tree" type, inasmuch as the radiating growths are in 
branches and are as long at the top as at the bottom of the gelatin. They 
grow moreover obliquely rather than horizontally. Later the liquefaction 
begins and is finally complete. 

Potato; this grows into a dry, velvety, spreading growth all over the surface. 
Later becomes very snow white and dry. 

No. 138. (Rare). 
Moi-phology; size, lfi by 2/x to 3^, Forming long threads in bouillon. Rods 
with square ends. 



64 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Gelatin plate; brownish granular colonies with an irregular edge, which 
become surrounded by a liquefying pii. The pit is finely granular with a 
nucleus. A nucleus soon breaks up into variously formed irregular masses 
and the whole colony becomes uniformly granular. 

Agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; much folded into thick, contorted folds, with a yellowish tinge. 

Milk; the milk is, after several days, curdled into a soft curd, which digests 
at once into a colorless liquid, completely dissolving the casein. Cream ripened 
by this organism develops a very unpleasant flavor and aroma in the butter. 

No. 150. (Uncommon.) 

Morphology ; size, .~j\x by 1.3/i. Long threads of rods with rounded ends. 

Gelatin plate; colonies 2 mm. in diameter forming thick, raised, yellowish 
masses lying in a broad pit. Liquefaction proceeds slowly; the colony remains 
as a flat, dense, opaque mass, folded and wrinkled. Later a peculiar snow 
white mass arises in the center of the colony looking like a mould. This is 
extremely peculiar and very characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow pit is produced. The growth is slow, and a clear 
liquid is formed with a dense, yellow scum, but no sediment. Later the liquid 
becomes cloudy and a sediment collects which may be white or yellow. 

Agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; develops a wrinkled, brown skin, which later becomes dry and highly 
folded. 

Milk; is curdled in four days at 36° and in two weeks at 20°, into a soft 
alkaline curd. It eventually digests into a somewhat transparent mass, but the 
digestion is incomplete. A very pleasant odor is developed. 

No. 51. (Rare.) 

Morphology; size, .S/x by 1.5/x to 2jj.. Rods with square ends. 

Gelatin plate; colon)' irregular and developing a peculiar, characteristic, con- 
torted mass arranged in parallel rows of thread. A proteus-like colony. 

Gelatin stab; growth is slow, and a shallow pit is formed which in about three 
weeks half liquefies the gelatin, but remains to the end as a cone shaped pit. 

Agar; not characteristic. 

Potato; a velvety white, even snow white, thick growth. 

Milk; curdles in two days into a soft, jelly-like mass which rapidly digests into 
a yellowish, cloudy liquid which is alkaline. Butter made from cream ripened 
with this organism has but little taste and what taste it has is unpleasant. 

No. 153. ■ (Not common.) 

Morphology; size, i.2/u by 3^ to 6/*, with blunt ends. Threads not long and 
frequently broken. 

Gelatin plate; a large colony, 1 cm. in diameter, uniformly granular, with a 
radiating rim. 

Gelatin stab; a deep funnel formed with liquid at bottom and an air space at 
the top. The liquefaction increases and a broad cone of slightly cloudy liquid 
is produced with a scum. Later the liquid becomes clear and the scum dense. 

Agar; white, opaque and moderately thick. The growth is tough and not 
easily broken into fragments. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 65 

Potato; a ground glass , much folded layer is produced with liquid under the 
folds. Later the folds increase and the whole becomes white. 

Milk; curdles rapidly at 20° and 36 into a hard curd and no whey. Alka- 
line. Digests into a clear, yellowish liquid. 

Division B. 

Spores at one end of the rod. 

No. 189. (Rare.) B. arborescens lactis II. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, .S/j. by 4/x. The spore is ifj. by 1.2/x. Occasionally two 
or three rods together, but no chains. 

Gelatin plate; colonies become 1 cm. in size or larger, showing radiating 
fibers strewn with knots. The fibers themselves are fine and branching. The 
knots look like isolated colonies and each frequently shows secondary radiation. 
Fibers grow mostly under the surface. Very characteristic. 

Gelatin stab; an arborescent growth underneath the surface of the gelatin. 
Branches extending horizontally from the needle track and ending in knobs. 
In two days a dry pit is formed on the surface with numerous disjointed colo- 
nies extending from this pit to the edge of the tube. Later liquefies at the 
surface with a dense white cloudy liquid. 

Agar; surface curdled completely with a thin, hardly visible growth. 

Potato; thin and scanty growth. 

Bouillon; a tough scum is formed which sinks while disturbed and forms a 
flocculent sediment. Later the scum sinks and the liquid is slightly cloudy. 

Milk; no effect produced upon milk. 

Division C. 

Bacilli wit A tzvo spores, one in either end. 
The following species is certainly peculiar. The rods are very long, from 2/j. 
to 6/x., and m each end of the rods may frequently be seen a clear unstained 
body. I have regarded them as spores, even though it has generally been 
thought that a bacillus with two spores has not been found. At all events this 
species is very unlike any other found and may be most easily recognized from 
this apparent double spore formation. I have therefore placed it in a division 
by itself with a distinct specific name. 

No. 190. (Rare.) B. dispora lactis. (n. sp.) 

Morphology; size, 1.8/u. by 2/x to 6/t. Spores are about i/x to 1.5M, variable 
in size. Long chains of threads are formed with rounded or tapering ends, like 
a string of sausages. 

Gelatin plate; a round, tough colony is produced, yellowish in color, easily 
removed intact by a platinum loop. When reaching the size of 1 mm. it sinks 
into a slowly liquefying pit, but the mass of bacilli remain as a distinct nucleus 
for a long time, the liquid being clear. 

Gelatin stab; a shallow funnel is formed and the liquefaction becomes complete. 

Agar and potato ; not characteristic except that both show a tendency to have 
isolated clumps rather than a uniform layer. 

Milk; at 20° is curdled and rendered amphoteric or alkaline. A slight 
digestion is apparent. 



66 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The following list is an index to the pages on which the 
different organisms are described. The species which I have 
named or have identified with species named by other investi- 
gators are given by name as well as by number; the others 
by number only. In accordance with general usage the new 
species are indicated by the abbreviation n. sp. : 







Page. 




Page. 


2. 


M 


acidi lactis, 


49 


93, 




51 


5- 


B. 


viscosus, - - . - 


33 


94- 


B. ubiquitus lactis (n. sp.), 


51 


12. 


B. 


viscosus lactis II. (n. sp.), 


56 


98, 




56 


16. 


B. 


lactis aerogenes, - 


50 


100. 


B. aureus lactis II. (n. sp.), 


39 


21. 


B. 


fluorescens schuylkiilien- 




102. 


B. mycoides lactis I. (n. sp.), 


63 






sis, - . - - 


32 


103. 


B. aureus minutissimus (n. 




25, 






56 




sp.), ... - 


36 


26, 


- 


- 


54 


104. 


M. varians lactis (n. sp.), - 


37 


31- 


B. 


fluorescens liquefaciens, 


32 


105, 


-■■ - 


4i 


37, 


- 


- - 


47 


107, 


- 


50 


4i, 


- 




53 


109, 





47 


42. 


M 


rosaceus lactis (n. sp.), 


34 


in. 


B. mycoides lactis III. (n. 




47, 


- 


. 


46 




sp.). ... - 


63 


48. 


B. 


lactis erythrogenes, 


39 


"3- 


M. varians lactis (n. sp.), - 


37 


5f, 


- 


. 


64 


114. 


B. mesentericus fuscus, 


61 


53- 


B. 


lactis aerogenes. - 


50 


US- 


B. ruber lactis (n. sp.), 


35 


55- 


B. 


communis lactis (n. sp.), 


55 


116. 


B. lactis erythrogenes II. 




56. 


B. 


lactis aerogenes, - 


50 




(n. sp.), 


40 


53. 


M 


acidi lactici III., - 


44 


117. 


M. citreus lactis (n. sp.), - 


40 


60. 


M 


acidi lactici I., - 


43 


118. 


M. giganteus lactis (n. sp.), 


46 


62. 


M 


rubidis lactis (n. sp.), - 


34 


119. 


Sarcina alba, - - - 


47 


64. 


B. 


circulans II. (n. sp.), - 


58 


120. 


B. anana, - 


59 


66, 


- 


. 


54 


121. 


M. arborescens lactis (n. sp.), 46 


68, 


- 





59 


123. 


B. arborescens lactis(n. sp.), 


61 


69, 


- 


- 


60 


124. 


B. mycoides lactis II. (n.sp.) 


63 


70, 


- 


- 


45 


125. 


B. coli communis, 


49 


72, 


- 


. 


4i 


126, 


. 


54 


74- 


Proteus Zenkeri, 


55 


128. 


B. fluorescens minutissimis, 


32 


75, 


- 


. . 


45 


I29, 





59 


78. 


M 


. acidi lactici II., - 39 


44 


130. 


M. viscosus lactis (n. sp.), - 


44 


80, 


- 


. 


45 


131- 


B. filiformis lactis (n. sp.), 


62 


82. 


B. 


fluorescens non-liquefa- 




137. 


. 39 


51 






ciens, - 


33 


138, 


. ■ . 


63 


84, 


- 


- 


54 


139- 


B. varians lactis III., 


58 


85, 


- 





46 


141, 


3S 


43 


88, 


- 





62 


142. 


M. communis lactis (n.sp.), 


48 


89. 


B. 


coli communis, 


49 


145, 





61 


90. 


B. 


fluorescens non-liquefa- 




147- 


M. liquefaciens acidi I. (n. 








ciens, ... 


33 




sp.), - - - 


4 s 


91. 


B. 


citreus acidi (n. sp.), 


4i 


149- 


B. citreus lactis I. (n. sp.), 


42 



CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY BACTERIA. 



6 7 







Page. 




Page. 


150, 






64 


188 


M. aureus lactis, 


36 


151, 






35 


189 


B. arborescens lactis II. (n. 




153. 


- 


- 


64 




sp.), - 


65 


T54- 


B. arborescens lactis (n 


sp-). 


62 


190 


B. dispora lactis (n. sp.), - 


65 


159. 


. 


- 


3-7 


191 


B. radiata lactis (n. sp.), - 


55 


161. 


B. citreus lactis II. (n. 


sp)., 


42 


194 


B. communis lactis I. (n.sp.) 


55 


162, 


. 


33 


43 


196 


B. varians lactis I. (n. sp.), 


57 


164, 





- 


58 


J 97 


B. lactici aerobans (n. sp.), 


53 


167. 


M. citreus lactis (n. sp 


), 41 


,46 


198 


B. communis lactis II., 


54 


168. 


M. liquefaciens acidi 


II. 




199 


Sarcina flava, 36 


40 




(n.sp.), 


44 


48 


200 


B. musci lactis (n. sp.), 


57 


169, 






38 


201 


Sarcina lutea, ... 


40 


170. 


B. aureus acidi (n. sp.) 


, - 


38 


202 


B. acidi lactici II. (n. sp.), 


52 


174, 


. 


- 


40 


205 


B. aureus lactis (n. sp.), 


38 


176. 


B. varians lactis II., - 


- 


58 


206 


B. acidi lactici I., - 


52 


177- 


B. megatherium, 


- 


60 


207 


B. subtilis, ... 


60 


184. 


B. lactis V., 


- 


60 


208 


B. lactis aerogenes, - 


50 


186, 


- 


- 


45 


209 


B. prodigiosus, 


34 


187, 


- 


- 


42 









REFERENCES. 



List of references of the most important articles upon 
tematic bacteria with special reference to dairy species. 



Adametz, 

Boekhout, 
Chester, - 

Claus, 
Conn, 



Duclaux, - 
Dyar, 
Eckles, - 
Enmerling, 
Epstein, - 
Esten, 
Flugge, t 

v. Freudenreich, 



Landw. Jahrb., - - - - 
Oesterr. Monatschr. f. Thierh., - 
Over lange Wei, Delft., 
Delaware Sta. Rep., ... 
Delaware Sta. Rep., - 
Inaug. Dis. Wurzburg, 
Storrs Sta. Rep., - 

Storrs Sta. Rep:, - 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., V., 
Le Lait, Paris, ... - 
N. Y. Acad, of Sci., VIII., 
Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., IV., 
Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II,, IV., 
Arch. f. Hyg., XXXVII. , - 
Storrs Sta. Rep., - 

Die Microorganismen, Leipzig, - 
Ztschr. f. Hyg., XVII., - 
Ann. d. Microg., - - - 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II. , III., 
Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., IV., 
Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., V., 
Landw. Jahrb. der Schweiz., 
Landw. Jahrb. der Schweiz., 



sys- 



1897 
1897 



1893 
1894 
1899 



900 
896 
896 
894 
890 
S97 
898 
899 
893 



68 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



v. Freudenreich, 

Frankland, - 
Fuller and Johnson, 

Gessard, - - - - 
Gosio, - 

Grotenfelt, - 

Guilleleau, - 

Giinther and Thierfelder, 

Keferstein, - 

Henerci, - 

Hueppe, - 

Jordan, - 

Kozai, . - - . 

Kramer, - - - - 

Krilger, - 

Kuprianow, - 

Leichmann, - 



Leichmann and Bazarewski 
Loerrler, - 
Marpmann, - 

Migula, ... - 
Nenki and Sieber, - 
Pammel, - 
Ratz, - 
Schardinger, - 
Schattenfroh & Grassberger 
Tate, - 
Troili-Peterson, 
Unna Tomanasoli, - 
Ward, - 
Weigmann, -, 



Winkler, 
Wright, - 
Zangmeister, 



Landw. Jahrb. der Schweiz., ... 1896 

Ztschr. f. Hyg., VI., - - - - - 1889 

Jour. Exp. Med., - 1899 

De la pyocyanie et de son microbe, Paris, - 1892 

Arch. f. Hyg., XXL, .... 1894 

Fortschr. d. Med., ----- 1889 

Landw. Jahrb. der Schweiz., - 1890 

Ann. d. Microg., ----- 1892 

Arch. f. Hyg., XXV., ... - 1895 

Centbl. f. Pact. u. Par., I., XXL, - - 1897 

Inaug. Dis., Basel, ----- 1893 

Mitth. a. d. k. Gsudhtsamte, - - - 1884 

Rep. of Mass. St. Bd. of Health, - - 1890 

Ztschr. f. Hyg., XXXI. , ... - 1899 

Monatsh. f. Chemie, ----- 18S9 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., VII., - - - 1890 

Arch. f. Hyg., XIX., - - - - 1893 

Landw. Vers. Stat., XLIIL, ... 1894 

Milch Ztg., 1894 

Milch Ztg., ------ ;E8g6 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., II., - - 1896 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., V., - - 1899 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., VI., - - 1900 

Bed. klin. Wchnschr., - - - - 18S7 

Ztschr. f. ang. Mikr., ... - 1896 

Ergnzngshft. z. Cent. f. allg. Gsudhtspflg, II., 1886 

System der Bakterien, Leipzig, - - - i8go 

Monatsh. f. Chem., ----- 1890 

IowaSta., Bui. 21, - - - - - 1893 

Arch. f. wissensch. u. prakt. Thierh., XVI. , 1890 

Monatsh. f. chem., iSgo 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., V., - - 1899 

Jour. Chem. Soc. Trans., - 1893 

Ztschr. f. Hyg., XXXIL, - 1899 
Monatsh. f. prakt. Dermat., IX., 

Cornell Sta., Bui. 165, - 1899 

Milch Ztg., 1889 

Landw. Wochenbl. f. Schleswig-Holstein, - 1S90 

Milch Ztg., ------ 1893 

Milch Ztg., ------ 1896 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., V., - - 1S99 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., II., I., - - - 1S95 

Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., - - - 1895 

Centbl. f. Bact. u. Par., XVIII. , - - 1S96 



DIGESTIBILITY, AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE. 69 



DISCUSSION OF THE TERMS DIGESTIBILITY, 
AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE. 



BY W. O. AT WATER. 



In order to make food available for use in the body it must 
be digested. The digestion is done at the expense of a certain 
amount of material which the food itself must supply. This 
material is essentially that which is poured into the alimentary 
canal in the digestive juices. That which is not re-absorbed 
remains in the feces in the so-called metabolic products. These 
latter include also the fragments of intestinal ephithelium and 
minute quantities of other substances. In addition a small 
part of the food escapes digestion. The feces are, accordingly, 
made up of ( 1 ) metabolic products which are mainly the residues 
of digestive juices and (2) the undigested residues of the food. 

DIGESTIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY OF NUTRIENTS. 

This brings out the distinction between the terms digesti- 
bility and availability as they are here used. 

Digestibility. — This term is here used to designate the quan- 
tity or proportion of material digested. It is measured by the 
difference between the total food and the undigested residue. 
The statement applies likewise to the several nutrients — pro- 
tein, fats, carbohydrates and mineral matter. To determine 
the amount of each which is digested the total amounts in the 
food and the corresponding amounts in the feces are deter- 
mined, and the latter are subtracted from the former. The 
methods for distinguishing between the metabolic products and 
the undigested residue of the food have not been made suffi- 
ciently accurate to enable us to determine exactly the propor- 
tion actually digested.* 

Availability. — The term availability is here used to desig- 
nate the quantity or proportion of the food and of the several 
nutrients which can be used for the building and repair of tissue 
and the yielding of energy. The metabolic products, which 
come from the digested food, are not used for either building 

* See Report of this Station for 1897, p. 157. 
6 



70 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

material or fuel, and hence are not available in the sense in 
which the word is here employed. The amounts of available 
nutrients are found by subtracting the ingredients of the feces 
from the corresponding ingredients of the food. The term 
digestible has often been used in this sense, but the distinction 
here made is evidently an important one. How the available 
nutrients of ~ the food are actually utilized in any given case; 
how much benefit the body gains from a given amount of 
nutrients in any given diet, is another matter. 

AVAILABILITY OF ENERGY. 

We have spoken of the metabolic products as residues from 
materials used to digest the food and thus make it available 
for general uses. Their energy is not metabolized. In both 
material and energy they represent part of the cost of making 
the food available. But the process of digestion involves cer- 
tain mechanical operations, especially the chewing of the food 
and the peristaltic movement which accompanies the passage 
of the food through the alimentary canal. For these a certain 
amount of mechanical energy is required. More or less energy 
is still further used in the secretion of the digestive juices, and 
finally there are the processes of cleavage and synthesis involv- 
ing more or less transformation of energ} 7 . The energy actu- 
ally used in all these operations, which belong niainly to the 
general process of digestion, comes from the part of the food 
which we have designated as available. Since it is used for 
digestion it is not available for the other work of the body. 
The available energy, using the word available in the broader 
sense, includes the energy required for the work of digestion. 
This energy of digestive work has not yet been exactly meas- 
ured. Reasonably close approximations have been made, nota- 
bly by Zuntz and Hagemann, with domestic animals. With 
feeding stuffs containing large amounts of cellulose and other 
undigestible materials, the energy required for digestive work 
was found to be very large. In the digestion of straw and the 
poorer qualities of hay this cost of handling the coarse material 
which resists the action of the digestive juices is so large as to 
require a not inconsiderable share of the total available energy. 
With the concentrated feeding stuffs the amount of energy 
required for digestive work is much smaller. 

Experiments for determining the amount of energ} 7 required 
for the digestion of food by man have not been made. The 



DIGESTIBILITY, AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE. 7 1 

materials used for the food of man, however, generally contain 
but very little of the undigestible material the cost of handling 
which is so large. The removal of the hulls of grain in the 
milling, and the various processes in cooking help to reduce 
this cost to its lowest terms. 

There is, moreover, a portion of the energy of the available 
food which is not made available in the body at all, namely, 
that of the incompletely oxidized material which is excreted in 
the urine. This comes mostly from the protein and occurs in 
the forms of urea and kindred compounds. It is generally 
assumed that the available fats and carbohydrates of the food 
are, under normal conditions, complete^ oxidized in the bod} 7 . 
Accordingly, their available energy is their total heat of com- 
bustion. The available energy of protein, on the other hand, 
is taken as the difference between the total heat of combustion 
and the heat of combustion of the water-free substance of the 
corresponding urine. This subject is discussed in the follow- 
ing article, pages 99 and 100. 

This view makes the total available energy of the food the 
total energy (heat of combustion) less that of the correspond- 
ing unoxidized residues of the feces and urine. It is also the 
total energy of the available nutrients less that of the corre- 
sponding unoxidized material of the urine. We might deduct 
from the total available energy the amount required for the 
mechanical work of digestion and other operations by which 
the food is prepared for use, and call the difference the net 
available energy, but it does not seem necessary here to insist 
either upon this distinction or upon the corresponding one 
which would separate the nutrients oxidized for this purpose 
from the rest of the available nutrients. 

FUEL VALUE. 

The term fuel value is here used to designate the value of 
the food for its service as fuel. Exactly how this service is 
rendered is not yet known. Without discussing the question 
as to how much of the potential energy of the food is trans- 
formed directly into heat in the body, or what proportion is 
first used for internal muscular work and afterwards trans- 
formed into heat, we may for our present convenience assume 
that the chief uses of the nutrients of food as fuel are to: — 

1. Yield energy as heat. 

2. Yield energy for muscular work. 



72 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

3. Protect the materials of the body or of other food from, 
consumption by being oxidized; in other words, to: — 

a. Protect protein of the body or of food from oxidation. 

b. Protect fats (and carbohydrates) from oxidation. 

We may also distinguish between what might be called the 
physical and the physiological fuel value. The physical fuel 
value would be the total energy made kinetic in the body, and 
would be measured by the heat of oxidation of the material 
burned. The physiological fuel value would be represented 
by the actual benefit gained by the body from the use of the 
fuel for the different purposes which it serves. Thus the 
actual value to the body of the energy from a gram of fat may 
be, and is by some physiologists held to be, less when used for 
mechanical work than if used as heat. To what extent the 
physiological and the physical fuel values agree or disagree is 
not yet known. For the present purpose the term fuel value 
is here applied to the physical value. 

DEFINITIONS. 

What has thus been explained may be summarized in the 
following definitions. 

Digestibility. — This term is used to designate the quantit3 T or 
percentage of a given amount of food or of a given nutrient 
which is digested, i. e., rendered capable of absorption, and, 
under normal conditions, actually absorbed from the alimen- 
tary canal. 

Availability. — This term is used to designate the quantity or 
percentage of a given amount of food or of a given nutrient 
which is capable of being utilized for the forming of tissue and 
yielding energy. It is the total material less the corresponding 
material of the feces. 

Fuel value. — By this is understood the energy (heat of com- 
bustion) of the material of the food which is oxidized, i. e., 
capable of oxidation in the body. For the total food it is the 
total energy less that of the corresponding unoxidized mate- 
rials of the feces and urine. For the protein it is likewise the 
total heat of combustion less that of the corresponding unoxi- 
dized residues of these excretions. For the fats and carbohy- 
drates it is the total energy less the energy of the corresponding 
unoxidized material of the feces. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 73 



THE AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD 
MATERIALS. 

BY W. O. AT WATER AND A. P. BRYANT. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Storrs Experiment Station has devoted considerable 
attention to the study of the food and nutrition of man. Not 
only are such studies authorized by the Act of Congress estab- 
lishing the Stations, but the Legislature of Connecticut makes 
a special appropriation to the Station for the purpose, and the 
Station cooperates with the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
in these inquiries. The lines of research followed by the 
Station have included the analyses of a large number of food 
materials, the carrying on of a considerable number of studies 
of actual dietaries of people of different classes in Connecticut, 
the determination of the proportions of nutrients in food of 
mixed diet which are actually digestible and available for 
use in the body, and the study of the fundamental laws 
of nutrition by experiments with men in the respiration calori- 
meter. 

The purpose of the present article is to summarize* some of 
the results of these studies, and of similar investigations else- 
where, in their bearing upon the availability and fuel value of 
different food materials or classes of food materials to the 
human body. To this end recourse has been had to (i) the 
data obtained from a compilation of over 4,000 analyses of 
American food materials; (2) results arrived at by different 
American and European investigators concerning the heats of 
combustion and fuel values of different chemical compounds, 
groups of compounds and kinds of food materials; and (3) 
the statistics of over 100 digestion experiments, and over 200 
dietary studies carried out in the United States. 



* A more extensive treatment of this subject is being prepared for publication else- 
where. 



74 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

THE NUTRIENTS OF FOOD. 
For the maintenance of life and activity the human machine 
requires material for the building and repair of its parts and 
for combustion to furnish heat and the energy required for 
external and internal muscular work. It is customary to 
classify the nutrients of the food into four groups — protein, 
fats, carbohydrates, and mineral matter or ash. 

PROTEIN — NITROGENOUS NUTRIENTS. 

The term protein is commonly applied to all the nitrogenous 
nutrients in the food with the exception of the nitrogenous 
fats. It includes a number of widely different groups of com- 
pounds with correspondingly different nutritive values. The 
protein compounds may be roughly divided into three groups. 
The first will include the most important of the nitrogenous 
nutrients, such as albumen of meat and egg, casein of milk, 
myosin of meat, gluten of wheat, etc., all of which are some- 
times grouped together as albuminoids. With these may be 
grouped also the so-called gelatinoids, such as chondrigen, 
gelatin, etc., derived from animal connective tissue. The 
members of this latter class are by some writers called pro- 
teids and by others albuminoids. Both of these classes are, 
in this article, grouped together as proteids. Distinguished 
from these are the third group, the non-proteids, including 
the creatin, creatinin and other so-called extractives of meat, 
and the amids, etc., of vegetable foods.* 

Sources and uses. — Protein is found in greater or less amounts 
in nearly all food materials, except the pure fats, sugars, and 
starches. The chief sources are meats, fish, eggs, and milk 
among the animal, and the legumes and cereals (beans and 
peas, wheat, corn, etc. ) among the vegetable food materials. 
The garden vegetables and fruits furnish a very small amount 
of protein, and even this has a low nutritive value on account 
of its large proportion of non-proteids. The protein of animal 
foods and the cereal grains is very largely composed of true 
proteids. Only these, and especially those here called albu- 
minoids as distinguished from the so-called gelatinoids, are 

* See discussion of this subject, with reference to authors, in U. S. Dept. Agr., Office 
of Experiment Stations, Bui. 65, p. 18. The terminology here employed is that adopted 
provisionally by the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 75 

capable of being transformed into nitrogenous body tissue, and 
thus go to form the blood, muscle, tendon, brain, nerves, etc. 
The non-proteids appear to have but little nutritive value, 
unless it be in some cases, for fuel. It ma3^ be that some of 
them have an especial value as sparers of protein, i. e., for 
protecting the protein of food or bod} r tissue from consump- 
tion. But too little is known of their functions to warrant 
very definite assumptions.* 

Proportion of proteids and noii-proteids. — In analyses of food 
materials by current methods it is the almost universal practice 
to take the product obtained by multiplying the total nitrogen 
of the food by 6.25 as a measure of the total nitrogenous mate- 
rial, i. e., protein; in other words, to assume that protein con- 
tains 16 per cent, nitrogen. This involves two errors. In 
the first place the proportion of nitrogen in the non-proteids 
taken collectively is greater than in the proteids, and multi- 
plying the nitrogen by 6.25 gives a value generally greater 
than the actual amount of nitrogenous material. In the sec- 
ond place the non-proteids have little nutritive value. Both 
these errors, therefore, tend to make the estimate of nutritive 
value too large. It would perhaps be better to leave the non- 
proteids out of account in estimating the nitrogenous, i. e., 
tissue- forming material of food. Unfortunately our present 
chemical methods for the separation of the proteids and non- 
proteids in food materials are unsatisfactory. The compara- 
tively few determinations now on record of the proportions in 
a given food material do not accord with each other and cannot 
be considered reliable. Until exact information concerning the 
proportion of proteids and non-proteids in different classes of 
food materials is obtained recourse must be had to the best 
data available. In flesh the proportion of non-proteids, i. e., 
so-called extractives or meat bases, appears to be larger than 
has sometimes been supposed, but the data upon the subject 
are very inadequate. 

The nitrogen in the cereal grains and their manufactured 
products is, like that of meats, mostly in the form of proteids, 
although a small proportion exists in the form of amids, of 



* It has been suggested that asparaghi may serve as nitrogenous nutriment for the 
intestinal bacteria and thus protect the proteids which- might otherwise be broken 
down. 



76 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

which asparagm may be taken as the type. The data con- 
cerning the proportions of these different nitrogenous com- 
pounds are few, but it appears from the work of Teller 1 , 
Snyder 2 , Wiley 3 , and others that not less than 96 per cent, of 
the nitrogen of the seeds of cereals (and probably the legumes) 
may be assumed as present in proteid combinations, and not 
over 4 per cent, in non-proteid combinations. 

While the proportion of non-proteids in animal foods and in 
the cereal grains and their manufactured products is relatively 
small, the quantit}^ in vegetables and fruits is at times large, 
so that in some cases as much as two-thirds of the total nitro- 
gen may occur in non-proteid forms. The methods of separa- 
tion are too unsatisfactory and the amount of data too small 
and conflicting to enable us to estimate the exact proportion of 
proteid and non-proteid nitrogen in the different vegetables 
and fruits. From the best information available we are led to 
the rough estimate that, in round numbers, 60 per cent, of the 
nitrogen in vegetables such as potatoes, turnips, cabbage, let- 
tuce and the like, and 70 per cent, of that in fruits occurs in 
proteid combinations. 

The nitrogeii factor of protein. — It has already been pointed out 
that the portion of nitrogen in protein compounds varies consid- 
erably. It has for a considerable time been the general custom 
to assume an average of 16 per cent, of nitrogen in protein, 
including both proteids and non-proteids. In other words the 
total nitrogen has been multiplied by the factor 6.25 to obtain 
the amount of protein in the given material. The proteids of 
muscular tissue, such as are found in ordinary meats, appear to 
contain, in general, about 16 per cent, and the non-proteids of 
such tissue a somewhat larger proportion of nitrogen. How- 
ever, neither the amount of these non-proteids nor their pro- 
portion of nitrogen seems to be sufficient to cause any large 
error in the use of the factor 6.25 for estimating the total pro- 
tein.* In the flesh of some kinds of fish, as the cod and more 
especially the skate, the total nitrogenous material seems to 



1. Arkansas Exp. Sta., Bui. No. 42, p. 100. 

2. Minn. Exp. Sta., Bui. No. 63, p. 52s. 

3. U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry, Bui. 13, Part IX., p. 1247. 

* This view is confirmed by the results (unpublished) of recent investigations by 
Prof. Grindley, Univ. of Illinois, in cooperation with the U. S. Dept. Agr. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 77 

-contain more than 16 per cent, nitrogen.* It is probable that 
on the whole the factor 6.25 gives a tolerably accurate meas- 
urement of the protein of fish. The same is doubtless true of 
eggs. The protein of cow's milk, according to the small num- 
ber of reliable investigations now available, appears to contain 
a trifle less than 16 per cent, of nitrogen, but hardly enough to 
warrant at present the use of any other factor than 6.25. It 
seems best, therefore, to retain this factor for the protein of all 
common animal food materials. 

The proteids of the cereal grains appear to contain on the 
average more than 16 per cent, of nitrogen. The proportion 
in different cereals has been the subject of study by a number 
of investigators, notably Osbornef in this country and Ritt- 
hausen| in Europe. Ritthausen in a review of this subject in 
1896 summarized the results of inquiry up to that time re- 
garding the proportions of nitrogen in different proteids. He 
grouped the cereals according to the average proportion of 
nitrogen in the total protein matter, making three classes, 
those containing approximately 17.5, 16.7 and 16 per cent, 
nitrogen respectively, or in other words, those in which the 
protein is computed by multiplying the nitrogen by the factor 
5.70, 6.00 and 6.25 respectively. Wiley§ has reviewed the 
work of Osborne upon the proteids of the different cereals and 
arrived at factors for the calculation of the protein in these 
products not materially different from those of Ritthausen. 
The grouping in Table 2 on page 79 conforms with the conclu- 
sions reached by these two investigators. 

We have found extremely few satisfactory data concerning 
the composition of the proteids of vegetables and fruits. In 
lack of more definite information concerning the exact propor- 
tion of nitrogen it seems best for the present to retain the cus- 
tomary factor, 6.25, for calculating the proteids, and, taking 
asparagin as the type of the non-proteids, to use the factor 4.7H 
for estimating their amount. 

The factor for estimating the total nitrogenous matter or 
protein from the total nitrogen will thus depend upon the 

* In the flesh of the skate this may perhaps be due to the accumulation of urea or 
allied compounds in the tissues. 

t Reports Conn. Agr. Exp. Sta., 1890, etseg. 

X Landw. Vers. Stat. 47 (1896), p. 391. 

§ U. S. Dept. Agr., Division of Chemistry, Bui. 13, Part IX., pp. 1171-1192. 

II Asparagin contains 21.2 per cent, nitrogen. 



78 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

proportions of proteids and non-proteids as well as upon the 
percentages of nitrogen in each. In the animal foods and in 
the cereal grains the difference between the amounts of true 
proteids and the amounts of protein, which include in addition 
the non-proteids, is so small that little error is introduced in 
multiplying the total nitrogen by the factor for the proteids 
in estimating the total protein. In considering the nutritive 
value of the nitrogenous matter of the vegetables and the 
fruits, however, the case is quite different, since the non- 
proteids appear to form something like one-fourth of the total 
nitrogenous matter. Indeed, in view of the fact that the pro- 
tein is commonly taken as the measure of the tissue forming 
material of the food, it might be more nearly correct to consider 
simply the proteids in the vegetables and fruits, either leaving 
the non-proteids out of account entirely or including them 
with the fats and carbohydrates as fuel ingredients. But since 
some of the non-proteids occurring in vegetables may have a 
special value as protectors of the protein of the body or of food 
from consumption there is a partial excuse for including them 
in the estimates for protein of these foods until more exact 
information regarding their composition and nutritive values 
shall accumulate. 

The nitrogen factor for vegetables and fruits, however, will 
be quite different from that for animal foods or for cereal 
products. If we suppose that 60 per cent, of the nitrogen of 
the vegetables is in proteid combination and 40 per cent, in 
non-proteid combination we may calculate the nitrogen factor 
in the following manner: One gram of nitrogen ma} 7 be con- 
sidered as representing .6 gram in proteid and .4 in non-pro- 
teid combination. The proteids corresponding to the .6 gram 
of nitrogen would be found by multiplying .6 by 6.25 and would 
amount to 3.75 grams. The .4 gram of non-proteid nitrogen 
may be assumed to exist in forms equivalent to asparagin 
containing 21 per cent, of nitrogen, corresponding to a protein 
factor of 4.7. This would give (.4X4.7=) 1.88 grams of 
non-proteids. The 1 gram of nitrogen would thus correspond 
to (3-75+ 1.88=) 5.63 grams of protein. For the present 
purpose we may assume that one gram of nitrogen in vegeta- 
bles corresponds to approximately 5.65 grams of protein. This 
makes the nitrogen factor 5.65. In a similar way the factor 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 79 

for calculating protein from the nitrogen of fruits is found to 
be 5.80. • 

In ordinary tables of percentage composition the values for 
protein in vegetables and fruits are calculated by use of the 
factor 6.25, which evidently gives too large results. It nat- 
urally follows that the figures for carbohydrates, which are 
obtained by difference, i. e., by subtracting the sum of the 
percentages of protein, fat, ash and water from 100, are too 
small by a corresponding amount. It is easy to compute the 
quantities of protein according to the factors above assumed 
from the quantities according to the factor 6.25 by multiplying 
by certain constant values. Thus protein as N. X 6.25 ma3^ be 
converted to protein as N. X 5.70 by multiplying by .912 and 
to protein as N. X 6.00 by multiplying by .950. 

The following table gives the factors here proposed for cal- 
culating the amounts of protein in different groups of food 
materials from the total nitrogen. In addition the factors for 
changing protein as N. X 6.25 to protein as N. X 5.70, 6.00, 
etc., are given. Where protein is changed from one basis to 
another, however, the difference between the old and the new 
value must be added to the carbohydrates. 

Table 2. 

Proposed nitrogen factors for the protein of different groups of 

food materials. 



Kind of Food Material. 


Factors here 
proposed. 


Factors for computing 
protein according to 
proposed factors from 
protein as N. X 6.25. 


Animal foods, - 

Wheat, rye, barley, and their manufac- 
tured products, - - - - 
Maize, oats, buckwheat, and rice, and 

their manufactured products, - 
Dried seeds of legumes, - - 
Vegetables, ----.-- 
Fruits, -------- 


6.25 
5 -70 

6.00 
6.25 
5.65 
5- So 


.912 

.960 

.904 
.928 



FATS AND CARBOHYDRATES — FUEL INGREDIENTS. 

The fats and carbohydrates in the food may be considered 
together in view of their similarity of use in the body. Their 
function is mainly that of fuel to yield energy for warmth and 



80 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

muscular work. Unlike the proteids they cannot form nitrog- 
enous tissue, though they are contained and stored in the fluids 
and tissues of the body. Thus large amounts of fat are stored 
in adipose or fatty tissue where it forms a reserve supply of 
fuel for future use. Both the fats and the carbohydrates, 
by being themselves consumed, spare the more essential and 
costly nitrogenous matter of food and body tissue from con- 
sumption. 



PROPORTIONS OF NUTRIENTS SUPPLIED BY DIFFERENT 

GROUPS OF FOOD MATERIALS IN THE 

AVERAGE DIET. 

In discussing the availability and fuel value of the nutrients 
of food we have to consider not simply the individual food 
materials or the groups into which the food materials may be 
classified, but also the proportions of these individual materials 
and groups in the average diet. What we wish to get at is the 
nutritive value of each kind of food as it is actually eaten as 
part of a mixed diet. Thus in certain digestion experiments 
milk has been found to be more completely digested and thus 
more iufty utilized when it is taken with bread than when it 
formed the sole diet. Furthermore different food materials or 
nutrients of different food materials differ considerably in di- 
gestibility and availability even when the conditions for utiliz- 
ing them are most favorable. If we wish to obtain figures for 
the average availability and fuel value of protein, fats and 
carbohydrates of ordinary diet we must know not only the 
availability and fuel value of each of the different kinds or 
classes of food materials, but also the proportion in which 
these occur in the diet and the proportions of the total protein, 
fats and carbohydrates that are obtained from each. These 
can be learned only by careful examination of a large number 
of dietary studies. Fortunately the results of some 250 such 
studies carried on in this country are now on record. Of these 
185 seem to the writers to be of such character as to warrant 
including them in making general estimates of the proportions 
of the different kinds or groups of food materials in the 
average diet and the proportional amounts of the different 
nutrients furnished by each group in the whole diet. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 8 1 

In examining the 185 studies they are first divided into 
classes according to the occupation of the persons studied. 
The majority of the studies were of families of day laborers, 
mechanics, farmers, professional men, etc. There were also a 
number of dietaries of boarding houses and of college students' 
clubs, and a few of individuals or special groups of persons, 
especially of athletes, as rowing crews, foot-ball teams and bicy- 
cle racers. They were made in different parts of the United 
States, from Maine to California. All belong to the nutrition 
investigations which have been carried out for some years past 
under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Agriculture by 
investigators connected with a considerable number of educa- 
tional and scientific institutions.* 

The food materials used in each dietary were divided into 
the following groups: 

Beef and veal, Corn meal, rye and buckwheat flour, 

Mutton and lamb, Oat meal, rice and wheat preparations, 

Pork, Wheat flour, bread, crackers, pastry, etc., 

Poultry, Starch, 



Fish, 




Sugar, 


Eggs, 




Dried legumes, 


Butter, 




Potatoes and sweet potatoes, 


Cheese, 




Other vegetables, 


Milk and 


cream, 


Fruits. 



The published statistics of each study show the total weights 
of the nutrients — protein, fats and carbohydrates — in each food 
material in each dietary. From these data the total weights of 
nutrients in each group of food materials were found. From 
these figures for total weights of protein, fats and carbohy- 
drates in the different groups — beef and veal, dairy products, 
cereals, vegetables, etc., there were computed the percentages 
which these weights formed of the total amount of protein, 
fats and carbohydrates in the diet. In a similar manner the 
statistics of the total food materials in each dietary were used 
for calculating the percentages of the whole occurring in each 
group of materials. 

Having thus found the proportion of total foods and the 
different nutrients that were furnished by the different kinds 
or groups of food materials in each dietary, the averages 

* The original data are to be found in the Nutrition publications of the Office of 
Experiment Stations and in the Reports of this Station. 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



were compared for all the dietaries of each class and finally 
for all the 185 dietaries. These final averages are shown in 

Table 3.* 

Table 3. 

Relative proportions of total food and of total nutrients supplied by 
different groups of food ?naterials in average of 185 dietary 
studies. 





Kind of Food Material. 


Total 
Food. 


Protein. 


Fat. 


Carbo- 
hy- 
drates. 


Beef and veal, - 
Mutton and lamb, - 

Pork, - - 

Poultry, - - - - - - 

Fish, shell fish, etc., - 


% 
10.3 
1.4 
5-4 
I. r 
1.9 


% 

24.6 

3-3 
8.8 
2.6 
3-7 


% 
19.5 

3-8 
30.O 

1.2 

.8 


% 

. I 


Total meat, etc., - . - 


20.I 


43-0 


55-3 


.1 


Eggs, ------- 


3-0 


5-9 


4-3 


— 


Butter, ------ 

•Cheese, ------ 


1.9 
•4 


.2 
1.6 


19.7 
1.6 


— 


Milk and cream, - * - 


19.9 


10.5 


10.7 


5-3 


Total dairy products, ... 


22.2 


12.3 


32.0 


5-3 


Total animal food, - 


45.3 


61.2 


91.6 


5.4 


Cornmeal, rye, and buckwheat flour, 
Oatmeal, rice, and wheat preparations, - 
Wheat flour, bread, crackers, pastry, etc., 


1.8 

i-3 

18.7 


1.9 

2.1 
26.5 


• 4 

.6 

6.0 


5-2 

3.6 

45-9 


Total cereal products, - - - 


21.8 


30.5 


7.0 


54-7 


Starch, ------- 


. 1 


— 


— 


.2 


Sugar, ------- 

Dried legumes, - 


5-5 
.6 


2.0 


. 1 


21 .0 
1.3 


Potatoes and sweet potatoes, 

Other vegetables, - - - - - 


13-7 
7-4 


3-9 
1.8 


■3 

■4 


10. 

2.5 


Total vegetables, - 


21. 1 


5-7 


• 7 


12.5 


Fruits, ------- 


5-6 


.6 


.6 


4-9 


Total vegetable food, - - - 


54.7 


38.8 


8.4 


94.6 


Total food, ----- 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



It thus appears that, in the average of these 185 dietaries, 
not far from 43 per cent, of the protein was furnished by meats 



* The detailed figures from which the averages are computed will probably be given, 
with a more complete discussion of the subject in a Bulletin of the Office of Experi- 
ment Stations. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 83 

and fish, 6 per cent, by eggs and 12 per cent, by dairy prod- 
ucts, making a total of 61 per cent, from animal food materials. 
Of the remaining 39 per cent, which came from the vegetable 
food materials, 30 per cent, was supplied by the cereals, 2 per 
cent, by the dried legumes, 6 per cent, bjr garden vegetables 
including potatoes, and 1 per cent, by fruits. More than 90 
per cent, of the fat was of animal origin, and more than half 
came from meats, while nearly one-third was furnished by 
dairy products. On the other hand only a little over one- 
twentieth (5.5 per cent.) of the carbohydrates was of animal 
origin, while 55 per cent, came from the cereal products. It is 
a little surprising to note that over one-fifth of the total carbo- 
hydrates in these 185 dietaries studied was furnished by cane 
sugar, molasses, etc. 

How closely these figures represent the average diet it is 
impossible to say. There is a large proportion of the popula- 
tion of the southern states, including the bulk of the colored 
people and of the poorer whites in the country districts, who 
live mainly upon corn meal, fat pork and molasses. A consid- 
erable number of dietaries of the people of these districts have 
been studied, but they are not included in the 185 studies 
above summarized. There may be other exceptions also, but 
it seems to us probable that these figures in Table 3 are not 
very far from a fair representation of the actual distribution of 
the different food materials and nutrients in the average diet of 
persons of the industrial, commercial, and professional classes 
in the United States. 



THE AVAILABILITY OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF 
NUTRIENTS IN FOOD OF MIXED DIET. 

The value of food for nutriment depends not only upon the 
total amounts of nutrients but also upon the amounts which 
the body can make available for its support. The proportions 
of the different nutrients which the body can digest and utilize 
from different food materials are learned by digestion experi- 
ments. Such experiments involve the accurate measurement 
of the amounts of the different kinds of nutrients consumed in 
the food, during a given period and the corresponding amounts 
excreted in the feces. This last material is made up of the 



84 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

undigested residue of the food, and of trie so-called metabolic 
products. The latter consists mainly of residues of the diges- 
tive juices. L,ater research has shown that in man the actual 
amount of undigested nutrients makes up relatively a much 
smaller portion of the intestinal excretion than was formerly 
■ supposed. Indeed some investigators are inclined to take the 
ground that the nutrients in ordinary food materials, properly 
prepared, are almost wholly digested by persons in health, and 
that the solid excreta are almost entirely made up of the so- 
called metabolic products and residues from the alimentary 
canal.* While the feces do not give an exact measure of 
either the actual amount of the different nutrients which re- 
main undigested in their passage through the alimentary canal 
or of the amounts of digestive juices used for the digestion, 
they do give us a measure of the availability of the food for 
use in the body. If the same quantities of two different food 
materials require the same amounts of digestive juices to pre- 
pare them for absorption, but the first is more completely 
digested, i. e., leaves less undigested residue than the second, 
the first is more available. So likewise if both are equally 
digestible but the former requires more of the digestive juices 
to digest it, it may be regarded as really supplying a less 
amount of available material to the body. 

The experimental data as to the digestibility of different 
kinds of nutrients in different classes of food materials are as 
yet limited. There are on record a considerable number of 
digestion experiments with men. In some of these single food 
materials were used. In others an ordinary mixed diet of 
more or less varied character was employed. The experiments 
with single food materials or with very simple mixed diet give 
data for estimating the coefficients of availability of the nutri- 
ents of individual food materials. From such data we have 
prepared tentative coefficients for the availability of the nutri- 
ents of a number of the more common kinds of food materials 
such as meats, milk, wheat bread, potatoes, etc. It is, how- 
ever, a question whether these coefficients could be correetby 
applied to the same food materials when they are eaten in the 



* See discussion of this subject in Storrs Reports, 1S96, p. 163 and 1897, p. 154. This 
matter will also be discussed in more detail in a future bulletin of the Office of Exper- 
iment Stations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 85 

usual way as components of an ordinary mixed diet. Fortu- 
nately we have a means for obtaining a reasonably definite 
idea as to their accuracy under the latter conditions. There 
are now on record the results of about 100 American digestion 
experiments with men on mixed diet. Most of these were 
conducted by Prof. C. E. Wait at the University of Tennessee, 
Knoxville, and b)^ the writers and associates. In these ex- 
periments 13 persons have served as subjects. The diet in 
each case was simple and made up of common food materials, 
and was entirely normal in amount, proportions of ingredients 
* and method of cooking. In each experiment the ingredients 
of the feces were compared with the total amounts of nutrients 
in the food. The coefficients of availability thus obtained 
apply therefore to the total food eaten and not to the individ- 
ual food materials. Now if the coefficients of availability 
which were assumed for the different kinds of food materials 
as above described represent the actual availabilit)^ of the same 
materials when they are eaten in mixed diet, then by applying 
them to the materials consumed in these experiments we 
should get estimated results which would agree with those 
found by experiment. We ma3^ therefore use the agreement 
or disagreement of the estimated availabilit)^ of the total nu- 
trients of the diet used in these experiments with the results 
actually found as a measure of the correctness of the assumed 
coefficients of availability. This has actually been done. 
Using the coefficients as first assumed there was some discrep- 
ancy between the computed and experimental results. The 
coefficients were slightly altered, the change being such as 
seemed to us most probably correct and the computations were 
repeated. In this way coefficients were found which brought 
results agreeing very closely with those of actual experiments. 

In selecting coefficients for availability, food materials were 
divided into the following groups: (1) Animal food materials, 
as meats, fish, milk, etc. (2) Cereals such as wheat flour, 
corn (maize) meal, etc. (3) Sugars and starches. (4) Veg- 
etables, as potatoes, cabbage, turnips, etc. (5) Fruits. 

The coefficients of availability assumed are shown in the 
following table.* 



* The details of the calculations of which this and the following tables summarize 
the results will probably appear in a Bulletin of the Office of Experiment Stations. 



86 storrs agricultural experiment station. 

Table 4. 

Coefficients of availability of nutrients of different groups of food 

materials and of total nutrients of mixed diet. 

1 

Carbo- 
hydrates. 



98 



Animal foods, ------- j 97 95 

Cereals, -------- 85 90 

Legumes, dried, -..-.-_ 78 90 

Sugars and starches, ----- — — 

Vegetables, ------ i 83 90 

Fruits, -------- S5 90 

Vegetable foods. ------ 84 90 97 

Total food, ------- 92 95 97 

In applying the assumed factors for availability (coefficients 
of availability) to the results of actual digestion experiments 
with men upon mixed diet the method employed was in brief 
as follows: ■ The amount of available protein, for example, 
was calculated upon the assumption that 97 per cent, of the 
protein in animal food, 85 per cent, of that in cereal food, 78 
per cent, of that in the dried legumes, 83 per cent, of that in 
vegetables and 85 per cent, of that in fruits can be utilized by 
the body. The sum of the amounts of protein thus computed 
as available in the different groups divided by the total amount 
of protein in the food eaten gives the calculated coefficient of 
availability. The computed coefficients of availabilit}' for the 
fats and carbohydrates were obtained in a similar manner. 

The average variations between the coefficients as found and 
as calculated are inconsiderable. In some individual experi- 
ments they reached 5 per cent, for one or more nutrients. In 
some cases the calculated values were larger, in others they 
were smaller than those found by experiment. These vari- 
ations in individual experiments are not at all surprising. 
Different specimens of the same food material may differ in 
availability with differences in composition and method of 
cooking, just as different persons ufay vary in their capacity 
to digest the food. But these minor variations disappear in 
the average of a large number of experiments, as is seen in the 
figures for all the experiments together. In the whole 93 
experiments averaged in the above table the coefficients for 
the availability of protein were 93.3 as found, against 93.6 as 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL, VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 87 



calculated; the corresponding figures for the fats were 95.0 
against 94.5, and for carbohydrates 97.7 against 98.1. These 
agreements seem to us to be reasonably close. 

Table 5 gives a summary of the calculated availability of 
the different nutrients in 93 digestion experiments with the 
coefficients found by actual experiment. 

Table 5. 
Summary of comparison of coefficients of availability as found by 
actual experiment and as calculated by the proposed factors 
for availability . 



03 




Protein. 


Fi> 


T. 


Carbohy- 
drates. 


6 


Experiments. 


•6 




u 





a 


a 


6 


■6 

V 

is 


"3 
u 




At Middletown, Conn. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


6 
12 


Metabolism experiments (i), 1896-7, 
Preliminary to metabolism experi- 


93-2 


92.2 


96.7 


94-7 


98.4 


97-5 


14 


ment (1), 1S98-9, - 
Metabolism experiments (1), 1898-9, 
At Knoxville, Tenn. 


92.5 
93-9 


93-3 
93-5 


93-7 
94.8 


94-3 
94.3 


97-7 
97-9 


97-9 
98.0 


9 


Digestion and metabolism experi- 














23 


ments (2), 1896-7, 
Digestion and metabolism experi- 


93-9 


93.8 


94.6 


94-6 


97.2 


98. 1 


24 


ments (2), 1S97-8, 
Digestion and metabolism experi- 


94-4 


93-3 


96.2 


94.6 


97-4 


98.2 


5 
93 


ments (2), 1898-9, 
Miscellaneous experiments (3), 
Average of all above experiments, - 


Q2.3 
91.8 
93.3 


94.0 
92.2 
93.6 


94-9 
93.6 

95.0 


94-4 
94-3 
94.5 


97.8 

97-9 
97.7 


9^-3 
97-4 
98.1 



( 1 ) With men in respiration calorimeter. 

(2) With men at work and without active muscular work. 

(3) With men, Minneapolis, Minn., Knoxville, Tenn., and Middletown, Conn. 

It may be that these figures by themselves give an exagger- 
ated idea of the accuracy and value of such computations. 
There is more or less guess work in the method of estimating 
the coefficients of availability. It may be largely a matter of 
coincidence that these particular figures bring results agreeing 
so closely with those of actual experiment. It may be, for 
instance, that some of the coefficients of availability of indi- 
vidual nutrients of the different kinds of food materials are 
reallv wide of the mark and that the agreements which are so 



88 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

close in these particular instances are due to an accidental bal- 
ancing of errors. We do not assume that the coefficients of 
Table 4 represent the actual availability of the nutrients of the 
different kinds of food materials under all circumstances or in 
all of the food materials of any given class. It does seem 
to us, however, that such comparisons as those in Table 5 
indicate that these coefficients represent a reasonably close 
approximation to the actual availability in the average mixed 
diet. 



HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF NUTRIENTS. 

The potential energy of any given substance is usually taken 
as equivalent to its heats of combustion determined by burn- 
ing a known weight of the substance in oxygen. The actual 
amount of energy which the body can obtain from a given 
food material or diet depends upon various factors, the chief 
of which are the amounts and potential energy of the available 
nutrients of the food and the amount of incompletely oxidized 
material rejected in the urine. 

The heats of combustion of a very large number of indi- 
vidual food materials have been determined, but the data con- 
cerning the heats of combustion of definite chemical compounds 
occurring in the food of man are much more limited. It is to 
Stohmann, Berthelot, and their associates that we are indebted 
for by far the greater part of the data now available, although 
within a few years a considerable number of determinations 
have been made in this country, mostly in connection with 
the nutrition investigations carried on under the auspices of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.* 

HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF PROTEIDS, NON-PROTEIDS, AND 
PROTEIN OF FOOD MATERIALS. 

The heat of combustion of different proteids varies within 
certain limits, but is in all cases much larger than that of the 



* See summaries of results of these inquiries as given by Stohmann, U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Experiment Station Record, Vol. VI., p. 590; by Berthelot iu Thermochimie, 
Vol. II., and by Atwater in Bulletin No. 21, TJ. S. Dept. Agr., Office of Experiment 
Stations. 

It is expected that details of a compilation of the heats of combustion of different 
compounds and groups of compounds occurring in food materials will be published 
in the near future iu a Bulletin of the Office of Experiment Stations. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 89 

more common non-proteids. The heat of combustion of the 
protein of any given food material will depend to some extent 
upon the kinds of proteids and of non-proteids which furnish 
the nitrogen from which the protein is estimated, but more 
especially upon the proportion in which these two classes of 
compounds occur, and unless we have direct data concerning 
the heat of combustion of the protein this value must be com- 
puted after much the same method as was adopted in estimat- 
ing the nitrogen factor for protein (see pages 76-80). 

The heat of combustion of fat-free muscular tissue, from 
which the extractives, i. e., the non-proteids, have been re- 
moved, gives us a tolerably good idea of the potential energy 
of the protein of meats. The average value obtained for such 
protein is about 5.65 calories per gram. The heat of combus- 
tion of meat proteids appears to be noticeably higher, averag- 
ing not far from 5.75 calories per gram. Creatinmay be taken 
as a type of the non-proteids of meats with a heat of combustion 
of 4.27 calories per gram. If we had satisfactory data concern- 
ing the proportions of creatin and other extractives in muscular 
tissues we could calculate the energy per gram of meat protein, 
but at present the heat of combustion of fat-free muscular 
tissue from which the extractives have not been removed gives 
us the most satisfactory value for this quantity. Concerning 
the heats of combustion of the proteids or protein of fish we 
have almost no data. It is assumed in this article that their 
heat of combustion is practically the same as that of the corre- 
sponding compounds in meats. Eggs are commonly assumed 
to have less of non-proteids than meats, and the heat of com- 
bustion would naturally be larger. The average heat of com- 
bustion of egg albumin appears to be about 5.70, and of protein 
of the nitrogenous matter of the yolk 5.80 calories per gram. 
It is probable, therefore, that the heat of combustion of the 
protein of egg is not far from 5.75 calories per gram. Con- 
cerning the heat of combustion of the protein of milk the data 
are somewhat conflicting. Casein as prepared in different ways 
has a heat of combustion of from 5.6 to 5.9 calories per gram. 
It has been assumed in the present article that the heat of com- 
bustion of milk protein is the same as that of muscular tissue, 
namely, 5.65 calories per gram. 



90 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The heats of combustion of vegetable proteids must be esti- 
mated largely from those of gluten, glutenin, gliadin, legumin, 
and plant fibrin, which are the principal proteid compounds 
of vegetable origin of which we find the heats of combustion 
reported.* Asparagin may be taken as a type of the non- 
proteids of vegetable foods, with a heat of combustion of 3.45 
calories per gram. The heats of combustion of the protein of 
vegetable food materials will depend chiefly upon the propor- 
tions of proteids and non-proteids. In computing the heat of 
combustion of the protein of cereals we may assume 4 per cent, 
of the nitrogen of cereals as occurring in non-proteid com- 
pounds (see page 76). The proteids of cereal foods may be 
assumed to have a heat of combustion of not far from 5.9 
calories per gram. In other words, about 96 per cent, of the 
weight of the protein of wheat flour, maize meal, buckwheat, 
etc., would have a total energy value of 5.9 calories per gram 
and the remaining 4 per cent, a value of 3.45 calories per 
gram. This would make the heat of combustion of one gram 
of protein of cereal food materials approximately 5.80 calories 
per gram.f 

Concerning the heat of combustion of the dried legumes we 
have little information. Assuming that 96 per cent, of the 
nitrogen of the dried legumes is in proteid and 4 per cent, in 
non-proteid combination, and that the heat of combustion of 
the proteids is that of samples of legumin which have been 
burned in the bomb calorimeter, namely, 5.8 calories per 
gram, we may assume the heat of combustion of one gram 
of protein of these materials to be not far from 5.70 calories 
per gram .| 

* See Table 6. 

t The details of the computations are as follows: 

i g. N. = .96 g. in proteids and .04 g. in non-proteids. 

Then .96 x 5.70 = 5.47 g. proteids x 5.90 = - - 32.3 calories, 

and .04 x 4.70 = .19 g. non-proteids x 3.45 = - .6 calories, 

or 5.66 g. protein = - - - - 32.9 calories, 
and 1. 00 g. protein =5.81 calories. 

X The details of the computations are as follows: 

1 g. N. = .96 g. in proteids and .04 g. in non-proteids. 

Then .96 x 6.25 = 6.00 g. proteids x 5.80 = - - 34.8 calories, 

and .04x4.70= .19 g. non-proteids x 3.45 = - .6 calories, 

or 6.19 g. protein = - - - - 35.4 calories, 
and 1. 00 g. protein = 5.72 calories. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 9 1 

It has already been shown that the relative amount of non- 
proteids in the protein of vegetables and fruits is large. The 
potential energy of the protein of these foods is therefore rela- 
tively small owing to the low heat value of the non-proteids. 
Assuming 40 per cent, of the nitrogen in potatoes and other 
vegetables to exist in non-proteid compounds of which aspar- 
agin may be taken as the type, and 60 per cent, in proteids, 
with a heat of combustion of 5.8 calories per gram, the heat of 
combustion of one gram of vegetable protein or total nitrog- 
enous matter would be about 5.00 calories.* 

Since the nitrogenous matter of fruits appears to contain pro- 
portionatety smaller amounts of the non-proteids than that of 
the vegetables, the heat of combustion of one gram of protein 
will be correspondingly greater. This heat of combustion maj^ 
be computed upon the assumption that 30 per cent, of the 
nitrogen exists in non-proteid form of which asparagin may 
be taken as the type, and is approximately 5.20 calories 
per gram.f 

In the following table are given the average heats of com- 
bustion per gram of some of the proteids and non-proteids and 
the computed values for protein of different groups of food 
materials. 



* The details of the computations are as follows: 

1 g. N. = .6 in proteids and .4 g. in non-proteids. 

Then .6 x 6.25 = 3.75 g. proteids x 5.80 = - - 21.8 calories, 

and .4 x 4.70 := 1.88 g. non-proteids x 3.45 = - 6.5 calories, 

or 5-63 S- protein =: ... 28.3 calories, 

and 1. 00 g. protein = 5.03 calories. 

t The details of the computations are as follows: 

1 g. N. = .7 g. in proteids and .3 in non-proteids. 

Then .7 x 6.25 = 4.38 g. proteids x 5.80 = - - 25.4 calories, 

and .3 x 4.70 — 1. 41 g. non-proteids x 3.45 = - 4.9 calories, 

or 5-79 S- protein = ... 30.3 calories, 

and 1. 00 g. protein — 5.23 calories. 



9 2 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 6. 

Average determined heat of combustion of proteids and non-pro- 

teids and calculated heat of combustion of protein. 



Kind of Material. 


Heat of Combustion 
Per Gram. 


. Assumed 
Determined. or ca i cu i ate d. 


Beef, fat-free muscle, -._--- 
Beef, fat-free muscle, extractives removed, 
Veal, fat-free muscle, - 
Mutton, fat-free muscle, ----- 

Protein of meat, ------ 

Egg albumin, ------- 

Egg, protein of yolk, - 

Vitellin, - 

Protein of egg, -------- 

Milk casein, _.---..-- 
Milk protein, ------- 

Protein of dairy products, - 

Gliadin, -------- 

Gluten of wheat, ------ 

Legumiu, -------- 

Plant fibrin, ------- 

Protein of cereals (96 % proteids), 

Protein of legumes (96 % proteids), - 

Protein of vegetables (60 % proteids), 

Protein of fruits (70 % proteids), - - - 

Gelatin, -------- 

Creatin, as type of non-proteids of animal foods, 
Asparagin, as type of non-proteids of vegetable [ 
foods, - - - - - - - j 


Calories. Calories. 

5-65 — 
5-73 
5.65 

5.60 — 
5.65 
5-7i — 
5.84 
5.76 

— 5-75 
5.63 to 5.86 

5.67 

5.65 
5-92 — 
5-S8 - 
5-95 

5-79 — 
5.89 

— 5-So 
5-7o 

— 5-oo 

— 5 .20 
5-27 — 
4.27 — 

3-45 — 



HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF FATS OF DIFFERENT FOOD MATERIALS. 

In determining the amount of fat in a food material the sub- 
stance is commonly extracted with ether. The ether extract, 
however, is apt to contain more or less material not actually- 
fat and with a lower calorific value. On the other hand, with 
some food materials, e.g., meats, with a large proportion of 
fat, the extraction by ether is sometimes incomplete, so that 
the fat obtained is less than the actual amount in the material. 

The heat of combustion of the pure fats (triglycerids) of 
ordinary meats has been found to vary little from 9.5 calories 
per gram, while that of butter-fat averages not far from 9.25 
calories per gram, and that of the fats and oils of ordinary veg- 
etable foods about 9.3 calories per gram. The values for the 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 93 



corresponding ether extracts are somewhat smaller. In esti- 
mating a factor for the heat of combustion of the fat in different 
kinds of food materials it may be assumed that the error intro- 
duced by the fact that ether extract represents other materials 
than fat which have a lower heat of combustion is offset by 
the incomplete extraction of fat, so that these two errors tend 
to compensate each other. In other words, taking the ether 
extract as a measure of the fat of food materials we may assume 
a heat of combustion of 9.5 calories per gram for all animal 
foods except dairy products, the heat of combustion of which 
appears to be about 9.25 calories per gram, while the vegetable 
fats and oils may be assumed to have a heat of combustion of 
9.3 calories per gram. 

The heats of combustion of different kinds of fats and oils as 
found by various observers and the factors here assumed for the 
fat of different groups of food materials are shown in Table 7. 

Table 7. 

Average determined heat of combustion of fats arid oils and assumed 

factors for fat of different groups of food materials. 



Kind of Material. 



Beef fat, - 

Beef, '"' ether extract," 

Mutton fat, 

Mutton, " ether extract," - 

Pork fat, - - - - 

Pork, " ether extract," 

Lard, ... - 

Cottolene, ... 

Butter fat, 

Wheat oil, - - - 

Wheat, " ether extract," - 

Rye oil, - 

Rye, '' ether extract," 

Maize oil, - 

Oats, " ether extract," 

Barley, " ether extract," - 

Nut oil (except cocoanut), 

Olive oil, - - - 

Cocoanut oil, - - - 

Fat of meat, fish, eggs, etc., 

Fat of dairy products, 

Fat of cereals, - - - 

P"at of vegetables and fruits, 



Heat of Combustion 


Per Gram. 


Determined. 


Assumed 
or calculated. 


Calories. 


Calories. 


Q.5° 


— 


9.24 


— 


9-51 


— 


9-32 


— 


9.50 


— 


9-13 


— 


9-59 


— 


9-32 


— 


9-27 


— 


9-36 


— 


9.07 


— 


9-32 


— 


9.20 


— 


9.28 


— 


8.93 


— 


9.07 


— 


9-49 


— 


9-47 


— 


9.07 


— 


— 


9-50 


— 


9.25 


— 


9-30 




9-30 



94 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

HEATS OP COMBUSTION OF CARBOHYDRATES OF DIFFERENT 
FOOD MATERIALS. 

The ordinary meats and fish used for food contain very little 
of carbohydrates. Muscular tissue has a small quantity of 
glycogen, but in ordinary analyses it is usually not taken into 
account. As has already been stated, the protein as computed 
by the usual factor for animal foods (6.25) is probably slightly 
too large. On the other hand, the fuel value* of muscular 
tissue is not far different from that of glycogen. Hence the 
error involved in neglecting the glycogen in meats and fish as 
is ordinarily done is of little practical importance. The pro- 
portion of glycogen in the livers of animals used for food, and 
in oysters and other shell fish, is considerable. The amount 
of these food materials consumed in the ordinary diet is, how- 
ever, relatively small. The heat of combustion of the glycogen 
can be taken at 4.2 calories per gram. 

Milk contains a relatively large amount of milk sugar. .The 
figures for heat of combustion of milk sugar now on record are 
not in agreement. We may take the factor 3.9 as most nearly 
representing the heat of combustion per gram of the carbo- 
hydrates of dairy products, and since in the ordinary diet the 
quantity of glycogen is relatively very small, this same factor 
(3.9) may be considered as an approximate average of the 
heats of combustion of all carbohydrates occurring in animal 
food materials. 

The carbohydrates of the vegetable food materials consist 
largely of starch, sugar and fiber (cellulose), with smaller 
amounts of pentosans, dextrins, gums, etc. In flours and 
meals the carbohydrates consist almost entirely of starch. 
From the data available it seems probable that on the whole 
we shall not err greatly in assuming that 97 per cent, of the 
carbohydrates of cereal products is starch (and fiber), 2 per 
cent, dextrin, and 1 per cent, sugar. While the fiber is not 
as digestible as the starch, and would therefore not have as 
high fuel value, it occurs in such small quantities as to be of 
little importance in the cereal products as ordinarily used for 
the food of man. 

The heat of combustion of starch (and fiber or cellulose) is 
about 4.2, that of dextrin 4.1, and that of cane sugar 3.96 

* See p. 96, el seq. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 95 

calories per gram. Since the heat of combustion of dextrin 
and sugar is not greatly different from that of starch, and the 
amount in the cereal food materials relatively, small in amount, 
the heat of combustion of the carbohydrates of these materials 
may be taken at 4.2 calories per gram. 

The carbohydrates of the ripe seeds of the legumes like those 
of the cereals consist very largely of starch with more or less 
fiber, and the heat of combustion is here taken as 4.2 calories 
per gram. The food materials consisting largely of starch, 
such as corn starch, tapioca, etc., may also be assumed to have 
a similar heat of combustion per gram of carbohydrates. 

The heat of combustion of the glucoses averages not far from 
3.75 and of sucrose 3.96 calories per gram. It is here assumed 
that the heat of combustion of cane sugar, and the sugars of 
sirup, molasses, etc., may be taken as 3.95 calories per gram. 

The carbohydrates of vegetables such as potatoes, turnips, 
squash, etc., consist very largely of starch and cellulose with 
more or less sugars. The quantity of sugar in beets and pars- 
nips is considerable, that in potatoes and turnips insignificant 
in amount. There is probably a larger proportion of pentosans 
in the carbohydrates of vegetables than in that of the cereals. 
The heat of combustion of the pentosans appears to be rather 
higher than that of the polyhexoses, and may perhaps offset 
the lower heat of combustion of the sugars. In lack of more 
definite data it is here assumed that the average heat of com- 
bustion of one gram of carbohydrates of vegetables is, like that 
of cereals and legumes, 4.2 calories per gram. 

When we come to consider the carbotrydrates of fruits, how- 
ever, allowance must be made for the large proportion of 
sugars chiefly dextrose and levulose, the heats of combustion 
of which are considerably smaller than of the starches. There 
are at the same time certain amounts of starch, pentosans and 
cellulose, which tend to increase the heats of combustion of 
the mixed carbohydrates of fruits. In the light of these con- 
siderations it would seem that the average heat of combustion 
of the carbohydrates occurring in fruits might be not far from 
4.0 calories per gram. 

In the following table the heats of combustion of some of the 
principal kinds of carbohydrates and the values here assumed 
for the carbohydrates of different kinds of food materials are 



96 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



tabulated. It is of course to be understood that these factors, 
like those for protein and fats, are simply tentative, based upon 
the best data we have been able to obtain. 

Table 8. 
Average determined heats of combustion of different carbohydrates 
and assumed factors for carbohydrates of different groups of 
food materials . 



Kind of Material. 



Pentoses, --------- 

Dextrose, -------- 

Levulose, -------- 

Cane sugar, ------- 

Milk sugar, ------- 

Cellulose, -------- 

Starch, -------- 

Dextrin, -------- 

Glycogen, -------- 

Carbohydrates of animal foods, meats, dairy pro- ) 
ducts, etc., - - - - - - \ 

Carbohydrates of cereals, - - - - - 

Carbohydrates of legumes, - 

Sugars, -------- 

Starches, -------- 

Carbohydrates of vegetables, ... - 
Carbohydrates of fruits, - 



Heat of Combustion 
Per Gram. 



Determined. 



Assumed 
or calculated. 



Calories. 



3.72 to 4.38 
3-75 



3-90 

4.20 
4.20 

3-95 
4.20 
4.20 
4.00 



TESTS OF ACCURACY OF PROPOSED FACTORS FOR HEATS OF 
COMBUSTION. 

The figures of Tables 6, 7, and 8, taken in connection with 
the percentage composition of an}' given food material, enable 
us to compute its heat of combustion. If the heat of combus- 
tion has been actually determined by the bomb calorimeter 
it gives a means of testing the accuracy of the factors thus 
assumed. Many analyses of food materials in which the heat 
of combustion was determined are available for this purpose. 
A large portion of these have been made in connection with 
the investigations upon the food and nutrition of man carried 
on under the auspices of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, in cooperation with this and other experiment sta- 
tions and educational institutions. Table 9 shows the computed 
and determined heat of combustion in 276 samples of food 
materials, 220 of which were anatyzed in this laboratory and 
the remainder by Prof. Grindley of the University of Illinois. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 97 



The number of analyses in this comparison might be largely 
increased, but it is believed that a sufficient number have been 
taken to show the agreement between the computed and deter- 
mined values. The method of computing the heat of combus- 
tion of the different materials was as follows: In a sample of 
wheat bread, for example, the water-free substance contained 
14.8 per cent, protein, 2.9 per cent, fat, and 80.2 per cent, 
carbohydrates, and had a heat of combustion, as actually deter- 
mined, of 4.529 calories per gram. One gram of the water- free 
material contains, therefore, .148, .029, and .802 grams of pro- 
tein, fats, and carbohydrates respectively, and its heat of com- 
bustion as computed from the factors given in Tables 6, 7, and 
8 would be (.149 X 5.80 + .029 X 9.30 + .802 X 4.20 =) 
4,502 calories per gram. All of the comparisons have been 
made on the basis of the water-free material. 

Table 9. 

Comparison of heats of combustion, as calculated by use of the 

above factors with results found by actual experiment. 





Number 


Avg. Heat of Combustion 


Calculated 




of 


Per Gram of 


results in 


Kind of Food Material. 


analyses 
included 


Water-free 


Substance. percentages 




in 
average. 


Determined. 


Calculated. 


determined. 






Calories. 


Calories. 


% 


Beef, - - - - 


55 


6507 


6619 


IOI.7 


Beef, canned, - - - 


7 


6197 


6268 


IOI .2 


Mutton, - 


10 


7146 


7316 


IO2.4 


Pork, - - - 


10 


7835 


7944 


101 .4. 


Poultry, - - - - 


5 


6310 


0508 


IO3. I 


Fish, - 


3 


D3I7 


6427 


101. 8 


Eggs, - - - - 


10 


7I03 


7160 


100.8 


Butter, - - - - 


20 


8832 


8918 


101 .0 


Milk, - 


37 


5437 


5413 


99.6 


Breakfast foods, 


3 


4367 


4360 


99.8 


Bread, crackers, etc., 


36 


4536 


4513 


99-5 


Corn (maize) meal and corn ) 


7 


4580 


4624 ' 


101.0 


preparations, - - J 










Rye preparations, 


6 


4353 


4343 


99-8 


Barley preparations, 


2 


4352 


4365 


100.3 


Rice, - 


5 


439° 


4474 


101 .9 


Oatmeal (rolled oats), 


2 


4834 


4811 


99-5 


Oatmeal, cooked, 


6 


4488 


4480 


99.8 


Wheat, pastry, 


8 


4579 


4605 


100.6 


Legumes, fresh, 


8 


4367 


4361 


99-9 


Legumes, cooked, 


5 


4312 


4343 


100.7 


Vegetables, fresh. 


10 


4195 


4051 


96.6 


Vegetables, cooked, - 


3 


4057 


4277 


105.4 


Vegetables, canned, - 


2 


4264 


4102 


96.2 


Fruits, fresh, - 


12 


4389 


4123 


93-9 


Fruits, canned. 


4 


4078 


4056 


99-5 


Average 276 samples, - 






— 


100.3 



98 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

There were at times quite marked variations between the heats 
of combustion actually found and those calculated, amounting 
in some cases to as much as 5 or even 6 per cent, of the former 
value. On the whole, however, the agreement is as close as 
could well be expected when we consider the relatively small 
amount of data upon which some of the assumptions involved 
in deriving the factors are based, and when we consider, on the 
other hand, the possibility of errors in the chemical analyses. 
Indeed, it seems to us that the agreement in a large number of 
cases has been sufficiently close to warrant the use of these 
factors as a check on the analytical work or on the determina- 
tions of the actual heats of combustion by means of the bomb 
calorimeter. Thus if marked discrepancies occur in any given 
-case between the calculated heats of combustion and those de- 
termined by the bomb calorimeter, either the analytical work 
may well be repeated or the heat of combustion redetermined 
or both. Of course in some prepared foods made up of several 
different kinds of food materials, pastries for example, which 
contain an unknown proportion of sugars and starches, the 
calculated heat of combustion may differ considerably from 
the computed, and cannot be used as giving any check upon 
the analytical results. 

FUEL VALUE. 

In accordance with the definitions in the previous article 
(see pages 69-72) the fuel value of a given food material is 
measured by the difference between its heat of combustion and 
the heats of combustion of the corresponding feces and urine. 
It is assumed that under normal conditions the fats and carbo- 
hydrates are completely oxidized in the bod3 r , and that hence 
their fuel values will be their total heats of combustion less 
those of the unavailable portions; in other words, the heats of 
combustion of the available portions. It is also assumed that 
all of the energy yielding material of the urine comes from the 
incomplete oxidation of the protein of the food. The heat of 
combustion of protein as determined with the bomb calorimeter 
measures the heat evolved in the complete oxidation of the carbon 
to carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen to water, while the nitrogen 
remains in the free state. In the body, however, oxidation 
of nitrogenous compounds cannot be carried as far and the 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 99 

nitrogen is excreted in the form of urea, uric acid, and allied 
compounds. The carbon and hydrogen, however, appear to be 
oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water with the excep- 
tion of the small amounts in combination with the nitrogen in 
the urine. The urine also 'contains a small amount of non- 
nitrogenous organic material, part of which may not improbably 
be derived from the digested fats and carbohydrates of the 
food. It is customary, however, to consider the heat of com- 
bustion of the urine as representing that portion of 'the energy 
of the protein which is broken down which the body cannot 
utilize. In other words, we assume that the total potential 
energy of the available fats and carbohydrates is itself available 
for use in the body while only a portion, although the major 
portion, of the energy in the available protein is thus available. 

This brings out the distinction between the availability of 
the material and of the energy belonging to it. In speaking of 
the available material we refer to the portion which is digested 
and absorbed less the corresponding metabolic products which 
are eliminated with the undigested residue, and are regarded as 
required for the process of digestion. The available energy of 
the fats and carbohydrates is the total energy of their available 
material. In the case of protein, however, the available mate- 
rial is not fully oxidized, and the available energy is the total 
less that of the material which escapes oxidation. The last 
statement requires qualification, because it does not distinguish 
between the proteids and non-pro teids of the protein. To be 
strictly accurate we should have to consider the proteids them- 
selves, determine their amounts, availability and heats of com- 
bustion, and also learn by some means how much of their 
energy is transformed in the body by oxidation and how much 
is left in the residues excreted in the urine. The different 
classes of non-proteids could be treated in like manner. Our 
present knowledge, however, does not permit such determina- 
tions, nor are the experimental methods by which they should 
be made as yet sufficiently elaborated. 

The best we are able to do at present is to determine as 
nearly as practicable the proportions of protein which are 
actually available and the heat of combustion of the material 
in the urine which is assumed to come from the incomplete 
oxidation of the protein compounds. 



IOO STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

We measure the protein by multiplying the nitrogen by a 
given factor which varies with different food materials. The 
factor for computing the total protein of a given diet is decided 
by the proportions of the different food materials and their 
several nitrogen factors. We assume that the nitrogen factor 
is the same for the available protein as for the corresponding 
total protein. It may be that later inquiry will show that this 
assumption is incorrect, but in lack of more accurate knowledge 
we can do no better than follow the present plan. 

The heat of combustion of the water-free substance of the 
urine is determined by the usual method of oxidation by means 
of the bomb calorimeter and can be compared with the corre- 
sponding nitrogen of the urine, thus showing the ratio of 
nitrogen to the heat of combustion. A similar ratio of nitro- 
gen to heat of combustion of protein could be established if 
necessary. 

A considerable amount of experimental data has accumulated 
in this laboratory within the past few years concerning this 
ratio of nitrogen to energy in the urine. A few like determi- 
nations* have been made by Prof. Chas. D. Woods, formerly of 
this Station and now Director of the Maine Experiment Sta- 
tion. As the average of forty-six determinations of this ratio 
it was found that for every gram of nitrogen in the urine 
there was unoxidized material sufficient to yield 7.9 calories of 
energy. On the assumption already made that all the energy 
in the urine is derived from incompletely oxidized available 
protein, we may substitute for the ratio of nitrogen to energy 
the ratio of available protein to energy. This value is found 
in the following manner: One gram of nitrogen in the urine is 
assumed to represent the breaking down or catabolism of 6.25 
grams of available protein of food or of body protein. This 
assumption is slightly inaccurate owing to the presence in the 
food of some proteids, such as those of wheat and rye, and 
more especially the non-proteids containing more than 16 per 
cent, of nitrogen. It does, however, come close to the truth. 
For every 6.25 grams of protein consumed, therefore, there 
would be 7.9 calories of energy in the unoxidized materials 
of the urine, or about 1.25 calories per gram (7.9 h- 6.25 =■ 
1.26). 

* Unpublished. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. IOI 

Using the figures for availability and heat of combustion of 
protein compounds given in Table 4 (page 86) and Table 6 
(page 92), and the factor 1.25 as expressing the amount of 
energy lost in the urine per gram of available protein, the cal- 
culation of the fuel value of protein is simple. We may take 
for instance the protein of meat. This is assumed to have a 
heat of combustion of 5.65 calories per gram. Ninety-seven 
per cent, of this protein is rendered available for use in the 
body; the total energy of the available protein corresponding 
to 1 gram of total protein would be 5.5 calories (5.65 X .97 
= 5.48). Of this 5.5 calories, however, 1.25 calories will be 
contained in the incompletely oxidized material of the urine, 
so that the actual amount of energy obtained by the body from 
the gram of protein eaten is equal to 4.25 calories (5.65 X .97 
— 1.25 = 4.23). In other words, on the basis of the previous 
assumption the fuel value of 1 gram of protein of meat is 4.25 
calories per gram. In a similar manner we may calculate the 
fuel value of 1 gram of protein of cereals. The heat of com- 
bustion per gram is approximately 5.8 calories, and 85 per 
cent, of the protein appears to be available for use in the body. 
But for every gram of protein thus available not far from 1.25 
calories of energy is lost in the urine. The fuel value, there- 
fore, of 1 gram of protein of cereals as thus computed is 3.7 
calories (5.80 X .85 — 1.25 = 3.68). Similar computations 
give factors for fuel value of protein of eggs, dairy products, 
legumes, vegetables and fruits. The results of these calcula- 
tions are shown in Table 10 beyond. 

In determining factors for fuel value of fats and carbohy- 
drates we have to consider only the total energy and the pro- 
portion actually available, since we assume that none of the 
energy of these nutrients is lost in the urine. It appears, for 
example, that 95 per cent, of the fat of meat is utilized within 
the body. The average heat of combustion of 1 gram of meat 
fat is 9.5 calories, and the energy of the available material, 
which for fats is the same as its fuel value, would therefore be 9 
calories per gram (9.5 X .95 = 9.02). In a similar manner the 
fuel value of the carbohydrates is found by deducting the energy 
in the unavailable portion from the total energy. The heat of 
combustion of 1 gram of carbohydrates of cereals, for example, 
s 



102 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

is 4.2 calories, and 98 per cent, is available. Accordingly the 
factor for 1 gram would be 4.1 calories (4.2 X .98 = 4.12 ). 

In Table 10 beyond are summarized the factors for fuel value 
of nutrients in different groups of food materials, together with 
factors for heats of combustion, availability, etc. The method 
of deriving the quantities in the different columns is in part 
indicated by algebraic expressions in the column headings. The 
quantities in column a represent in round numbers the approx- 
imate proportion of the different nutrients found in each of 
the different groups of food materials in the average diet as 
based upon the results obtained in an examination of 185 actual 
dietary studies. The figures are essentially the same as those 
given in Table 3 above. The figures in column b are taken 
from Tables 6, 7 and 8 above, and represent the factors for the 
heat of combustion or total energy per gram of the nutrients 
in the different groups of food materials. In computing the 
figures for the heats of combustion of total animal food, total 
vegetable food, and total food in the average mixed diet, account 
is taken of the proportional amounts of the nutrients furnished 
by the different groups of food materials as shown in column a 
and the heat of combustion of these nutrients as shown in 
column b. For example, in the ordinal mixed diet about 
43 grams out of every 100 of protein is furnished by meat, 
fish, etc. This 43 grams, with a heat of combustion of 5.65 
calories per gram, supplies a total energy of 243.0 calories 
(43 X 5.65 = 243). In the same diet 6 grams of protein 
would come from eggs. This, at 5.75 calories per gram, fur- 
nishes 34.5 calories. The dairy products furnish 12 grams of 
protein, with a heat of combustion of 5.65 calories per gram, 
making 67.8 calories. The total animal food thus supplies 
(43 + 6-I- 12 — ) 61 grams of the 100 grams of the whole 
diet, and these 61 grams of animal protein contain a total of 
(243 + 34.5 -f- 67.8 =) 345.3 calories, which are equal to 
(345.3 +61 = 5.651) 5.65 calories per gram. In like manner 
the 39 grams of vegetable protein are made up of 31 grams of 
protein from cereals with a heat of combustion of 5.80 calories 
per gram; 2 grams from legumes with a heat of combustion of 
5-7°; 5-5 grams from vegetables with a heat of combustion of 
5.00; and .5 of a gram from fruit with a heat of combustion 
of 5.20 calories per gram. We thus have 421.3 calories 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 103 

furnished by the 39 grams of vegetable protein, or 5.65 
calories per gram. Both the animal and the vegetable protein 
average approximately 5.65 calories per gram, which is there- 
fore the average heat of combustion of the total protein of the 
diet. 

In a similar manner we may compute the average heat of 
combustion of the fats and carbohydrates in mixed diet. Out 
of every 100 grams of total carbohydrates 95 are obtained from 
the vegetable food materials, with a total heat of combustion 
of 392.8 calories. The heat of combustion per gram therefore 
amounts to (392.8-^95=) 4.135 calories, or approximately 
4. 15 calories per gram. The animal carbohydrates with a heat 
of combustion of 3.90 calories per gram furnish (3.90 X 5 =) 
19.5 calories of energy, making the total heat of combustion of 
100 grams of carbohydrates in mixed diet (392.8 + i9-5=) 
412.3 calories, or approximately 4.15 calories per gram. 

The factors for total animal food, total vegetable food and 
total food in the remaining columns of Table 10 are obtained in 
a manner similar to that just described. 

In what has been said regarding the available energy of the 
different nutrients in different classes of food materials refer- 
ence was made to the fuel value per gram of total proteiu, fats, 
or carbohydrates. The figures in the last column of Table 10 
give the factors representing these fuel values. It may fre- 
quently occur, however, that corresponding factors are needed 
for the fuel value of one gram of available protein, fats, or 
carbohydrates. The potential energy of one gram of available 
protein is assumed to be the same as that of one gram of total 
protein. In other words, it is assumed that the energy of one 
gram of available is the same as that of one gram of unavail- 
able protein. While this may not be strictly true, there is 
little or no experimental evidence warranting any other suppo- 
sition. It follows, therefore, that the fuel value of one gram 
of available protein is its heat of combustion less 1.25 calories 
— the energy lost in the urine. If, as has been assumed, none 
of the potential energy of its available fats and carbohydrates 
is lost in the organic matter of the urine, then the fuel value 
of one gram of available fats or carbohydrates will be the same 
as its heat of combustion, or as the heat of combustion of one 
gram of corresponding material of total food. These factors 



io4 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



for fuel value per gram of available nutrients are given in the 
next to the last column of Table 10. 

Table io. 

Factors for heats of combustion and fuel values of nutrients in 

differe?it groups of food materials and in mixed diet. 





73 >~ 

A a- - 
it p,a 

S§3' 

3 >- rr 

■3^2 


Heat of combus- 
tion per gram. 


Proportion of total 
nutrients actually 
available. 


Total energy per 
gram in availa- 
ble nutrients. 


Fuel Value. 


Kind of Food Material. 


Per gram 
available nutri- 
ents. 


u fi 
O 




A 


B 


C 


D 

=B X C 


E* 


Ft 


Protein. 


Grams. 


Cal. 


% 


Cal. 


Cal. 


Cal. 


Meats, fish, etc., ... 


43- o 


5.65 


•97 


5-50 


4.40 


4-25 


Eggs, ----- 


6.o 


5-75 


• 97 


5.60 


4.50 


4-35 


Dairy products, ... 


12. 


5.65 


•97 


5 -50 


4.40 


4-25 


Animal food, 


6i .o 


5.65 


■97 


5.50 


4.40 


4.25 


Cereals, - - - - - 


31.0 


5.80 


.85 


4-95 


4-55 


3-70 


Legumes, ... - 


2.0 


5.70 


• 78 


4-45 


4-45 


3.20 


Vegetables, - - 


5-5 


5.00 


.83 


4.15 


3-75 


2.90 


Fruits, - - - - - 


0.5 


5.20 


.85 


4.40 
4.80 


3-95 


3-15 


Vegetable food, 


39-0 


5-65 


.85 


4.40 


3-55 


Total food, - - - 


100. 


5-65 


.92 


5.20 


4.40 


4.00 


Fat. 














Meat and eggs, - 


60.0 


9-50 


•95 


9. CO 


9-5o 


9.00 


Dairy products, - - - 


32.0 


9- 2 5 


•95 


8.80 


9-25 


8.80 


Animal food, - - - 


92.0 


9.40 


•95 


S-95 


9.40 


8-95 


Vegetable food, 


8.0 


9-30 


.90 


8.35 


9-30 


8.35 


Total food, - 


100. 


9.40 


•95 


8.90 


9.40 


8.90 


Carbohydrates. 














Animal food, - - - - 


5.0 


3-90 


•98 


3.80 


3-90 


3.80 


Cereals, - 


55-0 


4.20 


.98 


4.10 


4.20 


4.10 


Legumes, - 


1 .0 


4.20 


•97 


4-05 


4.20 


4.05 


Vegetables, ... - 


13.0 


4:20 


• 95 


4.00 


4.20 


4.00 


Fruits, . . . - - 


5.o 


4.00 


.90 


3.60 


4.00 


3.60 


Sugars, 


21 .0 


3-95 


.98 


3.85 
4.00 


3-95 


3.85 


Vegetable food, 


95-0 


4.15 


• 97 


4-15 


4.00 


Total food, 


IOO. 


4-15 


•97 


4.00 


4.15 


4.00 



* Values for fats and carbohydrates, same as corresponding values in column B. 
Values for protein, same as corresponding values in column B minus 1.25. 

t Values for fats and carbohydrates, same as corresponding values in column D. 
Values for protein, same as corresponding values in column D minus 1.25. 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 105 

The factors for fuel value in Table 10 represent the available 
energy per gram. Corresponding values per pound can be 
readily computed by multiplying the values per gram by 
453.6, the number of grams in a pound. In the ordinary 
mixed diet the fuel value of one pound of protein as thus 
computed from the figures of Table 10 is 1,820, of fat 4,040, 
and of carbohydrates 1 ,820 calories. The corresponding values 
per pound of available nutrients are 2,000, 4,260, and 1,860 
calories respectively. 

APPLICATION OF PROPOSED FACTORS FOR FUEL VALUE TO 
ACTUAL DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS. 

In the preceding pages the factors for availability and for 
heats of combustion have been applied to experimental data in 
such a way as to test their accuracy. In a similar manner the 
reliability of the proposed factors for fuel value may be tested 
by applying them to the quantities of nutrients consumed in 
digestion experiments with mixed diet of more or less simple 
character, and comparing the computed fuel value of the diet 
with that actually found by experiment, i. e., the difference 
between the total energy of the food and that of the feces and 
urine. 

The results of a considerable number of digestion experi- 
ments are available for the purpose of such comparison. Thus 
far we have made the necessary calculations from the data of 
twenty-seven experiments carried on in this laboratory in con- 
nection with investigations with the respiration calorimeter.* 
In some of these the subject was outside the respiration appa- 
ratus, the study being preliminary to the more detailed expe- 
riments within the respiration chamber. These are indicated 
in Table 1 1 beyond as ' ' ordinary ' ' experiments. In other 
experiments the subject was in the apparatus. These are 
indicated as "respiration" experiments. Each "ordinary" 
experiment was immediately followed by one or more ' ' respi- 
ration " experiments with the same man. The kinds and 
amounts of food in the ' ' ordinary ' ' or preliminary experi- 
ments were very nearly the same as in the subsequent ' ' res- 
piration ' ' experiments. 

* The details of the digestion experiments are to be published in a Bulletin of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



106 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The data of these digestion experiments serve for making a 
comparison not only of the fuel values as computed and as 
actually found by experiment, but also of the total energy as 
computed and as actually determined. In making these com- 
putations the quantities of protein, fats, and carbohydrates 
furnished by the different nutrients consumed were multiplied 
by the corresponding factors for heats of combustion and for 
fuel values, and thus the total computed energy and fuel value 
of the diet was found. The proportion which the calculated 
values bear to the corresponding values as actually determined 
was then computed. Thus in digestion experiment No. 37, 
1,165 grams of meat were consumed, furnishing 326 grams of 
protein and 69 grams of fat. The heat of combustion of the 
protein of meat was assumed to be 5.65 calories per gram and 
of fat 9.5 calories per gram. The heat of combustion as cal- 
culated thus amounts to 2,497 calories (326 X 5.65 + 69 X 9-5 
= 2,497). ^ ne f ue l value of the 326 grams of protein and 69 
grams of fat was found by multiplying by the factors 4.25 and 
9.00 respectively, and amounts to 2,007 calories (326 X 4.25 
-f- 69 X 9.0 = 2,007). In a similar manner the heat of com- 
bustion and fuel value of the other foods used were calculated. 
The total heat of combustion of the diet as calculated amounted 
to 21,763 calories, while the actual determination by means of 
the bomb calorimeter showed 21,467 calories. The calculated 
value was thus 101.4 per cent, of that actually determined. 
The fuel value of the diet as calculated amounted to 19,559 
calories, while the amount of energy actually made available 
in this experiment was 19,299 calories. The calculated fuel 
value was thus 10 1.4 per cent, of the fuel value actually found 
by experiment. 

The results of these comparisons are shown in Table 1 1 on the 
following page. It is of considerable interest to note that in the 
twenty-seven experiments compared in this table the maximum 
variation between the heat of combustion as calculated and as 
found amounts to but 2.5 per cent, of the latter value, while the 
average values are identical. At the same time the fuel value 
as calculated ranges from 3.1 per cent, above to 2.1 per cent, 
below that actually found by experiment, the average differ- 
ence in twenty-seven experiments being but one part in a 
thousand. This close agreement between the computed values 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 107 

and those actually found by experiment may of course be due 
to compensation of errors, and when a large number of experi- 
ments are compared in the same way the results may prove 
less strikingly concordant, but it seems hardly probable that 
the proposed factors for heats of combustion and fuel value 
can be very far out of the way. 

Table ii. 
Comparison of heats of combustion and fuel values of nutrients 
of food consumed in digestion experiments as calculated by 
use of the proposed factors and as found by experiment. 



Character 

of 

Experiment/ 



37 
38 
39 
40 

4i 

42 

43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 

49 

50 



Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 
Ordinary, 
Respiration, - 



H 1^ 1 


-O-w 


|&| 




Gi~ . 


combus 
ted in 
f that a 
ind. 


le calcul 
cent, of 
y found 


^Oo 


"3 fc « 


SMg>? 


> p. 5 


cd tj jj-h 




V u u cd 


^3 -^ cd 


w 


U. 


% 


% 


101 .4 


IOI.4 


101.2 


101.8 


99-3 


98.1 


99-4 


97-9 


102. 1 


103. 1 


102.5 


100.2 


99-7 


100.3 


99.8 


99.0 


100.2 


103. 1 


100.2 


101.7 


100.7 


100.7 


100.6 


102.0 


101 .0 


10 1.8 


IOI.O 


102.4 



Character 

of 

Experiment.* 



Ordinary, 

Respiration, - 

Ordinary, 

Respiration, - 

Ordinary, 

Respiration, - 

Ordinary, 

Respiration, - 

Ordinary, 

Respiration, - 

Ordinary, 
85a, Respiration, - 
85b! Respiration, - 
I Avg. 27 expts 



cd cd U — 
uooii 

M 



100.4 
99.9 

100.7 
99.9 
99.1 
99-4 
98.9 

98.7 
99-3 
99-4 
98.5 
98.7 
98.6 

100.0 



CI >> 



IOI 

99 

98 

100 

99 

98 

99 
9 S 

99 
99 



100 



* These twenty-seven experiments were made in connection with investigations 
with the respiration calorimeter. Those marked " ordinary " were conducted outside 
the apparatus, and immediately preceded the respective " respiration " experiments 
in which the subject was inside the respiration chamber. 



COMPARISON OF FACTORS HERE PROPOSED WITH THOSE PRO- 
POSED BY RUBNER. 

The factors for fuel value now in most common use are those 
proposed by Rubner.f in 1885. This investigator assigns 4.1 
calories per gram to the protein, 9.3 to the fats, and 4.1 to the 
carbohydrates of ordinary mixed diet. 



t Ztschr. Biol., 21 (18S5), p. 377. 



108 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

In the estimates upon which these figures are based Rubner 
made use of the 'heats of combustion of the compounds of the 
different classes of nutrients in so far as they were available at 
the time. For the potential energy of the material excreted 
in the urine he used the results of determinations of the nitro- 
gen and heats of combustion of the water-free substance of 
the urine of dogs with a diet of meat. He assumed that 60 
per cent, of the protein of ordinary mixed diet was of animal 
and 40 per cent, of vegetable origin. He made allowance for 
the energy in the feces as determined by experiments with 
dogs on a meat diet, but made no allowance for any undi- 
gested residue of the fats and carbohydrates of the food. To 
state the case in another way, he assumed the fuel value 
( ' ' Warmewerth " ) of the fats and carbohydrates to be the 
same as their heats of combustion, but estimated the similar 
factors for the protein by subtracting the heat of combustion of 
feces and urine from the total heat of combustion of the protein 
of the food. Considering the paucity of his data and the fact 
that he made no allowance for either the undigested material 
or the metabolic products of the feces properly belonging to 
the carbohydrates and fats, the results are certainly very close 
to those to which we are led by the use of the more extensive 
data now available. The closeness of this agreement appears 
to be partially due to a balancing of errors. The heats of com- 
bustion which Rubner used were largety those determined by 
means of the Thompson-Stohmann calorimeter, which gave 
rather too low results. We hope to discuss this subject more 
fully in a later article. 

SUMMARY. 

The object of the preceding discussion is to deduce factors for 
estimating the nutritive values of materials used for the food of 
man. 

The principal data used for these estimations are the percent- 
ages, coefficients of availability , heats of combustion , and fuel 
values of the protein, fats, and carbohydrates in food materials 
a?id the proportional amounts of different kinds of foods used in 
the average diet. The proportions of nutrients in ordinary food 
are found by analysis. There are now available analyses of not 



AVAILABILITY AND FUEL VALUE OF FOOD MATERIALS. 109 

far from 4,000 specimens of American food materials* In esti- 
mating the proportion of nutrients in ordinary mixed diet, the 
results of 183 studies of actual dietaries were employed. These 
studies have been made in different parts of the United States, 
mostly within the past ten years; some by persons co7inected with 
this Station, but the larger number by other investigators engaged 
i7i the cobpe?'ative i?iquiry under the auspices of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture , of which the work here reported may be said 
to form a part. The coefficients of availability are based largely 
tipon the results of digestion experiments with men. These belong 
to the cooperative ijiquiry just referred to, and a considerable num- 
ber were made by this Station. The data for heats of combustion 
have been compiled from various sources, and included results 
obtaified in this laboratory. The factor for the heat of combustion 
of the tinoxidized material of the urine is based up07i the results 
of the exami7iatio7i of 46 specimens of uri7ie of healthy 77ien zvith 
mixed diet. These results were mostly obtai7ied in this laboratory 
in co7inection with digestio7i a7id 77tetabolis7ti expe7 r iments . 

The outco77ie of these esti77iates 77iay be stated as follows. • 

Takt7ig i7ito account (1) the heats of co77ibustion of the protei7i 
co7npounds , fats a7id carbohydrates which occur in diffe7 r ent groups 
of food 77iaterials, a7id (2) the average p7 r oportio7i in which the 
different nutrients are fur7iished by differe7it food 77tate7 r ials in 
the ordinary mixed diet, the average heat of co77ibustio7i of one 
gram of p7'otein , fat a7id carbohydi'ates in such diet is approxi- 
77iately 5 .65 , 9.4.0 and 4.10 calories respectively. 

The results of a co7isiderable number of digestion experi7ne7its 
with 77tixed diet give ave7 r ages for coefficients of availability as 
follows: For p7-otein 92 per ce7it.,fats 05 per ce7it., a7id carbohy- 
d7'ates 97 per ce7it. 

07ie g7'am of total p7 r otein of mixed diet bur7ied i7i the body 
yields on the average not far fro77i 4.0 calories, 07ie gra7ii of fat 
8.9 calories, a7id 07ie g7'a77i of carbohydrates 4.0 calo7 r ies of e7ie7 r gy . 
The corresp07idi7ig values per poiaid are 1,820, 4,240 a7id 1,820 
calories. 07ie gram of available protei7i 071 the other ha7id has 
a fuel vahie of 4.4 calories, 07ie g7-a77i of available fats 9.4 calo- 
i r ies, and 07ie gra77i of available carbohyd7'ates 4.1 calo7 r ies. These 
values cor7 r espo7id to 2,000, 4,260 a7id 1,860 calo7'ies per gram. 

* See second foot-note on p. 111. 



no 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



The following table summarizes the various factors for nutri- 
ents of mixed diet: 

Table 12. 

Factors for heats of combustion, availability and fuel values of 

nutrients in mixed diet. 





Heat 

of 
combus- 
tion 
per gram. 


Avail- 
ability. 


Fuel Value. 


Kind of Material. 


Referred 

to available 

nutrients. 


Referred 

to 

total nutrients. 




Per '< Per lb. 
gram. 


Per 
gram. 


Per lb. 


Protein, - 

Fats, ----- 

Carbohydrates, - 


Cal. 

5.65 
9.40 
4.10 


% 
92 

95 
97 


Cal. Cal. 
4.4 2000 
9.4 4260 
4.1 i860 


Cal. 
4.0 
8.9 
4.0 


Cal. 
1820 
4040 
1820 



Of course these figures are not to be regarded as final, and 
alterations may be called for as data accumulate. Meanwhile we 
think that they are sufficiently accurate for ordinary use. 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS- 
AVAILABLE NUTRIENTS AND 
FUEL VALUE. 

BY W. O. ATWATER AND A. P. BRYANT. 



Previous reports of this Station have contained tables of 
average composition of food materials. In these tables, with 
one exception,* no attempt was made to show the actual 
amounts and fuel values of the nutrients which are available 
for use in the body. These may, however, be computed by 
use of the data given and the conclusions reached in the pre- 
ceding article. Thus, by the application of the factors for 
availability given in Table 12, on page no, we may compute 
the actual proportions of available and unavailable nutrients 
in different food materials, and by means of the factors given 
in the same table for the fuel value of protein, fats, and carbo- 
trydrates in different groups of food materials, we may compute 
the actual amounts of energy which they yield to the body. 

In the following table the figures for percentage composition 
of the different food materials were taken from a compilation 
made by the writers of over 4,000 analyses of American food 
materials, of which nearly 1,000 were made in this labora- 
tory.! The table shows the proportions of available nutrients, 
and the available energy per pound in each of a considerable 
number of food materials, as computed from the data mentioned 
above. In such food materials as contain refuse the compo- 
sition of the material both with and without refuse is given. 
Take for example beef brisket. The edible portion (e. p.) of 
this contains, as the average of the anatyses now accessible, 
54.6 per cent, of water, 15.8 per cent, protein (N. X 6.25), 
28.5 per cent, fat, and .9 per cent, mineral matter or ash. 

* Report of Storrs Experiment Station, 1S96, p. 202. 

f See U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin 28, 
Revised, The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. By W. O. Atwater 
and A. P. Bryant. 



112 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Taking 97 per cent, of the protein, 95 per cent, of the fat, and 
75* per cent, of the ash as available for use in the body (see 
Table 4) the composition of beef brisket may be given as fol- 
lows: Water, 54.6 per cent.; unavailable nutrients, 2.1 per 
cent.; available protein, 15.3 percent. (15.8 X .97); available 
fat, 27.1 (28.5 X .95); and available mineral matter, .7 per 
cent. (.9 X .75). The fuel value of one pound of this meat 
would then be calculated by use of the factors given in Table 
10, page 104. In one gram of the material there is actually 
available to the body .153 grams of protein, the fuel value of 
which is (.153 X 4.4 =) .673 calories, and .271 gram of fat 
with a fuel value of (.271 X 9.5 =) 2.575 calories, making a 
total fuel value of 3.248 calories per gram. To obtain the cor- 
responding value per pound we multiply the value per gram 
by the number of grams in one pound (453.6). The fuel 
value of one pound of the brisket is therefore (3.248 X 453-6 
= J.473) i,475 calories. 

Unless otherwise stated the figures in the following table 
apply to materials of average composition. There are at times 
wide variations in the proportion of fat in meat from the same 
cut, e. g-., beef round. Indeed, the leaner cuts from a fat 
animal may be as fat as the fatter cuts from a lean animal. 
This variation in the composition of similar portions of a lean, 
medium fat and fat animal is illustrated by a few examples in 
the following table. 

When the material as ordinarily found in the market con- 
tains refuse such as bone, tendon, shell, skin, seeds, etc., the 
composition of both the edible material and of the material as 
purchased is usually given. The former is designated by the 
letters e. p., the latter by the letters a. p. In such food 
materials as ordinarily contain no refuse the composition of 
the edible material is identical with that of the material as 
purchased, and the letters e. p. and a. p. are omitted in the 
table. 



* In lack of satisfactory data, it is here assumed that 75 per cent, of the mineral 
matters of different food materials is available. 



composition of common food materials. 

Table 13. 
Composition of ordinary food materials. 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 



Kind of Food Material 




Available Nutrients. 



15.3 


27.1 


11. 6 


21.2 


1 1: 9 


17. 1 


15-0 


14.3 


18.3 


19.9 


16.5 


18.0 


iq.i 


12. 1 


16.6 


10.5 


17.9 


19.2 


15.6 


16.6 


17.0 


26.2 


15-2 


23.6 


19-5 


I5.7 


14.1 


"•3 


16.0 


27.6 


13-4 


23.2 


17.0 


25-3 


13-5 


20.0 


20.7 


7-5 


18.9 


6.9 


19.7 


12.9 


18.4 


12.2 


18.9 


18.5 


17.0 


15-3 


iq.8 


8.2 


15-9 


6.6 


10.9 


24.2 


13-4 


19.2 


iq.S 


11. 


12.4 


6.9 


20.3 


10.9 


9-3 


5-o 


19.0 


10.7 


1 5. '9 


9-3 


17.4 


20.3 


14. 1 


16.6 


17.8 


20.5 


T4.9 


17.4 


18.7 


12.5 


15.0 


10. 1 


17.6 


! 2O.9 


14-4 


17.2 


15-7 


! 34.6 


13.6 


30.O 


20.4 


4-3 


18.9 


4.0 



i-7 
1.6 



Cal- 
ories. 

1475 

1145 

IO95 

915 

1225 

1105 

900 

785 

H85 

1025 

1470 

1320 

1065 

770 

I5IO 

1265 

1430 

1130 

735 

675 

95o 

895 

ii75 

1000 

750 

600 

1380 

1095 

865 

545 

875 

400 

840 

720 

1220 

995 
1240 

1045 
910 

735 
1250 
1030 
1805 

1565 
620 

580 



U4 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 13. — (Continued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page u: 



Kind of Food Material. 



Animal Foods 
Beef (fresh). 
Suet (unrendered tal 
low), 

Tongue, - 



S e- p., 
I a. p., 



Beef (preserved and 
cooked). 



Dried and smoked, 
Brisket, corned, 
Flank, corned, 
Plate, corned, - 

Rump, corned, 

Canned, boiled, 
Canned, corned, 
Boiled beef (cut not 

given), - - < 

Roast, cooked, 
Loin steak, cooked, 
Tripe, pickled, 

Veal (fresh). 



e. p., 
a. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 
e. p.. 
a. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 
a. p., 
a. p., 



..p., ) 

e. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 



Breast, - 

Chuck, - 

Cutlets (round), 
Flank, - 
Leg, 

Loin, 

Neck, 
Rib, 

Shank, - 
Fore quarter, - 



-I 



e. p 

a. p 
j e. p 
/ a. p 
( e. p 

( a- p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 

j e. p 

I a -P 

j e. p 

/ a. p 

\ e. p 

/ a- P 

\ e. p 

/ a. p 



-a. p., — 



.1 - 



li 








11 










a( 


£ 


% 


% 


— 


13-7 


— 


70.8 


26.5 


5i. 8 




54-3 


4-7 


53 


7 


— 


50 


9 


21.4 


40 





— 


49 


9 


12. 1 


43 


7 


— 


40 


1 


T4-5 


34 


3 


— 


58 


1 


6.0 


54 


5 


— 


51 


8 


— 


5i 


8 


— 


38 


1 


— 


48 


2 


— 


54 


8 




86 


5 




66.0 


21.3 


52.0 


— 


73-0 


18.9 


59-5 


— 


70.7 


3-4 


68.3 


— 


68.9 


— 


70.0 


14.2 


60.1 


— 


69.0 


16.5 


57-6 


— 


72.6 


31-5 


49-9 


— 


72.7 


24-3 


46.2 


— 


74-5 


62.7 


27.8 


— 


7i-7 


24-5 


54- 


2 | 



<u 

>E 

CO g 



4.3 
1.3 

•9 



3-5 
4-5 
3-2 
2-5 
2-7 
2-5 
3-7 
3-2 
2.2 

2-3 
2.2 

2-7 
2.7 
2.4 
2.0 
.6 



Available Nutrients. 



4.6 

1S.3 
13-7 



18.9 
14.9 
19. 1 

15-5 
19.7 

19-5 
19.9 
19.6 
15-0 

19-3 
16.1 
19.7 

13-5 
20.1 
13-3 
20.1 

7-5 
19.4 
14.6 



77-7 

8.7 
6.4 



6.2 
6.6 

23-5 
18.4 

3i-4 

27-7 
39-8 
34-o 
22.1 
20.9 
21.4 
17.S 

33-2 

27.2 

19.4 

1.1 



13 



6.8 

5-5 



• 7 
1 .0 

■9 
.2 






Cal- 
ories. 

3440 
740 
550 



850 

795 
1370 
1070 
1635 
1445 
1980 
1690 
1250 
1180 
1415 
1275 
1930 

1410 
1290 

275 



.8 


950 


.6 


750 


.8 


650 


.6 


520 


.8 


710 


.8 


695 


.8 


82s 


• 9 


760 


• 7 


620 


.8 


830 


• 7 


690 


.8 


6S0 


• 5 


460 


.8 


650 


.6 


S70 


.8 


59° 


• 3 


220 


• 7 


715 


• 5 


535 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 



115 



Table 13. — (Continued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 









V 




Available Nutrients. 




aJ 


u 


2 w 
























Kind of Food Material. 


. 3 


V 


." (LI 

>'B 


a 




ai 




j3 






£ 


n! 3 




d 


,Q nj 


n 


>'-' 








5 n 


O 


fe 


aJTH < 


d 


7i v 










Pn 








ft 


Animal Foods. 


% 


% 


% 


$ 


% 


% °, 


i 


Cal- 


Veal (fresh). 
















ories. 


Hind quarter, - -\ '""' 
(a. p., 


— 


70.9 


1.2 


20.I 


7-9 





8 


740 


20.7 


56.2 


I .O 


15-7 


6-3 





6 


585 


Side, - - --l e -P" 
\ a. p., 


— 


71-3 


I .2 


19.6 


7-7 





8 


725 


22.6 


55-2 


I .O 


I5-I 


6.0 





6 


560 


Liver, - - - a. p., 


— 


73-0 


•9 


9-7 


5-0 


I 





410 


La??ib (fresh). 


















Breast or chuck, - \ - "'' 
( a. p., 


— 


56.2 


2.0 


18.5 


22.4 


— 


8- 


1335 


19.1 


45-5 


1-7 


14 


9 


18. 1 





6 


I075 


t \ e. p., 
Leg:, - - -\ 

s ' (a. p., 


17-4 


63-9 
52.9 


1.7 

i-4 


iS 
15 


6 

4 


15-7 
12. g 




8 
7 


IO50 

865 


Loin, - - --J 6 '?-' 
I a. p., 


— 


53-1 


2.2 


18 


I 


26.9 





8 


1520 


14.8 


45-3 


!-9 


15 


5 


22.9 


— 


6 


1295 


Neck, - - . .3e. P-, 


— 


5t>-7 


i-9 


17 


2 


23.6 





8 


1360 


(a. p., 


17.7 


40.7 


1 .6 


14 


2 


19.4 





6 


1 1 20 


Shoulder, - .-"?'' 


— 


51.8 


2 2 

i!s 


17 


6 


28.2 


— 


8 


1505 


( a. p., 


20.3 


41-3 


14 





22.4 





6 


1245 


Fore quarter, - - - 1 ' 

(a. p., 


18.8 


55-i 
44-7 


2.0 

1.7 


17 
14 


8 
5 


24-5 
19.9 


. . 


8 
6 


1410 
1 145 


Hind quarter, - -\ ' P - ' 
(a. p., 


15-7 


60.9 

51-3 


1.8 
1-5 


x 9 

16 






18. 1 
15-3 





8 
7 


1 160 
980 


Side, - - --J e -P- 


— 


58.2 


2.0 


17 


1 


21.9 





8 


1285 


(a. p., 


19-3 


47.0 


i-5 


13-7 


17.8 





6 


1040 


Lamb (cooked). 


















Chops, boiled, - -! e ' P'' 


— 


47.6 


2.5 


21.0 


28.4 


I 





1640 


( a. p., 


13-5 


40.1 


2 . 2 


17.8 


25-4 





9 


1445 


Leg, roast, - - e. p., 


— 


67. 1 


i-4 


19.1 


12. 1 





6 


905 


Mutton (fresh). 


















Chuck, - - i e -P-> 
(a- p., 


— 


50.9 


2.4 


14.6 


3i-9 


— 


7 


1665 


21.3 


39-9 


1 .8 


11 


5 


25-4 





5 


1325 


Flank, - - -i e -P-> 
(a. p., 


— 


46.2 


2.6 


14 


7 


36.4 


— 


5 


i860 


9.9 


39° 


2 -3 


13 


4 


35-1 





5 


I78o 


Leg, - - --S e -P" 
& ' (a. p., 


18.4 


62.8 
5i-2 


1.7 

1-4 


17 
14 


9 

6 


17.1 
14.0 





8 
6 


IO95 
895 


Loin, - - -3 e -P- 
(a. p., 


— 


50.2 


2.4 


15 


5 


31.4 





6 


1660 


16.0 


42.0 


2.0 


13 


1 


26.9 





5 


I42o 


Neck, - - ) e -P-> 
I a. p., 


— 


58.1 


2.0 


16 


4 


23-4 





7 


1335 


27.4 


42.1 


!-5 


11 


9 


17.0 





5 


97o 


Shoulder, - _) e -P-> 
I a. p., 


— 


61.9 


1.7 


17 


2 


18.9 





7 


1160 


22.5 


47-9 


!-4 


13 


3 


14.7 





5 


900 


Fore quarter, - _ J e - P-> 
H (a. p., 


— 


52.9 


2.2 

1.8 


15 


1 


29.4 





7 


i57o 


21.2 


41.6 


11 


9 


23-3 





5 


1240 


Hind quarter, - . J e - P-. 
(a. p., 


— 


54-8 


2.1 
1.8 


16 


2 


26.7 


— 


6 


T 475 


17.2 


45-4 


13 


4 


22.0 





5 


1215 


Side, - - --) e -P-' 
(a. p., 


— 


54-2 


2.1 


15 


8 


27-5 





7 


1 500 


18. 1 


45-4 


1 .8 


12 


6 


21.9 





5 


"95 



n6 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 13. — (Continued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 



Kind of Food Material. 



Animal Foods. 
Mutton ( cooked and canned) . 



Leg, roast, 
Corned, canned, 
Tongue, canned, 



Pork (fresh) 

Chuck, ribs and 
shoulder, 

Flank, - 
Loin, chops, - 
Ham, 

Shoulder, 
Side, 



e. p. 
a. p. 
a. p. 



e. p. 

a. p. 

e. p. 

a. p. 

P- 

P- 

S e. p. 

I a. p. 

3 e. p. 

\ a -P- 
je.p. 
(a. p. 



\t: 



Pork (pickled, salted and 
smoked. 



Bacon, - 

Ham, 

Shoulder, 

Salt, lean ends, 

Salt, fat, 

Pigs' feet, pickled, 



S e. p., 

(a-P-- 
\ e. p., 

{ a. p., 
\ e. P-, 
! a. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 
a. p., 
e. p., 
a. p., 



Pork (cooked). 



Ribs, cooked, 
Steak, cooked, 



a. p. 
a. p. 



Sausage. 



Bologna, 

Frankfort, 
Pork, 



j e. p., 

( a. p., 

a. p., 

a. p., 



19.7 
10.7 
12.4 
11. 5 



7-7 
13.6 
18.2 
11. 2 

35-5 



3-3 



5i-i 

41.8 

59-0 

48.5 
52.0 
41.8 

53-9 
48.0 
51-2 
44.9 
34-4 
30.4 



17.4 
40.3 
34-8 
45-0 
36-8 
19.9 
17.6 

7.) 
68.2 
44.6 



33-6 

33-2 



60.0 

55-2 
57.2 
39-8 






50.9 2.1 
45-8 3-0 
47-6 3-i 



2-3 
1.9 

1-9 
1.6 
2.2 
1.8 
2.1 
1.9 

2.3 
2.1 

3-2 

2.8 



Available Nutrients. 



3-i 

3-3 



2.4 
2.4 
2-3 
3-1 



24-3 
27.9 

23-7 



9.6 

8.8 

15.8 

13-8 

15-4 

12.6 

8.1 

7.2 

1.8 

15.8 

9.9 



24.1 
19-3 



18. 1 

17-7 
19.0 
12.6 



21.5 
21.7 

22.8 



29-5 
7 24.2 
9 21. 1 

17-7 
28.6 
23.0 

27-5 
24.6 

32.5 

28.3 

52.5 
46-5 



64.0 
59-i 
36-9 
3i-7 
30.9 
25-3 
63-7 
56,6 
81.9 
14. T 



35-7 
43-1 



16.7 

18.7 
17-7 
42.0 



s& 



o.3 



i-7 
1.1 



2.8 

2-9 
1 2.6 

1 I 1.7 



Cal- 
ories. 



•9 j 1410 
3.2 1490 

3-6 1455 



• 7 


1605 


.6 


1315 


.8 


1265 


• 5 


1055 


.8 


1555 


.0 


1250 


.6 


1480 


.b 


1320 


.6 


ib6o 


-5 


1450 


■ 4 


2440 


■ 4 


2160 



2950 

2720 

1905 

1640 
1640 

1340 
2905 

2580 

3565 

920 
575 



2020 
2245 



10S5 
1 1 60 
1 160 

2oSo- 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 



117 



Table 13. — -( Contimied) . 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 









V 


Available Nutrients. 




li 


U 












V 


Kind of Food Material 


' <S 


cd 


'5-S 


_g 




oj 




"3.°" 






£ 




% 


P4 


cti 
ft 


•eg 
3% 


d 

< 


3 ft 

ft 


Animal Foods. 


* 


% 


% 


* 


i 


% 


t 


Cal- 


Poultry and game (fresh. 


;. 














ories. 


Chicken, broilers, - \ ' 

I a. p 


— 


74-8 


1.0 


2O.9 


2.4 


— 


.8 


520 


., 41.6 


43-7 


• 7 


12.4 


i-3 


— 


■ 5 


305 


Fowl, - - J e -P 
( a - P 


— 


03-7 


1.6 


I8.7 


15-5 


— . 


.8 


IO40 


., 25.9 


47-i 


1.2 


13-3 


11. 7 


— 


• 5 


7/0 


Goose, - - - ^ ' P 


— 


46.7 


2.5 


15.8 


34-4 


— 


.6 


1800 


( a. p 


., 17.6 


38.5 


2. r 


13.0 


i 28.3 


— 


■ 5 


1480 


Turkey, - - - \ e> P 


., — 


55-5 


i-9 


20.5 


1 21.8 


— 


.8 


T 350 


. , 22.7 


42.4 


1.6 


15-6 


17.5 


— 


6 


IO65 


Poultry and game (cooke 


i 
















and canned). 


















Capon, - - -|«;P 


— 


59-9 


1-7 


26.2 


10.9 


— 1 





995 


., 10.4 


53-6 


1-5 


23-5 


.9-8 


— 


9 


890 


Turkey, roast, - a. p 


., — 


07-5 


1.3 


17.1 


10.9 


2.4 


8 


855 


Plover, roast, canned, a. p 


— 


57-7 


1-7 


21.7 


9-7 


7.6 1 


6 


985 


Quail, canned, - a. p 


, — 


66.9 


r.6 


21.1 


7.6 


1.7 1 


1 


780 


Fish (fresh). 


















Bass, black, whole, - e ' * 


, — 


76.7 


1.0 


20.0 


1.6 


— 


9 


470 


( a. p 


, 54-8 


34-6 




4 


9.0 


.8 


— 


4 


215 


Blue fish, - J e "P 
(a.p 


, — 


78.5 


1 





18. S 


1.1 


— 1 





420 


, I 48.6 


40.3 




5 


9-7 


.6 


— 


5 


220 


Cod fish, dressed, - a. p 


. 2 9-9 


58.5 




5 


10.8 


.2 


— 


6 


225 


Cod steaks, - - -j e ' p 


, — 


79-7 




9 


18.-1 


■ 5 


— 


9 


385 


I a.p 


, 9-2 


72.4 




7 


16.5 


• 5 


— 


8 


350 


Flounder, whole, - \ ' 

I a. p 


, — 


84.2 




7 


13.8 


.6 


— 1 





300 


, 61.5 


32.6 




3 


5-2 


■ 3 


— 


4 


"5 


Haddock, - - -j e - P 


, — 


81.7 




8 


16.7 


•3 


— 


9 


345 


I a. p 


, 5i.o 


40.0 




4 


8.1 


.2 


— 


5 


170 


Halibut steak, - \ e> p 


, — 


75-4 


1 


1 


18.0 


4.9 


— 


8 


57o 


( a.p 


, 17-7 


61.9 




9 


14.8 


4.2 


— 


7 


475 


Lake trout - . -J e " P 


, — 


70.8 


1 


3 


17-3 


9.8 


— 


9 


765 


( a. p 


, 48.5 


36.6 




7 


8.8 


4-8 


— 


5 


380 


Mackerel, - - \ e ' p 


, — 


73-4 


1 


3 


18. 1 


6.7 


— 


9 


650 


( a.p 


, 44-7 


40.4 




7 


99 


4.0 


— 


5 


370 


Weakfish - - \ e " P 


— 


79.0 




9 


17-3 


2-3 


— 


9 


445 


( a. p 


, 51-9 


38.0 




5- 


8-3 


1.0 


— 


5 


210 


Whitefish, whole, -\ e> p 


, — 


69.8 


1 


4 


22.2 


6.2 


— 1. 


2 


710 


I a.p 


, 53-5 


32.5 





10.3 


2.9 




5 


330 


Shell fish (fresh). 


















Long clams, in shell, \ e " P 
I a. p 


— 


85.8 


1.0 


8.3 


•9 


2.0 2. 





240 


, 41.9 


49-9 


• 5 


4-9 


.6 


1.1 1. 


1 


145 


R'nd clams, in shell, \ e ' P 
| a. p 

9 


— 


86.2 


•9 


6-3 


•4 


4.2 2. 





215 


- 67.5 


28.0 




3 


2.0 


.1 


1.4 


7 


70 



u8 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 13. — (Continued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 











V 


Available Nutrients. 


Kind of Food Material. 




1-4 

V 


J2 <fl 
efl-g 

§ 3 


'v 



i 


U u 

d-d 

O >> 

Xi 


< 


> 

'A 


Animal Foods. 
Shell fish (fresh). 

( g n 
Oysters, in shell, - -j ' *'" 


81.4 


% 

86.9 
I6.I 


.8 
. 1 


% 

6.0 
1.2 


% 

1.1 

.2 


i 
3 


7 
7 


% 

i-5 
•3 


Cal- 
ories. 

235 
45 


Oysters, solids, 
Clams, round, solids 


a. p., 

, a. p., 


— 


88.3 
8O.8 


.6 
1.0 


5-8 
T0.3 


1.2 

1.0 


3 

5 


3 

2 


.8 
i-7 


225 
340 


Crabs, hard shells, - 


S e. p., 
\ a. p., 


52.4 


77-1 
30-7 


i.4 

.6 


16. 1 

7-7 


1.9 

•9 


1 


2 
6 


2-3 
1.1 


425 
200 


Lobster, - 


\ e. p., 
{ a. p., 


61.7 


79.2 
30.7 


1.1 

• 4 


15.9 

5-7 


i-7 

•7 




4 

2 


i-7 

.6 


400 
145 


Fish (preserved 


and 


















canned). 




















Cod, salt, 


\ e. p., 
\ a. p., 


24.9 


53-5 
40.2 


6.8 
5-i 


20.9 

15-5 


• 3 

• 4 


— 


18.5 
13-9 


430 
325 


Cod, salt, boneless, - 


3 e. p. , 
1 a. p., 


1.6 


55 
54 




8 


5-5 
4-6 


24.9 

27.7 


•3 
• 3 


— 


14-3 
11. 


5IO 

565 


Halibut, smoked, • 


j e. p., 
1 a. p., 


7.0 


49 
46 


4 



5-0 
4-8 


20.1 

18.7 


14-3 
13-3 


— 


ii-3 
10.4 


1015 
945 


Herring, smoked, - 

Mackerel, salt, 
dressed, 


j e- p., 
} a. p., 
| e. p., 
( a. p., 


44.4 
iQ-7 


34 
19 
43 
34 


6 
2 

4 
8 


5-2 

2.8 
5.o 
4.1 


35-8 
19.9 
16.8 
I3.5 


15.0 

8.4 
25-i 
20.1 


— 


9.9 
5-6 
9-7 

7-8 


1360 

760 

1415 

H35 


Salmon, canned, 


j e. p., 
1 a. p., 


14.2 


63 
56 


5 
8 


1.9 
i-5 


21. 1 
18.9 


"•5 

7-i 


Z 


2.0 

i-5 


915 

685 


Sardines, canned, 

Lobster, canned, 
Clams, canned, 


j e. p., 
(a. p.. 

a. p., 
a. p., 


5-0 


52 
53 

77 
82 


3 
6 
8 
9 


3-i 
2.6 

1.3 
1 .0 


22.3 
23.0 
17.6 
10.2 


18.7 

"•5 

1.0 

.8 


• 4 
3.0 


4-2 

4.0 
1.9 
2. 1 


1250 

955 
400 
290 


Oysters, canned, 


a. p., 


— 


83 


4 


.8 


8-5 


2-3 


3.9 


1.1 


340 


Eggs. 




















Eggs, uncooked, 


j e. p., 
(a. p., 


11. 2 


73-7 
65.5 


1.1 
1. 1 


13.0 

H-5 


10.0 

8.8 





.8 
•7 


695 
615 


Eggs, boiled, - 


\ e. p., 
( a. p., 


n. 2 


73-2 
65.0 


1 .2 
1.1 


12.8 
"•3 


11. 4 
10.2 


— 


.6 
•5 


755 
670 


Dairy products, 


etc. 


















Whole milk, - 


■ a. p., 


— 


87.0 


• 5 


3-2 


3-8 


5.0 


•5 


310 


Skim milk, 
Condensed milk, 
sweetened, - 


• a. p., 
[ a. p. , 


— 


9°-5 
26.9 


•3 
1.2 


3-3 

8-5 


■3 
7-9 


5-i 

54-1 


•5 
i-4 


170 
1460 


Cream, - 
Cheese, - 
Butter, - 


• a. p., 
a. p., 
a. p., 


— 


74.0 
34-2 
11. 


1 . 1 

3-4 
4-9 


2.4 

25-1 

1.0 


17.6 
32.0 
80.8 


4-5 
2.4 


•4 

2.9 

2-3 


860 
1885 
34io 


Oleomargarine, etc. 
Lard, cottolene, etc 


a. p., 

, a. p., 


— 


9 


5 


5-7 
5.o 


1.2 


7S.9 
95-0 






4-7 


3335 
3985 



IMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 



119 



Table i 3 . — ( Continued. ) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 









V 


Available Nutrients. 




en 


u 


^2 13 


















Cfi 




3 


Kind of Food Material. 


3 


a 

£ 


"5-.H 


'53 


^j 


6H 

.0 a! 


A 






p> 


gg 




a 


i- u 


w 


u 










p 


ft 


nJ-O 


< 


"aj <U 








5" 


£ 










Animal Food. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Cal- 
ories. 


Miscellaneous. 


















Gelatin, - - - a. p., 


— 


13.6 


3-2 


88.7 


.1 


— 


1.6 


2125 


Calf's-foot jelly, - a. p.. 




77.6 


• 3 


4.2 




17.4 


•5 


410 


Vegetable Foods. 


















Cereals, etc. 


















Barley, pearled, 


— 


"•5 


4.0 


6.6 


I.O 


76.1 


.8 


1630 


Buckwheat flour, 


— 


13.6 


3-5 


5-2 


I.I 


75-9 


• 7 


1600 


Buckwheat, self-raising, - 


■ — 


11. 6 


4-9 


6.7 


I.I 


7i-5 


4.2 


1545 


Corn (maize) flour, - 


— 


12.6 


3-6 


5-8 


1.2 


76-3 


• 5 


1625 


Corn (maize) meal, - 


— 


12.5 


4.0 


7-5 


i-7 


73-5 


.8 


1625 


Corn (maize) preparations: 


















Cerealine, - 


— 


10.3 


4.2 


7.8 


1.0 


76.3 


• 4 


1655 


Hominy, - - - 


— 


11. 8 


3-8 


6.8 


• 5 


76.9 


.2 


1625 


Hominy, cooked, 


— 


79-3 


•9 


1.8 


.2 


17-4 


• 4 


375 


Oatmeal and rolled oats, 


— 


7.8 


5-6 


13-4 


6.6 


65.2 


1.4 


1795 


Oatmeal, boiled, 


— 


84-5 


•9 


2-3 


• 5 


n-3 


• 5 


285 


Rice, 


— 


12.3 


3-7 


6.5 


•3 


76.9 


•3 


1610 


Rice, boiled, - 


— 


72.5 


1 . r 


2-3 


■* 


23.8 


.2 


505 


Rye flour, - - - 


— 


12.9 


3-6 


5-3 


.8 


76.9 


• 5 


1610 


Entire wheat flour, - 


— 


11. 4 


4-5 


10.7 


1-7 


70.9 


.8 


i645 


Gluten flour, ... 


— 


12.0 


4-6 


11. 


1.6 


70.1 


• 7 


1630 


Graham flour, - 


— 


"■3 


4-7 


10.3 


2.0 


70.4 


i-3 


1640 


Wheat flour, patent process: 


















Low grade, - - - 


— 


12.0 


4-5 


10.9 


1-7 


70,2 


• 7 


i635 


Bakers' grade, 


— 


n. 9 


4.2 


10.3 


1-4 


71.7 


• 5 


1640 


Family and straight grade, 


— 


12.8 


4.0 


8-3 


1 .0 


73-5 


• 4 


1615 


High grade, 


— 


12.4 


4.0 


8.7 


•9 


73-6 


• 4 


1620 


Wheat preparations: 
















• 


Breakfast foods, - 


— 


9.6 


4-5 


9-3 


1.6 


74.0 


1.0 


1670 


Macaroni, - 


— 


10.3 


4-5 


10.4 


.8 


73-o 


1.0 


1640 


Macaroni, cooked, 


— 


78.4 


1.3 


2-3 


i-4 


15-6 


1.0 


405 


Spaghetti, - - - 


— 


10.6 


4.0 


9-4 


• 4 


75-i 


• 5 


1640 


Noodles, ... 


— 


10.7 


4.2 


9.1 


•9 


74-3 


.8 


1640 


Bread: 


















Brown, - 


— 


43-6 


2.8 


4.2 


1.6 


46.2 


1.6 


I035 


Corn (johnnycake), 


— 


38.9 


3-5 


6-5 


4.2 


45-2 


i-7 


1 1 70 


Rye, ... - 


— 


35-7 


3-4 


7-3 


• 5 


52.0 


1 .1 


1160 


Graham, - 


— 


35-7 


3-4 


6.9 


1.6 


5i-3 


1 . 1 


1185 


Whole wheat, 


■ — 


38.4 


3-2 


7-5 


.8 


49.1 


1.0 


1125 


White wheat, 


— 


35-3 


3-3 


7-i 


1.2 


52.3 


.8 


1195 


Biscuit, soda,* 


— 


22.9 


4-7 


7.2 


12.3 


51.8 


1.1 


i655 


Rolls, ... - 


— 


29.2 


3-6 


6.9 


3-7 


55-8 


.8 


1360 


Toasted bread, 


— 


24.0 


4-1 


8.9 


1.4 


60.3 


i-3 


1390 



* Made from wheat flour, raised with baking soda. 



120 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Table 13. — (Continued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 





ft 




V 
2 in 

■J5.1; 


Available Nutrients. 


Kind of Food Material. 


a' 




6$ 




V 

"5-° 




V 


* 


> h 

5" 




u 


to 


SB'S 


"7. 
< 


to 


Vegetable Foods. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Cal- 


Cereals, etc. 
















ories. 


Crackers: 


















Boston (split), 


— 


7-5 


5.0 


8-5 


1-1 


69.9 


i-4 


1S30 


Milk cream, 


— 


6.8 


5.0 


7-5 


IO.9 


68.5 


r.3 


1920 


Graham, ... 


— 


5-4 


4-8 


7-7 


8-5 


72.5 


1.1 


1900 


Oyster, ... 


— 


4.8 


5-4 


8.8 


9-5 


69-3 


2.2 


I9°5 


Soda, - - - - 


— 


5-9 


4-9 


7-6 


8.2 


71.8 


1.6 


1870 


Water, 


— 


6.8 


5.o 


8.3 


7-9 


70.6 


1-4 


1850 


Cakes, cookies, etc.: 


















Bakers' cake, 


— 


31-4 


3-3 


4.8 


4-i 


55-8 


.6 


1335 


Coffee cake, 


— 


21.3 


3-8 


5-5 


6.8 


61.9 


• 7 


1580 


Gingerbread, 


— 


18.8 


4-3 


4-5 


8.1 


62.1 


2.2 


1620 


Sponge cake, 


— 


15-3 


4-4 


4-8 


9.6 


64- 5 


1-4 


1735 


Drop cake, - - - 


— 


16.6 


4-5 


5-9 


13.2 


59-2 


.6 


1805 


Molasses cookies, 


— 


6.2 


4-7 


5-6 


7-8 


74.0 


i-7 


1855 


Sugar cookies, 


— 


8.3 


4-5 


5-4 


9.2 


71.6 


1.0 


1865 


Ginger snaps, 


— 


6-3 


4-7 


5.o 


7-7 


74-3 


2.0 


1845 


Wafers, ... 


— 


6.6 


4-8 


6.7 


7-7 


73-o 


1.2 


1855 


Doughnuts, 


— 


18.3 


4-8 


5-2 


18.9 


52.1 


• 7 


1895 


Pie, pudding, etc.: 


















Pie, apple, ... 


— 


42.5 


3-i 


2.4 


8.8 


41.8 


1.4 


1215 


Pie, custard, - - • 


— 


62.4 


2.2 


3-2 


5.7 


25-7 


.8 


795 


Pie, squash, 


— 


64.2 


2.4 


3-4 


7-6 


21.4 


1 .0 


800 


Pudding, Indian meal, 


— 


60.7 


2-5 


4-5 


4-3 


26.9 


1 . 1 


785 


Pudding, rice custard, 


— 


59-4 


2. 1 


3-2 


4-1 


30.7 


•5 


825' 


Pudding, tapioca, 




64-5 


1 .0 


2.8 


2.9 


28.2 


.6 


715 


Sugars, starches, etc. 


















Sugar, granulated, - 












100.0 





1790 


Sugar, pulverized, - 












IOO. 


— 


1790 


Sugar, brown, 












95-0 


— 


1700 














82. 8 


— 


1485 














70.0 


— 


1255 














71.0 


— 


1270 


Cornstarch, ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


90.0 


— 


1715 


Tapioca, ... 


— 


n. 4 


. 1 


• 3 


. 1 


88.0 


. 1 


1685 


Sago, ... - 




12.2 


1.4 


7-7 


• 4 


78.1 


.2 


1665 


Vegetables. 


















Asparagus, fresh, - 


— 


94.0 


• 7 


1-3 


.2 


3-3 


• 5 


95 


Asparagus, cooked, 


— 


91.6 


1.0 


1.7 


3-Q 


2.1 


.6 


195 


Beans, Lima, green, \ 

s ' (a. p., 


— 


68.5 


2-7 


5-3 


.6 


21.6 


1.3 


525 


55-o 


30.8 


1.2 


2.4 


• 3 


9-7 


.6 


240 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 

Table 13. — (Continued.) 



121 



a. p. = as purchased. e 


P- = 


sdible 


jortiot 


See 


page 


112. 










<Lt 


Available Nutrients. 




V 




3j2 




















V 




in 


OJ 


." m 






tii 




3 


Kind of Food Material. 


. t£ 


a! 


cc-r 


.5 




o£ 




"3-a 




V 


* 


5 fl 


P 


to 


£> ClJ 

u u 


< 


to 


Vegetable Foods. 


% 


i 


% 


% 


* 


* 


% 


Cal- 


Vegetables. 
















ories. 


Beans, Lima, dried, 


— 


10.4 


6.7 


12.8 


r.4 


65.6 


3-i 


1565 


Beans, string, fresh, ■] " ""' 
( a. p., 


— 


89.2 


1.0 


i-7 


•3 


7.2 


.6 


180 


7-o 


83.0 


•9 


1.6 


• 3 


6.7 


• 5 


165 


Beans, string, cooked,* - 


— 


95-3 


•5 


.6 


1 .0 


1.9 


• 7 


90 


Beans, white, dried, 


— 


12.6 


7-5 


15.8 


1.6 


59-9 


2.6 


1530 


Beans, baked, - 


— 


68.9 


2.8 


4.8 


2-3 


19.6 


1.6 


565 


Beets, fresh, - i e - P-> 


— 


37-5 


1.0 


1.2 


.1 


9-4 


.8 


205 


/•a. p., 


20.0 


70.0 


.8 


1.0 


. 1 


7-4 


.7 


160 


Beets, cooked, w 


— 


88.6 


1.2 


i-7 


. 1 


7-2 


1.2 


170 


Beet "greens," cooked,* 


— 


89.5 


1.2 


i-7 


3-1 


'3-2 


i-3 


220 


Cabbage, -. --I e,p -' 


— 


9i-5 


• 7 


1.2 


•3 


5-5 


.8 


140 


( a. p., 


15.0 


77-7 


.6 


1.1 


.2 


4-7 


■7 


115 


Carrots, fresh, - \ ' P'' 


— 


88.2 


1 .0 


• 7 


•4 


8.9 


.8 


200 


' a. p., 


20.0 


70 6 


.6 


.8 


.2 


7-i 


• 7 


155 


Carrots, cooked," 


— 


3-5 


6.9 


5-8 


3-2 


76.9 


3-7 


1700 


Cauliflower, ... 


— 


92.3 


• 7 


1-3 


■5 


4.7 


•5 


135 


Celery, - - --| e -P" 
3 ( a. p.. 


— 


94-5 


.6 


.8 


. 1 


3-2 


.8 


80 


20.0 


75-6 


• 4 


•7 


. 1 


2.6 


.6 


65 


Sweet corn, green, - \ * ""' 


— 


75-4 


1.8 


2-3 


1.0 


19.0 


•5 


445 


5 <a. p., 


61.0 


29.4 


■ 7 


•9 


■4 


7-4 


.2 


175 


Cucumbers, - .-| e 'P - ' 


— 


95-4 


■ 4 


.6 


.2 


3-0 


•4 


75 


\ a -P-> 


15-0 


81. 1 


• 3 


• 5 


.2 


2.6 


■ 3 


65 


Egg plant, 


— 


92.9 


.6 


•9 


•3 


4-9 


•4 


120 


Lettuce, - - - \ e ' P - ' 
'( a. p., 


— 


94-7 


• 5 


■9 


•3 


2.9 


■ 7 


85 


iS-o 


80.5 


• 5 


■7 


• 2 


2-5 


.6 


70 


Onions, fresh, - \ e ' P'' 


— 


87.6 


.8 


1.2 


■3 


9.6 


■5 


215 


(a. p., 


10.0 


78.9 


• 7 


1.1 


•3 


8.6 


.4 


J 95 


Onions, cooked," - 


— 


91.2 


.8 


•9 


1.6 


4-8 


•7 


175 


Parsnips, 1 * - _ .; e - P-> 


— 


83.0 


1.2 


1.2 


•5 


13.0 


1.1 


290 


( a. p., 


20.0 


66.4 


1 .0 


I.O 


• 4 


10.4 


.8 


230 


Peas, dried, - - - 


— 


9-5 


7-6 


17-3 


•9 


62.5 


2.2 


1580 


Peas, green, - - \ e ' P'' 
8 ]a. p., 


— 


74.6 


2.2 


5-2 


• 5 


16.7 


.8 


430 


45-o 


40.8 


1.2 


2-7 


• 2 ; 


9.6 


.5 


235 


Peas, green, cooked," 


— 


73-8 


2.5 


5-i 


3-1 


14.4 


1. 1 


490 


Potatoes, - * e -P-' 


— 


78.3 


1.4 


i-7 


. I 


17.7 


.8 


370 


{ a. p., 


20.0 


62.6 


1.2 


i-3 


.1 


14.2 


.6 


295 


Potatoes, cooked, boiled, 


— 


75-5 


1-7 


1.9 


. I 


20.0 


.8 


4 J 5 


Potatoes, mashed and I 
creamed, - - \ 




















75-1 


2.0 , 


2.0 


2.7 


17. 1 


1.1 


475 


Pumpkins, - -J e "P-» 


— 


93.1 


.6 


•7 


.1 


5-o 


• 5 


no 


1 a. p., 


50.0 


46.5 


• 3 


•3 


.1 | 


2.6 


.2 


60 


Radishes, - _i e -P-> 


— 


91.8 


• 7 


1.0 


.1 


5-6 


.8 


130 


/ a. p., 


30.0 


64-3 


• 5 


• 7 


. I 


3-9 


•5 


90 


Rhubarb, - J e -P-' 
(a. p., 


— 


94.4 


.6 


•4 


.6 


3-5 


• 5 


100 


40.0 


56.6 


■3 


•3 


•4 


2.1 


• 3 


60 


Squash, - - -\ e - P-> 


— 


88.3 


•9 


1 . 1 


•5 i 


8.6 


.6 


205 


( a. p., 


50.0 


44.2 


•4 


• 5 


.2 


4-4 


• 3 


100 



* With butter, etc., added. 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 
Table 13. — (Co?itinued.) 

a. p. = as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 











Available Nutrients. 




6 


QJ 


3 j2 






















(LI 


Kind of Food Material. 


<s 


"S 


S3 V 


.s 




0! 




"SjQ 




I) 


* 


CC 3 




•eg 


X 










5, a 


2 fc 

Hi 


CO 


< 


1ft 

ft 


Vegetable Foods. 


% 


% 


% 


* % 


* 


I 


Cal- 


Vegetables. 
















ories. 


Spinach, fresh, 


— 


92.3 


1 .0 


1.6 


3 


3.2 I 


.6 


IOO 


Spinach, cooked,* - 


— 


89 


8 


1 . 1 


1.6 3 


7 


2.7 I 


.1 


235 


Sweet potatoes, fresh, -j """' 


20.0 


69 

55 



2 


2.1 
1.6 


1.3 

I.I 


6 

5 


26.2 
20.9 


.8 

• 7 


545 
440 


Sweet potatoes, cooked,* 


— 


5i 


9 


3-0 


2.2 I 


9 


40.3 


• 7 


885 


Tomatoes, - - - 


— 


94 


3 


• 4 


• 7 i 


4 


3-8 


• 4 


100 


Turnips, - - -! ' "" 
v ' {a., p., 


30.O 


89 
62 


6 

7 


.8 

• 5 


1.0 

.7 


2 

1 


7.8 
5-5 


.6 

• 5 


175 
120 


Vegetables (canned). 


















Asparagus, ... 


— 


94.4 


.6 


1.2 


I 


2.8 


9 


80 


Beans, baked, - 


— 


68 


9 


2-7 


4.8 2 


3 


19.7 1 


.6 


555 


Beans, string-, - 


— 


93 


7 


• 7 


.8 


1 


3-7 1 





90 


Beans, Lima, - 


— 


79 


5 


1.7 


3.0 


3 


14-3 1 


2 


335 


Sweet corn, - - - 


— 


76 


1 


1.7 


2.1 I 


1 


18.3 


7 


430 


Peas, green, - - - 


— 


85 


3 


1.4 


2.7 


2 


9.6 


8 


235 


Succotash, ... 


— 


75 


9 


1.8 


2.7 


9 


18.0 


7 


425 


Tomatoes, - - - 


~ 


94 





• 5 


•9 


2 


3-9 


5 


100 


Fruits, etc. (fresh). 


















Apples, - - - i ' P"' 
^ ( a. p., 


25.O 


84 
63 


6 
3 


1.6 
1.2 




3 ! 

3 


5 
3 


12.8 
9-7 


2 
2 


260 
195 


Apricots, - • P-> 


— 


85 





i-5 




9 - 




12.2 


4 


240 


H (a. p., 


6.0 


79 


9 


1-5 




8 




11. 4 


4 


220 


Bananas, - -•]•?■' 
| a. p., 


35-0 


75 
48 


3 
9 


2-7 
1.6 


1 



6 


5 
4 


19.9 
13-0 


6 

5 


400 
265 


Blackberries, - 


— 


86 


3 


i-5 


1 





9 


9.9 


4 


235 


Cherries, - .■)■""' 


— 


80 


9 


2.0 




8 


7 


I5-I 


5 


320 


( a. p., 


5-o 


76 


8 


1.9 




7 


7 


14.4 


5 


305 


Cranberries, - 


— 


88 


9 


1 .2 




3 


5 


8.9 


2 


190 


Currants, - 


— 


85 





r.7 


1 


2 - 




11. 6 


5 


230 


Figs, - 


— 


79 


1 


2.2 


1 


2 - 




17.0 


5 


330 


Grapes, - - _ . e - P>> 
(a- P.. 


25.0 


77 
58 


4 



2.4 

1-7 


1 


1 1 

8 1 


4 
1 


17-3 

13. 1 


4 
3 


390 
300 


Huckleberries, 


— 


81 


9 


2.0 




5 


5 


14.9 


2 


300 


t \ e. p. , 

Lemons, - - - r 


— 


89 


3 


1 .2 




8 


6 


7-7 


4 


1S0 


1 a. p., 


30.0 


62 


5 


■9 




5 


4 


5-4 


3 


125 


Muskmelons, - -\ e ' P '' 


— 


89 


5 


1 . 1 




5 - 




8.4 


5 


160 


/ a. p., 


50.0 


44 


8 


.6 




3 - 




4.1 


2 


80 


Orano-es, - - \ e ' "'' 
(a- P-. 


— 


86 


9 


1.4 




6 


2 


10.5 


4 


210 


27.0 


63 


4 


1 . 1 




5 


1 


7.6 


3 


150 


Pears, - - -i e ->> 


— 


84 


4 


1.7 




5 | • 


4 


12.7 


3 


255 


I a. p., 


10. 


76 





1.5 




4 


4 


11. 4 


3 


230 


Plums, - - J e -P-> 
I a. p., 


— 


78 


4 


2.2 




8 ! - 




18.2 


4 


345 


5-0 


74 


5 


2.1 




7 1 - 




17-3 


4 


325 



* With butter, etc., added. 



COMPOSITION OF COMMON FOOD MATERIALS. 



123 



a. p. 



Tabl,F 13. — (Continued.) 

as purchased. e. p. = edible portion. See page 112. 



Kind of Food Material. 



Vegetable Foods. 
Fruits, etc. (fresh). 



Prunes, - - - 
Raspberries, black, 
Strawberries, - 

Watermelons, - 



J e. p. 

/ a. p. 

( e. p. 
\ a - P- 
\ e. p. 
(.a. p. 



Fruits, etc. (dried). 
Apples, - 
Apricots, 

Citron, ... 
Currants, 



Dates, 

Figs, 

Raisins, 

Prunes, 



j e. p. 
{ a. p. 

3 e - P. 

I a. p. 
j e. p. 

\ a - P- 



Fruits, etc. (canned). 
Apricots, - 

Blackberries, - 
Blueberries, - 
Cherries, - 

Crab-apples, - - - 
Peaches, - - - 

Pears, - - - - 
Strawberries (stewed), 



Nuts. 
Almonds, 

Butternuts, 

Chestnuts (fresh), 

Cocoanuts, 

Filberts, - 

Hickory nuts, - 

Peanuts, 



e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 
e. p 
a. p 



6.0 



5-0 
60.0 



10.0 
10. o 

15-0 



45-o 
86.0 
16.0 
49.0 
52.0 
62.0 
25.0 



28.1 
29.4 
19.0 
17.2 
I5.4 
13-8 
18.8 
14.6 

1 3- 1 

22.3 
19.0 



81.4 
40.0 
85.6 
77.2 
42.4 
88.1 
81. 1 
74.8 



2.1 
2.0 

i-7 

1.0 

1.0 

•9 

•3 



1.9 
6.1 
1.6 
2.3 
5-7 
1.3 
1.9 
2.6 



10.9 

5-9 

11. 4 

1.6 

5-9 
5-o 
9.2 
4-6 
10.7 

5-i 
10.6 

4.0 
10.7 

8.1 



Available Nutrients. 



r-3 

3-7 
•4 
1.9 
1.6 
i-5 
3-4 
2.0 
1.8 
1.6 
1-4 



2.0 

•9 

i-3 

i-5 

2-5 
2.2 

•3 
3-o 
2.7 



1.9 

•5 

.1 

2.2 

.1 

•3 



49-4 
27.2 

55-i 

7-7 

4-9 

4-1 

45-5 

23.1 

58.8 

28.3 

60.7 

23.2 

34-7 
26.2 



•si 
u u 

<J >> 



I7.I 

15-7 
11. 4 
6.8 
6.4 
6.0 
2.4 



59-6 
56.5 
70.3 
67.0 
70.7 
63.6 
67.0 
68.7 
61.8 
66.1 
56.1 



15-7 
50.9 
"•5 
19. 1 
49.0 
9.8 
16.2 
21.7 



15.6 

8.6 

3-2 

• 5 

37-9 

31-9 

25.1 

12.9 

11. 7 

5-6 

10.3 

3-9 
22.0 
16.6 



1-5 

1.8 

■ 7 
3.8 
1.0 

•9 
1.8 
2.6 
2.3 
i-7 
i-5 



i-5 

.8 

2.2 

•3 
1 .0 

.8 
i-3 

• 7 
1.8 

.8 
1.6 

.6 

i-5 
1.1 



Cal- 
ories. 

325 
295 
270 
160 
I50 
125 
50 



II90 
II30 
I340 
1315 
1415 
1275 
1290 
1410 
1270 
1230 
1045 



295 
IO15 
240 
365 
985 
190 
310 
400 



2685 
1480 
2805 

385 
990 
830 
2460 
1260 
2930 
I405 
2980 
1130 
2255 
1525 



124 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS 

AND OF MEMBERS OF FAMILIES OF 

PROFESSIONAL MEN. 

REPORTED BY W. O. ATWATER AND R. D. MILNER. 



As an important part of a more general inquiry into the 
subject of food economy, the Station has made studies of die- 
taries in order to obtain information concerning the dietary 
customs and actual food consumption of people in different 
localities and conditions of living. Such information, taken in 
connection with the composition, digestibility, and actual nutri- 
tive value of food materials, as discussed to some extent on 
preceding pages of this Report,* and the fundamental laws of 
nutrition, as revealed by experimental inquiries such as those 
made by the Station with men, and to be made, as it is hoped, 
with animals, in the Respiration Calorimeter, will gradually 
make it possible to point out the more common dietary errors, 
and to suggest methods of improvement to the advantage of 
both health and purse. 

Although the number of dietary studies already made is 
quite large the results emphasize the importance of continued 
research along these lines. Fortunately, the interest of public 
and private institutions in the subject is increasing, and inquir- 
ies are now being made in different parts of the country by 
experiment stations, colleges, and various organizations, as 
well as by private individuals, both in cooperation with the 
United States Department of Agriculture and independently, 
so that the much needed information is accumulating more 
rapidly than would otherwise be possible. 

In previous Reports of the Station accounts of forty-seven 
dietary studies have been given, comprising ten of farmers' 
families, nine of mechanics' families, nine of professional men's 
families, five of students' boarding clubs, and fourteen miscel- 
laneous studies. In the present Report details are given of 
nine additional studies, including two made in the Connecticut 
Hospital for the Insane, five of dietaries of individual college 
students, one of an individual professional man, and one of a 

* See pages 69-123. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 1 25 

professional man's family. The main results of these inquir- 
ies, including all the data used in the computations, are given 
in the following statements and tables. The dietary studies in 
the State Hospital for the Insane are, however, treated briefly 
by themselves in the succeeding article. 

Methods. — The methods of dietary study followed by the Station have been 
fully described in former Reports.* The general plan includes (1) determina- 
tions of the amounts and costs of all the different food materials on hand at the 
beginning of, purchased during, and remaining on hand at the end of the 
investigations; (2) when practicable, the collection and analysis of kitchen and 
table waste; (3) a record of the weight, age, sex, and occupation of the differ- 
ent members of the group under observation, and the number of meals taken 
by each. From these data, and those for the composition of food materials, as 
determined by analyses of samples of the materials actually used or as assumed 
from averages of analyses of similar materials, the total amounts of protein, 
fats, and carbohydrates in the dietary and the amounts consumed per man per 
day are computed. 

In carrying out the studies here reported the usual methods were followed as 
far as possible. In the two dietary studies carried out in the Hospital for the 
Insane (Nos. 253 and 254), the methods were necessarily somewhat modified. 
For instance, the various kitchens of the Hospital are served each day with raw 
materials from the general supply. In making a study in two of the buildings, 
therefore, it was not practicable to take an inventory of the materials on hand 
at the beginning and end of the study. The usual data concerning the kinds 
and amounts of foods consumed were obtained by keeping record of the weight 
of all the food materials used in the kitchen in the preparation of each meal. 
Weights were also taken of all materials sent from the kitchen to the dining 
room, and returned from the dining room to the kitchen. Considerable of the 
data thus obtained were, therefore, for the cooked foods actually eaten. In 
estimating the amounts of nutrients contained in these materials the composi- 
tion was calculated from the total weight of the cooked product and the weights 
and composition of the raw ingredients used in preparing them. 

In the studies of three individual college students (Nos. 318, 319, and 320), 
there were also some modifications of the usual methods. The data concerning 
the kinds and amounts of food actually consumed were obtained by the students, 
each of whom weighed, at the table, all of the food that was served to him for 
each meal, and recorded the weight together with such information as he could 
give concerning the character of the food, the method of preparing it, etc. In 
these studies the large majority of the statistics are, therefore, for cooked food 
materials as prepared for the table. It was not possible to make analyses of 
samples of the foods eaten nor to get data by which to calculate the composi- 
tion of the cooked foods from the weights and composition of their ingredients. 
The percentages of nutrients in the foods were assumed to be the same as in 
similar cooked food materials, the composition of which had been already 
determined or computed. But it is obvious that the composition of such 
materials will vary widely, according to the recipes used in their preparation. 
The results of these studies, therefore, may be considered less reliable than the 

* See Reports of this Station for 1891-96. 



126 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

results of studies made according to the usual method; but they serve the 
purpose for -which they were made and give a fair indication of the food 
consumption of the subjects. 

Composition of food materials. — No analyses of food materials were made in 
connection with these studies. Most of the materials used were staple articles 
of diet, and their composition was assumed to be the same as the average com- 
position of similar materials given in Bulletin 28, revised, of the Office of 
Experiment Stations of the United States Department of Agriculture.* In 
some of the studies, however, it was necessary to take the weights of the cooked 
foods as they were used. In several of these cases the percentage composition 
was calculated from the weights of the cooked foods and the weights and com- 
position of the raw ingredients used in preparing them. The percentages of 
nutrients assumed for the cooked foods, according to such computation, are 
given in Table 14. Where it was impossible to obtain the weight of the raw 
ingredients the composition of the cooked food was assumed from analyses of 
similar foods. The reference numbers opposite the names of the various mate- 
rials in the first table of each dietary study refer to the corresponding numbers 
in Table 14. In the case of the materials for which no reference number is 
given the percentage composition was taken from the Bulletin referred to above. 
Details of tke individual studies.— The introductory statements for each 
dietarv study give the statistics concerning the number of persons in the study, 
the number of meals eaten by each. etc. The first table for each study gives 
the amounts, and the costs where known, of the different food materials used 
during the period of the stady. The second table in each case gives the quan- 
tities of nutrients per man or per person per day furnished by the different 
groups of food materials, and the percentages which the different kinds of food 
and the nutrients contained in them make of the total food and total nutrients 
of the dietary. It shows also the fuel values of the nutrients and the amounts 
of nutrients and energy wasted. 

Waste. — The words ''refuse" and "waste" are ordinarily used somewhat 
indiscriminately. In general, "refuse" in animal food represents inedible 
material, although bone, tendon, etc., which are classed as refuse may be 
utilized for soup. The refuse of vegetable foods, such as parings, seeds, etc., 
represent not only inedible material, but also more or less edible material, 
according to the care used in preparation. As distinguished from refuse, the 
waste includes the edible portions of food, as pieces of meat, bread, etc., which 
might be saved and utilized, but are actually thrown away with the refuse. 

In the studies here reported the refuse and the waste were separated as com- 
pletely as practicable, and the latter was collected and either dried and analyzed. 
or the nutrients calculated from the weights and assumed percentage composition 
of the different food materials making up the waste. 

The table following shows the percentage of nutrients in 
some of the food materials used in some of the dietaries here 
reported. The majority of these percentages were calculated 
from the weights and composition of the raw ingredients used 
in preparing the foods. 

* The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. By W. O. Atwater and 
A. P. Brvant. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



I2 7 



Table 14. 

Percentage of nutrients i?i some of the food materials zised in the 

following dietaries: 





Ref. 










Carbo- 


Xo. 


Food Materials. 


Protein. 


Fat. 


hydrates. 




A nimal Food. 


'■ 


% 


- 


I 


Beef, - 


. 


32.5 


2 . 2 


— 


2 


Gravy. 


- 


1.9 




2 


12.5 


3 


Corned beef hash, 


. 


9-6 


6 





I2.0 


4 


Scramble, 


. 


8.8 


7 


7 


11. s 


5 


Soup, - 


. 


2.6 




7 


4-7 


6 






7-0 


3 


6 


9-i 


7 


Ham, - 


- 


13.6 


33 


4 




8 


Cod, salt (stewed). 


_ 


S.o 


7 


8 


21.6 


9 


Cod. creamed, 


- 


11. 




9 


3.0 


10 


Soup (dried residue), 


- 


29.7 


27 




55 5 


11 


Butter. 


- 


1.1 


56 


2 


— 


12 


Milk, - 


- 


3-4 


4 


4 


4-S 




Vegetable Food. 










13 


Wheatlet, cooked. 


... 


. 


2 S 


, ; 


1 1.5 


M 


Wheat, cooked, - 


- 


- 


2.0 


. -^ 


12.5 


15 


Cornmeal mush, - 


... 


. 


1-4 


1 


11. 4 


16 


Oatmeal mush, 


... 


. 




1 .1 


9-9 


17 


Rice, boiled. 


... 


. 


1 • 7 


. 1 


17. 1 


iS 


Bread, corn. 


_ 


. 


5. ; 


2.7 


47-5 


19 


Bread, ginger. 


- 


- 


5-4 


9-5 


64-7 


20 


Bread, graham, 


_ 


. 


5.6 


i-3 


54-3 


21 


Bread, wheat, 


- 


_ 


9-4 


1.2 




22 


Bread, 


.. 


. 


8.4 


2.0 


47-5 


23 


Wheat breakfast food, 


- 


. 


11. 4 


.6 


5o.4 


24 


Biscuit, raised. 


. 


- 


8-4 


6.; 


53-9 


2; 


Spaghetti, - 


- 


. 


11 . 5 


1.6 


73-i 


26 


Cake. tea. 


_ 


. 


7-1 


9.0 


68 . 5 


27 


Cookies, ginger. - 


- 


- 


5 -3 


6.2 


5o.5 


2S 


Ginger snaps, 


. 


- 


5-9 


B-7 




29 


Cookies, molasses, 


. 


. 


7 • 2 


8-7 


75.7 


30 


Cookies, sugar, 


- 


. 


7-i 


9-9 


74-4 


31 


Doughnuts, 


. 


- 


6.7 


21.6 


55-J 


32 


Doughnuts, 


. 


. 


6.6 


23.3 


40-7 


33 


Griddle cakes. 


... 


_ 


13.0 


6.0 




34 


Pie, peach, - 


... 


- 


4-1 


9.9 


37-8 


35 


Pudding, bread. - 


- 


- 


^.2 


2.0 


14-7 


36 


Pudding, bread, - 


- - - 


- 


3-4 


4-4 


19.0 


37 


Pudding, bread, - 


- 


- 


4-8 


- 2 


12 . - 


38 


Pudding, Indian meal. 


. 


. 


1 .5 


3*8 


16.5 


39 


Pudding, rice. 


- 


. 


1.5 


.6 


21.6 


40 


Pudding, rice. 


- 


- 


3-1 


2-7 


13-4 


4i 


Pudding, tapioca. 


- 


- 


;.5 


3 . D 


- 5 -5 


42 


Pudding, tapioca, 


. 


- 


1 . 7 


4-5 


19.6 


43 


Custard, 


- 


. 


4.0 


4-1 


: - 


44 


Fish dressing, 


- 


- 


6.9 


13.7 


3 .8 


45 


Rock candy. 


- 


- 


— 


— 


100. 


46 


Cocoa, 


- 


_ 


1.2 


1.6 


9.0 


47 


Peach sauce. 


_ 


. 


1 .; 


• 3 


29.9 


48 


Prune sauce. 


. _ - 


. 


1.1 




40.1 


49 


Coffee jelly. 


- 


_ 


1.0 


.1 


27. 1 


50 


Wet waste. - 


- 


- 


14. 5 


1 .5 


S2 : 



128 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 316. DIETARY 



OF A COLLEGE STUDENT AT MIDDLE- 
TOWN, CONN. 



This is the dietary of a college student, about 21 years of age, who boarded 
himself during a summer vacation, and for three weeks made careful record of 
all the food materials he used. His food, which he bought each day as needed, 
consisted largely of materials already cooked or otherwise prepared for eating. 
The proportion of vegetable food in this dietary is larger than usual, which is 
explained partly by his personal preference and partly by the fact that such 
food is obtainable in large variety ready for use. A quart of milk was used 
each day. Canned meats were purchased rather than fresh, because they 
required no cooking. The subject was in good health, weighed about 160 
pounds at the beginning of the study, and gained slightly in weight during the 
study. He was engaged in mental work about eight hours a day, and rode 
from five to fifteen miles each day on his bicycle for exercise. The study is 
divided into three periods of one week each. 

Table 15. 
Cost and weights* of food materials used in dietary No. 316. 

[Oa an tzties per man per day.] 



Food Materials. J 


Cost. 


Weight. 


Food Materials. % 


Cost. 


Weight. 


- Food Purchased. 


$ 


IybS. 


Oz. 


Food Purchased. 


% 


Ivbs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 






Vegetable Food (Con.) 






Beef: 








Cake, jelly, 


.10 


— 


IO.5 


Steak, round, 


•39 


2 


2-5 


Cookies, 


.02 


— 


6.0 


Roast, canned, 


.42 


3 


4.0 


Cookies, fruit, 


.02 


■ — 


i-5 


Dried, smoked, 


• 15 


— 


7-5 


Cream puffs, - 


.02 


— 


2-5 


Corned, canned, - 


.22 


I 


9.0 


Ginger snaps, 


.08 


— 


12.0 


Fork:' Lard, 


— 


— 


2.0 


"Rusk," 


.05 


— 


3-5 


Fish: Salmon, canned, 


■35 


I 


14.0 


Sponge wafers, 


.18 


I 


10. 


Eggs, - 


• 54 


3 


6.0 


Pie, huckleberry, - 


• 17 


I 


7.o 


Butter, - 






1 .0 


Pie, lemon, 


.03 


— 


6.0 


Milk, - 


1 . 11 


49 


3-5 


Pie, prune, 


.10 


I 


— 


Milk, condensed, 


.08 




10. 


Sugar, - 


•39 


5 


11 .0 










Beans, baked, canned, 
Peas, canned, 


• 53 
.04 


j j 


7-5 
9-5 


Total animal food, 


3.26 


63 


.5 


— 










Catsup, - 


.03 


— 


7.0 










Apples, - 


— 


— 


1 .0 


Vegetable Food. 








Bananas, 


• 15 


1 


14.5 


Oatmeal, 


— 


— 


12.0 


Dates, - - - 


.08 


— 


14.0 


Rolls, 


.46 


6 


1 .0 


Plums, - 


— 


— 


2.0 


Biscuit, - - . 


• 15 


1 


13.5 


Prunes, - - - 


.04 


— 


3-5 


Biscuit, shredded, 


• 40 


2 


3.5 


Ginger ale, 


.10 


— 


7.0 


Bread, ... 
Crackers, milk, 


.07 
• 03 


1 


7.0 
4.0 










Total veg. food, - 


3.37 


41 


14.5 


Crackers, soda, 
Cakes, cup, 


.02 
.06 


— 


2.0 

8.5 


Total food, - 


6.63 


105 


6.0 



* All weights, unless otherwise specified, are of the edible material free from bone, 
skin, etc. 

X The percentage composition of all materials used in this dietary was taken from 
Bulletin 28, of the Office of Experiment Stations of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 

Table 15. — (Continued.) 



129 



Food Materials. 

Food Wasted. 

A nimal Food. 
Beef, corned, canned, 
Beef, roast, canned, - 
Salmon, canned, 
Eggs, 
Milk, 

Total animal food, 



Cost. 


Wei 


ght. 


% 


Lbs. 


Oz. 


— 


— 


2.5 


— 


— 


7.0 


— 


— 


2.0 


— 


— 


2.0j 


— 


— 


8.5 


— 


1 


6.0 



Food Materials. 



Food Wasted. 

Vegetable Food. 
Beans, baked, canned, 
Dates, - - • - 

Total veg. food, - 

Total food, - 



Weight. 



Lbs. 
1 



12.0 

5-5 

1.5 

7.5 



Table 16. 
Weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive ingre- 
dients used in dietary study No. 316, first period. 

{Quantities per man per day.] 





Weights. 




Percentages of Total 
Food. 






ai. 


Nutrients. 


"3 
> 


en 


Nutrients. 


"3 
> 


Food Materials. 


B 
3 

Gm. 


% 


Gm. 


ft 
Gm. 


■£ 2 

°^ 
Gm. 


"3 
ft 

Cal. 


^1 




u 


ft 


1- i- 
U ^ 


3 
ft 


Food Purchased. 


f0 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


216 


56 


26 


— 


— 


8.7 


31-9 


20.5 


— 


— 


Pork, lard, etc., 


7 


— 


7 


— 


— 


■ 3 


— 


5-6 





— 


Eggs, - 


90 


13 


9 


— 


— 


3-6 


7-5 


7-4 





— 


Butter. - - - 


4 


— 


4 


— 


— 


.2 


— 


2.9 


■ 


— 


Milk, 


985 


32 


40 


49 


— 


39-5 


18.4 


30.8 


8.2 


— 


Milk, condensed, 


4i 

1343 


4 
105 


3 
89 


22 

~7i 


1530 


1.7 

54.0 


2.0 
59.8 


2-7 

69.9 


3-7 


— 


Total animal food. 


11.9 


35.0 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - - - 


485 


39 


28 


299 




19-5 


22.3 


21.7 


49-5 


— 


Sugars and starches, 


in 5 


— 


— 


135 




5-4 


— 


— 


22.4 


— 


Vegetables, 


492 


3i 


11 


91 


— 


19. 8 


17.7 


8.4 


15-0 


— 


Fruits, - 


33 


1 


— ■ 


7 


— 


1-3 


.2 


— 


1.2 


■ — 


Total veg. food, - 


1145 


71 


39 


532 


2835 


46.0 


40.2 


30.1 


88.1 


65.0 


Total food, - 


2438 


176 


128 


603 


4365 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Food Wasted. 






















Animal, - - - 


— 


2 


2 


1 


30 


— 


1.3 


1.6 


.2 


.7 


Vegetable, 


— 


8 
10 


3 
5 


23 
24 


155 
185 


— 


4-5 


2.2 


3-7 


3-5 


Total, - 


— 


5.8 


3.8 


3.9 


4.2 


Food Actually 






















Eaten. 






















Animal, - - - 


— 


103 


83 


74 


1500 


— 


58.5 


68.3 


11. 7 


34-4 


Vegetable, 


— 


63 

166 


3& 
119 


509 
583 


2680 
4180 


— 


35-7 


27.9 


84.4 


6t .4 


Total, - 


— 


94.2 


96.2 


96.1 


95.8 



130 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 17. 
Weights and percentages of food materials and ?iutritive ingre- 
dients used in dietary study No. 316, second period. 

[Quantities per man per day.] 





Weights. 




Percentages of Total 
Food. 








Nutrients. 


« 




Nutrients. 


3 




-a as 

O <u 

B 






> 

3 
ft 


•a * 

o'u 

v 

s 




> 




'53 



u 


ft 


■SB 


'S 


u 

ft 


03 
ft 


6$ 

£• as 
u u 
c8t3 

O >, 

x. 


11 
3 
ft 


Food Purchased. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


164 


42 


36 


— 


— 


6.3 


26.2 


27.7 


■ — 


— 


Fish, etc., 


65 


14 


3 


— 


— 


2.7 


8.a 


6.0 


— 


— 


Eggs, - 


85 


13 


9 


— 


— 


3-5 


7-9 


6-7 


— 


— 


Milk, 


"55 
1469 


107 


4 b 

99 


5« 

58 


1595 


47-9 
60.9 


23.9 


35-o 


10.9 ■ 


Total animal food, 


66.9 


75.4 


10.9 39.3 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - - - 


401 


31 


24 


247 


— 


16.6 


19-4 


17.8 


46.6 


' — 


Sugar and starches, - 


IOI 


— 


— 


IOI 


— 


4.2 


— 


— 


19. 1 


— 


Vegetables, 


285 


20 


7 


56 


— 


11. 8 


12.3 


5-4 


10.5 


— 


Fruits, - - - 


128 
915 


2 
53 


2 
33 


b5 
469 


— 


5-3 


i-4 


1.4 


12.3 
88.5 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


2450 


37.9 


33.1 


24.6 


60.4 


Unclassified, 


29 


— 


— 


3 


10 


1.2 


— 


— 


• 6 ! 


Total food, - 


2413 


160 


132 


530 


4055 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 100.0 


Food Wasted. 






















Animal, - 


— 


7 


4 


— 


65 


— 


4.6 


3.3 


. 1 


1.6 


Vegetable, 


— 


1 
8 


1 
5 


18 
18 


go 
155 





•3 


. .5 


3-4 


2.2 


Total, - 


4.9 


3.8 


3.5 


3.8 


Food Actually 






















Eaten. 






















Animal, - - - 


— 


100 


95 


58 


1530 


— 


62.2 


72.1 


10.8 


37-7 


Vegetable, 


— 


52 


.32 


45i 


2360 


— 


32.9 


24.1 


85.1 


5S.2 


Unclassified, - 


— 


152 


127 


3 
512 


10 

3900 





95.1 


96.2 


■6| -3 


Total, - 


96.5 96.2 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



131 



Table 18. 
Weights and percentages .of food materials and nutritive ingre- 
dients used in dietary study No. 316, third period. 

[Quantities per man per day.] 





Weights. 


V 

> 




ft 


Percentages of Total 
Food. 






en 

S' c 

O CJ 

s 

Gm. 


Nutrients. 


T3"3 

o-r 

££ 

CO 

fi 


Nutrients. 


3 

"cO 
> 




a' 

'53 
p 


co 
ft 


£> CO 

t~> 1- 

C0T3 

>> 


'v 


u 

ft 


CO 

ft 


•eg 


3 

ft 


Food Purchased. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


* 


% 


* 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 
Fish, etc., 
Eggs, - 
Milk, 


I02 

58 

45 

1072 

1277 


27 
13 

7 
35 

82 


19 
7 
5 

43 

74 


54 

54 


1245 


5-3 

3-0 

2.4 
55-3 

66.0 


22.1 
IO.4 

5-5 
29.1 

67.1 


18.6 
6.8 
4-6 

41.5 


11. 4 


— 


Total animal food, 


71.5 


11.4 


36.7 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - 

Sugars and starches, 

Vegetables, 

Fruits, - - - 


449 

135 

33 

42 

659 


37 

2 
1 

40 


23 

1 
29 


268 

135 
6 

9 
418 


2150 


23.2 
7.0 

i-7 
2. 1 


30.6 

1.8 

■ 5 


27.4 

.8 
• 3 


56.7 
28.6 

1.4 

i-9 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


34.0 


32.9 


28.5 


88.6 


63.3 


Total food, - 


1936 


122 


103 


472 


3395 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Food Wasted. 






















Animal, - 


— 


4 


3 


— - 


45 


— 


3.5 


2.8 


— 


1.3 


Food Actually 
Eaten. 






















Animal, ... 
Vegetable, 


— 


78 
40 


71 
29 


54 
418 

472 


1220 
2130 

3350 


— 


63.6 
32.9 


68.7 
28.5 


11. 4 

88.6 


■35.9 

62.8 


Total, - 


118 100 


— 


96.5 


97.2 


100.0 


98.7 


Average of 3 periods, 


— 


145 115 


522 


3810 













13 = 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL, EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 317. DIETARY OF A CHEMIST'S FAMILY AT MIDDLETOWX, 

CONN. 

This dietary study of a professional man's family was carried on for the 
purpose of testing the practicability of substituting salt fish and dried legumes 
as sources of protein in a diet where ordinarily considerable quantities of meats 
were used. Salt cod fish was used in various preparations, and dried beans 
were made into "baked beans," bean soup and "old-fashioned bean porridge." 
In ali other respects the diet was the same as usual, differing, however, from 
many dietaries in the large amount of dairy products, especially butter and 
milk, which were used. The study began with breakfast, November S, 1S99, 
and continued 9 days, with 27 meals. The family consisted of one man, 31 
years of age, weighing 155 pounds; one woman, 29 years of age, weighing 120 
pounds; and one boy, 5 years old, weighing about 45 pounds. The number 
of meals taken were as follows: 

One man, ---------27 meals. 

One woman (27 x .8 meal of man), equivalent to - 22 meals. 

One boy (27 x .4 meal of man), equivalent to - - 11 meals. 



Total number of meals equivalent to 
Equivalent to one man 20 days. 



60 meals. 



Table 19. 
Cost and weights* of food materials used in dietary No. 31J. 



Food Materials, t 


Cost. 


Weight. 


Food Materials, f 


Cost. 


Weight. 


Food Purchased. 


$ 


Lbs. 


Oz. 


Food Purchased. 


% 


Lbs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 








Vegetable Food (Con.) 








Beef, shoulder, clod, - 


• 34 


2 


13.0 


Molasses, 


• 07 


— 


13-5 


Salt pork, - 


.04 


— 


7-o 


Maple syrup, - 


.02 


— 


2.0 


Lard, - 


• 03 





5-5 


Sugar, ... 


.16 


2 


9.0 


Cod, boned, 


.20 


2 


6.5 


Beans, dried, - 


.15 


2 


S.o 


Oysters, solids, - 


.18 


I 


1.0 


Potatoes, - - - 


• 05 


4 


3-0 


Eggs," - - - 


•19 


I 


1.0 


Sweet potatoes, 


.07 


4 


3-5 


Butter, 


.69 


2 


14.0 


Apples, - - - 


• 14 


10 


6.0 


Cheesej - - - 


.07 


— 


7.0 


Grapes, § 


.04 


1 


9.0 


Milk, 


•97 


34 


14.5 


Grape preserves, 


.06 


— 


7.0 


Cream, ... 


.09 


— 


12.0 


Peaches, canned, 


• 13 


1 


— 


Total animal food, - 


2.80 


47 


1.5 


Chestnuts, § - 


.05 


— 


S.o 










English walnuts, § - 


.02 


— 


4.0 


Vegetable Food. 








Total veg. food, - 


1.37 


3T 


12.5 


Corn meal, 


.02 


— 


13.0 










Rye meal, - - - 


.01 


— 


9.0 


Total food, - 


4.17 


83 


14.0 


Wheat Hour, 


. 12 


3 


13-5 










Wheatlet, - 


.08 


I 


2.0 


Food Wasted. 








Shredded wheat, 


.07 


— 


7.0 


Animal Food. 








Bread, wheat, 


.02 


— 


9.0 










Crackers, milk, - 


.02 


— 


3-5 


Beef, shoulder, clod, 


— 


— 


• 5 


Crackers, oyster, 


• 05 





7-5 


Milk, 


— 


— 


• 5 


Cornstarch, 


.02 


— 


3.o 


Total animal food, 


— 


— 


1.0 



* All weights, unless otherwise specified, are of edible material free from bone, 
skins, etc. 

f The percentage composition of the materials used in this dietary was taken from 
Bulletin 2S, of the Office of Experiment Stations of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

I As purchased. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 

Table 19. — (Continued.) 



133 



Food Materials. 


Cost. 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Cost. 


Weight. 


Food Wasted. 


$ 


I,bs. 


Oz. 


Food Wasted. 


$ 


Lbs. 


1 A 

Oz. 


Vegetable Food. 








Vegetable Food (Con.) 








Flour, - 


— 


' — 


2.0 


Beans, baked, - 


— 


— 


.5 


Bread, brown, - 


— 


— 


1.3 


Sweet potatoes, 


— 


_ 


.5 


Bread, wheat. 


— 


— 


.2 


Total veg. food, - 






6 5 


Wheatlet, cooked, * - 








2 .O 
















Total food, - 


— 


— 


V.b 



* vSee Ref. No. 13, Table 14. 

Table 20. 
Weights mid percentages of food materials arid ?iutritive ingre- 
dients used in dietary study No. 317. 

[Quantities per man per day.] 







Weights. 






Percentages of Total 














3 


Food. 










Nutrients. 




Nutrients. 


3 




id 2 








> 


T3 cd 








> 




















O u 
O V 


a 




6$ 


3 


8"E 

O tu 


a 




oil 


3 




^% 


<u 


CB 


•Kg 


fa 




V 


cd 


■£ 2 


h 




a 


u 


ft 


ot 

A 


Cal. 


s 



u 


ft 


of T3 




Food Purchased. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


% 


% 


% 


* 


* 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


64 


11 


7 


— 


— 


3.4 


12.4 


5.6 


— 





Pork, lard, etc., 


18 


— 


16 


— 


— 




9 


.2 


12.4 


— 


— 


Fish, 


79 


15 


1 


I 


— 


4 


I 


15.3 


• 3 


■ 3 


— 


Eggs, - , - 


24 


3 


2 


— 


— 


1 


2 


3-5 


1.9 


— 


— 


Butter, - 


65 


1 


56 


— 


— 


3 


5 


.6 


42.9 


— 


— 


Cheese, - - - 


10 


3 


3 


— . 


— 




5 


2.6 


2.7 


— 


— 


Milk, 


791 


26 


32 


39 


— 


4i 


6 


25-9 


24.4 


10. 1 


— 


Cream, ... 


17 
1068 


61 


3 
120 


1 
41 


1535 




9 


• 4 


2.4 


• 3 


— 


Total animal food, 


56 


1 


60.9 


92.6 


10.7 


49.8 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - 


183 


20 


4 


us 


— 


Q.6 


19.9 


3.2 


35-2 





Sugars and starches, 


84 


1 




77 


— 


4.4 


.4 




20.0 





Vegetables, 


246 


17 


2 


77 


— 


13.0 


16.3 


1.4 


20.0 


— 


Fruits, - - - 


321 
834 


2 
40 


4 
10 


54 

343 


1665 


16.9 


2.5 


2.8 


14. 1 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


43.9 39.1 


7.4 


89.3 


50.2 


Total food, - 


1902 


101 


130 


384 


3200 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Food Wasted. 






















Vegetable,* 


— 


1 


— 


4 


20 


— 


.6 


— 


1.0 


.6 


Food Actually 






















Eaten. 






















Animal, - 


— 


61 


120 


41 


1535 


— 


60.9 


92.6 


10. 7 


4Q.8 


Vegetable, 


— 


39 
100 


10 
130 


339 
380 


1645 
3180 


— 


38.5 


7.4 


88.3 


49.6 


Total, - 


— 


99.4 


100.0 


99.0 


99.4 



* The quantity of animal food wasted was too small to affect the final results per 
man per day. 
10 



134 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 318. 



DIETARY OF A COLLEGE STUDENT AT MIDDLETOWN, 
CONN. 



This study began with breakfast, December 5, 1899, and continued 6 days, 
with 18 meals. The subject was a college student about 20 years of age, and 
weighing 170 pounds. He was something of an athlete, and was taking active 
exercise in the gymnasium daily, besides more or less active exercise out of 
doors. For further description of this study, see page 125. 

Table 21. 
Weights* of food materials consumed in dietary No. 318. 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No4 


Weight. 


1 

Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No.J 


Weight. 


Food Consumed. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Food Consumed. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 








Vegetable Food (Con.) 








Beef: 








Oatmeal, boiled, 


— 


I 


14.5 








7,0 


Pie, apple, 


— 


— 


4-5 


Corned, cooked, 


— 


— 


7-5 


Pudding, bread, 


37 


— 


4.0 


Corned, hash, 


— 


— 


15-0 


Rice, boiled, - 


— 


I 


— 


Gravy, - 


2 


— 


6.5 


Wheat, cooked, 


14 


I 


2.5 


Loin steak, broiled, 


— 


— 


4-5 


Cocoa, ... 


46 


— 


6.0 


Pork, loin, fried, 


— 


— 


4.0 


Sugar, - 


— 


— 


9.0 


Fish, clam chowder, - 


— 


— 


17.0 


Tapioca pudding, 


— 


— 


4.0 


Butter, 


— 


— 


12.5 


Beans, baked, - 


— 


— 


5-0 


Milk, 


— 


14 


1-5 


Cabbage, cooked. 


— 


— 


3-5 










Cabbage, chopped, - 


— 


— 


1-5 


Total animal food, - 


— 


18 


11.5 


Potatoes, cooked, 


— 


3 


10.5 










Apples, - 


— 


— 


9-5 


Vegetable Food. 








Apple sauce, - 


— 


— 


4.0 


6 

Bread, brown, - 
Bread, corn, 
Bread, wheat, 


— 


1 
4 


6.5 

5.0 

11. 


Apples, baked, 
Cranberry sauce, 
Jelly, coffee, 


49 


— 


3-5 
3-5 
2.5 


Biscuit, graham, 
Biscuit, shredded, 


— 





5-5 
2.0 


Total veg. food, - 




19 


14.0 


Cake, layer, 


— 


— 


4-5 


Total food, - 





38 


9.5 


Dumplings, apple, 


— 


— 


8.5 










Gems, wheat, 


— 


— 


11. 











* All weights are of edible material. 



\ See pp. 126 and 127. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



135 



TABEE 22. 

Weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive ingre- 
dients consumed in dietary study No. 318. 

{Quantities per man per day.] 





"Weights. 




Percentages of Total 
Food. 








Nutrients. 


3 
"3 




Nutrients. 


3 

"5 


Food Materials. 


T3 (fl 
<u 

s 








> 

T> 


Food 
material 






> 


'v 


u 


0) 

ft 


oJt3 


"3j 



ft 


. °> 
^ oj 
cStJ 


3 

ft 


Food Purchased. 


Gm, 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


iqi 


28 


16 


II 


— 


e.s 


20.4 


11. 6 


1.8 


— 


Pork, lard, etc., 


19 


3 


6 


— 


— 


.6 


2.3 


4-i 


— 


— 


Fish, 


81 


2 


I 


5 


— 


2.8 


I . I 


• 5 


•9 


— 


Butter, - 


60 


1 


51 




— 


2.1 


• 3 


37-o 




— 


Milk, 


1064 

1415 


35 
69 


42 

116 


53 
69 


— 


36-5 


25.2 


30.8 


8.8 


— 


Total animal food, 


1645 


48.5 


49.3 


84.0 


11.5 


38.1 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - - - 
Sugars and starches, 


981 

8q 


60 
1 


19 
1 


388 
50 


— 


33-6 
3-0 


43-2 
• 7 


14.0 

.7 


64.6 
8.3 


— 


Vegetables, 

Fruits, - - 


325 
107 

1502 


9 
70 


1 
1 

22 


64 
30 

532 


— 


11 .2 

3-7 


6.5 
• 3 


• 7 

.6 


10.6 

5.0 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


2670 


51.5 


50.7 


16.0 


88.5 


61.9 


Total food, - 


2917 


139 


138 


601 


4315 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



136 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 319. 



DIETARY OF A COLLEGE STUDENT AT MIDDLETOWN, 

CONN. 



This study began with breakfast, December 5, 1899, and continued 6 days,, 
with 18 meals. The subject was a college student, about 20 years of age, and 
weighing about 160 pounds. He took no especially active exercise. For 
further description of this study, see page 125. 

Table 23. 
Weights * of food materials used in dietary No. 319. 



Food Materials. 



Ref. 

No.j 



Food Purchased. 
A nimal Food. 
Beef: 

Boiled, - - - 

Corned, cooked, 

Chopped, cooked, - 

Corned, hash, 

Gravy, - 

Loin steak, broiled, 
Pork, loin, fried, 
Fish, clam chowder, - 
Butter, 
Milk, 



Total animal food, - — 



Vegetable Food. 
Bread, brown, - 
Bread, corn, 
Bread, graham, - 
Bread, wheat, 
Biscuit, graham, 
Biscuit, shredded, 
Biscuit, wheat, - 
Cake, layer, 



Weight. 



Lbs. 



5-5 

5.0 

2-5 

11. 5 

4.0 

3-5 

3-5 

11. o 

10. 

13.5 



6.0 



8.0 

7.0 

10.5 

II. O 

7.0 

1.0 

8.5 

3-0 



Food Materials. 



Food Purchased. 
Vegetable Food (Con.) 
Crackers, 

Dumplings, apple, - 
Gems, wheat, - 
Oatmeal, boiled, 
Pie, apple. 
Rice, boiled, - 
Wheat, cooked, 
Sugar, - 

Cocoa, ... 
Tapioca pudding, 
Beans, baked, - 
Cabbage, cooked, 
Cabbage, chopped, - 
Potatoes, cooked, 
Potatoes, creamed, - 
Apple sauce, 
Apples, baked, 
Cranberry sauce, 
Jelly, coffee, 

Total veg. food, - 

Total food, - 



Ref. 

No.t 



Weight. 



Lbs. 



49 



1.5 

7.5- 



* All weights are of edible material. 



% See pp. 126 and 127. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



137 



Table 24. 

Weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive ingre- 

dients consumed in dietary study No. Jip. 

{Quantities per -man per day.] 





Weights. 




Percentages of Total 
Food. 






. 1 Nutrients. 


"3 




Nutrients. 


_5 
"3 


Food Materials. 


T3 cfl 

O V 








> 

41 

to 


o'Z, 

O V 
w n! 

a 










'33 


u 
to 


"5 
to 


af-a 

.S3 


'v 

p 


a 

to 


, "5 

6.2 

3| 


4) 

3 
to 


Food Consumed. 


Gm J Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


$ 


% 


* 


* 


% 


Animal Food. 




















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


151 24 


13 


7 


— 


8.Q 


26.8 


12.9 


1.8 


— 


Pork, lard, etc., 


16 3 


S 




— 


I .O 


3-D 


5-1 


— 


— 


Fish, etc., 


52 I 




— 


— 


3-i 


I .1 


• 3 


.8 


— 


Butter, - 


47 — 


40 


3 


— 


2.8 


• 5 


40.8 


— 


— 


Milk, 


291 10 

557 38 


12 

70 


15 
25 


— 


17. 1 


I0.5 


11. 8 


3-4 


— 


Total animal food. 


910 


32.9 


41.9 


70.9 


6.0 


30.2 


Vegetable Food. 




















Cereals, 


718; 44 


24 


277 


— 


42.3 


48.0 


24.9 


65.5 


— 


Sugars and starches, 


So! 1 


1 


37 


— 


4-7 


1 . 1 


1 .2 


8.9 


— 


Vegetables, 


237! 8 


2 


44 


— 


14.0 


8.6 


2.2 


10.3 


— 


Fruits, - 


104! — 


1 
28 


39 
397 


2105 


6.1 


• 4 


.8 


9-3 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


1139 


53 


67.1 


58.1 


29.1 


94.0 69.8 


Total food, - 


1696 


91 


98 


422 


3105 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0; 100.0 



138 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 320. DIETARY OF A COLLEGE STUDENT AT MIDDLETOWN, 

CONN. 

This study began with breakfast, December 5, 1899, and continued 6 days, 
with 18 meals. The subject was a college student, about 20 years of age, and 
weighing about 175 pounds. He was taking moderate exercise daily. For 
further description of this study, see page 125. 

Table 25. 
Weights* of food materials used in dietary No. 320. 



,Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No. J 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No. J 


Weight. 


Foot* Consumed. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Food Consumed. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 








Vegetable Food (Con.) 








Beef: 








Cake, layer, 


— 


— 


8.0 


Boiled, - 


— 


— 


6.S 


Crackers, - - - 


— 


— 


2.0 


Corned, cooked, 


— 


— 


7-5 


Dumpling, apple, 




— 


7-5 


Corned, hash, 


— 


— 


iS.o 


Oatmeal, - - - 




2 


3.^ 


Gravy, - 


2 


— 


3.o 


Pie, apple, 


— 


— 


6-5 


Loin steak, broiled, 





— 


3.S 


Rice, boiled, - 


— 


— 


12. S 


Pork, loin, fried, 





— 


I.S 


Cocoa, - - 


46 


— 


4-^ 


Fish, etc. ,clam chowder, 





— 


13.0 


Sugar, ... 




— 


9.0 


Butter, 






7.0 


Tapioca pudding, 


— 


— 


4-5 


Milk, 




10 


13-5 


Beans, baked, 
Cabbage, cooked, 








7.0 
4.0 


Total animal food, - 





14 


6.5 


Potatoes, cooked, 
Apples, ... 


— 


I 


6-5 
2-5 


Vegetable Food. 








Apples, baked, 


— 


— 


8-5 


Bread, brown, - 






4.0 


Apple sauce, 


— 


— 


3.0 


Bread, graham, - 





2 


Jelly, coffee, 


49 


_ 


3.0 


Bread, wheat, 
Biscuit, shredded, 





— 


25.0 
6.0 


Total veg. food, - 


— 


13 


2.0 


Custard, ... 


43 


— 


2.5 


Total food, - 


— 


27 


8.5 



* All weights are of edible material. 



% See pp. 126 and 127. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



139 



Tabee 26. 
Weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive ingre- 
dients consumed in dietary study No. 320. 

{Quantities per man per day.] 











Percentages of Total 
















Food. 














3 








3 






Nutrients. 


CC 




Nutrients. 


n! 


Food Materials. 


T3 a! 






> 


T3 Bi 






P> 


















O s 


a 




0$ 


3 


o-rj 

5 


a 




6$ 


3 




ft-w 


V 




•O a) 


to 


to-tj 






& oj 


to 


























s 


u 

to 


to 






a 





to 






Food Consumed. 


Gm. 


G111. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


% 


% 


* 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


168 


27 


15 


8 


— 


8.0 


2S.4 


IS.O 


2.0 


— 


Pork, 


7 


1 


2 


— 


— 


.3 


1 . 1 


2.2 





— 


Fish, ... 


61 


I 





4 


— 


3.0 


1.1 


.5 


•9 


— 


Butter, - 


33 


— 


28 


— 


— 


1.6 


• 3 


28.6 




— 


Milk, 


820 
1039 


27 

56 


33 

78 


41 

53 


1175 


39-4 


26.1 


33.6 


9.6 
12.5 


— 


Total animal food, 


52.3 


54.0 


79.9 


38.1 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - 


671 


41 


17 


269 


— 


32.2 


39-7 


17.6 


63.0 


— 


Sugars and starches, 


84 


1 


1 


49 


— 


4.0 


1 .0 


1 .0 


11. 5 


— 


Vegetables, 


158 


5 


1 


30 


— 


7.6 


5.2 


1 .0 


7.0 


— 


Fruits, - - - 


80 
993 


1 
48 


1 
20 


25 

373 


1910 


3-9 


. 1 


.5 


6.0 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


47.7 


46.0 


20.1 


87.5 


61.9 


Total food, - 


2032 


104 


98 


426 


3085 


100.0 


100.0 100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



140 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



No. 321. DIETARY OF A CHEMIST AT MIDDLETOWN, CONN. 
This study began with breakfast, January 14, 1900, and continued 3 days, 
with 9 meals. The subject (J. F. S.) was a chemist, 29 years of age, weighing 
145 pounds. The study was made for the purpose of obtaining data on which to 
base a ration for use in experiments with the subject in the respiration calo- 
rimeter. The kinds of food in the diet were the same as would be given him in 
such experiments, but the amounts consumed were to be determined by his 
appetite. The composition of the food materials used in this dietary was 
known with considerable accuracy, so that the figures in the following tables 
give reliable data concerning the actual nutrients in the food consumed by 
the subject during this period. 

Table 27. 
Weights of food materials used in dietary No. 321 . 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.* 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No.* 


Weight. 


Animal Food. 
Beef, - - - - 
Butter, 
Milk, 


1 
11 

12 


Lbs. 
8 


Oz. 
12 

7 
12 

"15" 


Vegetable Food. 
Bread, - 
Parched cereals, 
Ginger snaps, - 
Rock candy, 
Sugar, - 

Total veg. food, - 
Total food, - 


22 

23 
28 

45 


Lbs. 

2 


Oz. 

4.0 
7-5 

7-5 


Total animal food, - 




9 


4-5 
1-5 




— 


3 
13 


9.0 
8.0 



* See pp. 126 and 127. 

Table 28. 

Weights and percentages of food materials a?id nutritive i?igre- 

dients consumed in dietary study No. 321. 

[Quantities per man per day.'] 





Weights. 


6 


Percentages of Total 
Food. 








Nutrients. 




Nutrients. 


_3 

"3 


Food Materials. 


*0 ttf 

S 






> 

3 
Ph 

Cal. 


•d cd 
<u 

a 




> 


.9 

'5j 


u 




AS 

u u 

>> 




u 

PM 


"3 


oil 

O >, 


11 

3 

to 


Food Consumed. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, 

Butter, - 
Milk, 


"3 

69 

1322 

1504 


37 

3 

45 

85 


3 

64 

53 

125 


64 

. 64 


1775 


5.5 

3-4 
64.7 

73.6 


29.I 
2-7 

35-4 

67.2 


1.9 

46.1 

42.3 


16. 1 


— 


Total animal food, 


90.3 


16.1 


51.9 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - ■ - 
Sugars, etc., - 


4S5 

56 

541 


41 
41 


13 


275 
56 


1645 


23.7 
2.7 

26.4 


32.8 


9-7 


69.7 
14.2 

13T9 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


13 331 


32.8 


9.7 


48.1 


Total food, - 


2045 


126 


138 395 


3420 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 100.0 


100.0 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



141 



No. 322. DIETARY OF A COLLEGE STUDENT AT MIDDLETOWN, 

CONN. 

The subject of this study was the same as in dietary study No. 316, on a 
preceding page. The study began on January 4, 1900, and continued 3 days, 
with 9 meals. The conditions and purpose of the study were the same as given 
for the study of the dietary of a chemist, No. 321. 

Table 29. 
Weights of food materials used in dietary No. 322. 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.* 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.* 


Weight. 


Food Consumed. 

A nimal Food. 

Beef, - - - 

Butter, 
Milk, 


I 
II 
12 


Lbs. 

I 
13 

16 


Oz. 

11. 5 

8.0 

15-5 
3.0 


Food Consumed. 
Vegetable Food. 
Bread, ... 
Graham crackers, 
Parched cereals, 
Sugar, - 
Cocoa, ... 

Total veg. food, - 
Total food, - 


22 
23 


Lbs. 
3 


Oz. 

6-5 
3.0 

8-5 


Total animal food, - ■ 




1.0 

4.0 




4 

20 


7.0 
10.0 



* See pp. 126 and 127. 

Table 30. 
Weights and perce?itages of food materials and nutritive ingre- 
dients co7isumed in dietary study No. 322. 

[Quantities per man per day.'] 





Weights. 


V 


Percentages of Total 
Food. 








Nutrients. 




Nutrients. 


2 

"re 


Food Materials. 


T3 * 

o'C 

O (Lt 

a 




> 

ft 

Cal. 


O OJ 

fc re 
a 










u 
Pm 

Gm. 


re 
ft 

Gm. 


. "5- 

-° re 
1- u 

X 

Gm. 


.2 

'v 


u 
ft 


re 
ft 


0! 

& re 
u u 
rt-d 

^ 


T3 

O 
O 
ft 


Food Consumed. 


Gm. 


% 


% 


%. 


% 


% 


Animal Food. 






















Beef, 
Butter, - 
Milk, 


195 

57 

1584 

1836 


63 
I 

54 
118 


4 
49 
70 

123 


76 

76 


1940 


8.4 

2.4 

67.8 

78.6 


39-6 

• 4 

33-5 


3-2 
36.2 

51.5 


21 .7 





Total animal food, 


73.5 


90.9 


21.7 


57.9 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - 
Sugars, etc., - 


462 

37 

499 


41 

1 

42 


10 
2 

12 


243 

32 

275 


1410 


19.8 
1.6 


25.4 

1 .1 


7-4 
1.7 


69-3 
9.0 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


21.4 


26.5 


9.1 


78.3 


42.1 


Total food, - 


2335 


160 


135 


351 


3350 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



142 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



DIETARY STUDIES IN THE CONNECTICUT 
HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

By W. O. At water. 



The importance of more thorough study of the dietaries of 
public institutions is coming to be generally felt. The number 
of charitable institutions and the number of persons supported 
in them at the expense of the community are already large and 
rapidly increasing. The philanthropy of to-day demands that 
the welfare of the inmates shall be most . carefully considered. 
The cost to the taxpayer requires the closest economy consistent 
with their welfare. 

In the home, on the farm, in the factory, in commercial 
establishments, on railroads, in municipal enterprises, indeed, 
almost everywhere, the results of scientific research are being 
put to practical use. It would seem that they ought to be 
capable of being utilized in the dietetic management of public 
institutions. The probability of their successful application 
here is rendered all the greater by the fact that during the 
past few decades a very large amount of scientific inquiry, and 
that of the highest order, has been devoted to the studies of 
food and nutrition. 

Appreciating these considerations, the New York State Com- 
mission in Uunacy has instituted an inquiry into the dietetic 
management of the hospitals for the insane in that State. 
This inquiry has been placed under the general direction of 
the writer. Accounts of the progress of the inquiry have been 
furnished for publication in the tenth and eleventh annual 
reports of the Commission. 

In the belief that studies of dietaries in the Connecticut 
Hospital for the Insane would be of interest, advantage was 
taken of an opportunity offered for such study through the 
courtesy of Dr. C. W. Page, Superintendent of that institu- 
tion, and Dr. J. M. Keniston of the medical staff, to whom 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 1 43 

especial thanks are also due for important assistance in carry- 
ing out the details. Studies were made in two of the buildings 
in November, 1898, and are here reported. The statistics 
were gathered by Messrs. A. P. Bryant, H. C. Sherman, and 
H. K. Wells. The methods of dietary study ordinarily fol- 
lowed by the Station were necessarily modified somewhat in 
making these two studies. The modifications have been 
explained on page 125 in the general description of methods 
given in the preceding article. The tables on pages 145-149 
contain the data of these two studies. 

I regret that the resources at the disposal of the Station 
for such investigations have not been sufficient to carry this 
inquiry further. The results obtained, however, compared 
with those obtained from the information available from other 
sources, were such as seemed to warrant a statement to Dr. 
Page, of which the following is a copy: 

Middletown, Conn., January 26, 1899. 
C. W. Page, M. D. , Superintendent, Connecticut Hospital for the Insane, Mid- 
dletown, Cofiti.: 
My Dear Sir: — The results of the dietary studies lately made in your insti- 
tution are of decided interest. Although they were made in only two of the 
buildings and continued for but a short time, I see no reason why they should 
not more or less fairly represent the usage of the establishment as a whole. 
From the physiological standpoint the diet in the cases studied was ample in 
quantity; there was, I should say, an excess rather than a deficiency of nutritive ' 
ingredients, and the food was in every way wholesome and nutritious. The 
relative waste was considerably larger at the main building with twenty dining 
rooms than at the middle building with one large and three very small dining 
rooms. I think the hospital is to be congratulated upon the success in the 
feeding of its patients. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) W. O. Atwater. 

I hope there may be opportunity hereafter for further studies 
such as will warrant more general conclusions. Meanwhile, I 
think it is safe to say that although the figures given show 
considerable quantities of waste, these latter are no larger — 
indeed, they are smaller — than are often found in well managed 
institutions elsewhere. They indicate that the dietetic man- 
agement in the Connecticut State Hospital is such as to 
provide for excellent nourishment at a comparatively low 
cost. The amounts of food actually eaten per person per day, 



144 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

as shown by these two studies, are on the whole somewhat 
larger than the average amounts per person per day eaten by 
a much larger number of people in New York hospitals whose 
dietaries were studied. While this fact has less significance 
than it would have if the studies at the Connecticut Hospital 
were more numerous, it implies, so far as it goes, that the 
patients in our institution were liberally fed. The same infer- 
ence may, I think, be drawn from comparisons with the results 
of other dietary studies and with dietary standards. 

In conclusion, I may say that in my judgment a careful and 
extensive study of this general subject in the public and chari- 
table institutions of Connecticut is much to be desired. 



No. 253. DIETARY AT MIDDLE BUILDING OF THE CONNEC- 
TICUT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 

The study began with breakfast, November 3, 1898, and continued 7 
days. It was carried on in the part of the Hospital known as the " Middle 
Building," which accommodates about 400 patients. Most of the patients took 
their meals in the main dining room. A few, however, who for some reason 
were not able or were not allowed to eat with these, were served in small 
dining rooms in the wards. The study shows the amount of food consumed by 
the patients and the attendants. The patients were of the " quiet demented " 
sort, who were considered hopelessly insane; but few, if any, of them were 
violent. The number of persons included in this study is as follows: 

Men. Women. Total. 

Patients; ------ 184 205 389 

Attendants and employes, - - - 13 20 33 

Total, - 197 225 422 

The total number of meals served was thus 8,862, equivalent to 2,954 per- 
sons for one day. But little is as yet known concerning the relative amounts 
of food required by men and women of the insane class, consequently no 
attempt has been made to calculate the equivalent number of men for one day, 
the final results being given per person per day. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



145 



Table 31. 
Weights* of food materials used in dietary No. 25J. 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.f 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No.f 


Weight. 


Food Purchased. 




I/bs. 


Oz. 


Food Purchased. 




IVbs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 








Vegetable Food (Con. J 








Beef: 








Cabbage, 


— 


207 


12 


Roast, - 


— 


90 


3 


Carrots, - - - 


— 


7 


8 


Soup meat, - 


— 


76 - 


Celery, - 


— 


23 


8 


Steak, - 


— 


205 


8 


Onions, - - 


— 


185 


8 


Corned, 


— 


331 


4 


Potatoes, 





260 


— 


Dried, - 


— 


26 


8 


Squash, - 


— 


208 


— 


Pork: 






Sweet potatoes, 


— 


845 


12 


Ham (boiled), 


— 


Il8 


3 


Turnips, 


— 


168 


12 


Salt (fat), - 


— 


18 


— 


Apples, - - - 


— 


180 


4 


Fish: 








Prunes, dried, 


— 


52 




Whitefish, - 
Cod, salt, 


— 


148 


8 

8 ! 


Raisins, - 


— 


6 


7 




50 


Total veg. food, - 





6254 


7 


Oysters, 


— 


103 


— 










Eggs, 


— 


53 


10 


Total food, - 


— 


9255 


— 


Butter, - 


— 


173 


— 










Cheese, ... 


— 


35 


13 


Food Wasted. 








Milk,t - 


— 


1596 


8 


A nimal Food. 
Beef: 








Total animal food, 


— 


3000 


9 












Roast, 


— 


11 


7 


Vegetable Food. 








Steak, 


— 


32 


4 


Barley, pearled. 


— 


4 


7 


Corned, 
Dried, 


— 


15 
2 


12 

4 
3 


Corn meal, 


— 


43 


8 


Pork: ham, 


7 


11 


Flour, pastry, - 


— 


40 


— 


Fish: 








Oatmeal, - 


— 


25 


1 


Whitefish, - 





17 


8 


Rice, - - - 
Biscuit, raised, 
Biscuit, soda, - 
Bread, brown, - 


24 
24 


20 

92 

72 

116 


10 
12 

4 ; 
12 


Cod, creamed, 
Soup (dried residue), 


9 
10 


16 
32 


— 


Total animal food, 


— 


138 


6 


Bread, corn, 


18 


119 


4 










Bread, ginger, - 


19 


92 




Vegetable Food. 








Bread, graham, 


20 


151 


— 


Corn meal, 


— 


7 


9 


Bread, wheat, - 


21 


2122 


— 


Oatmeal, 


— 


16 


8 


Crackers, soda, 


— 


32 


4 


Biscuit, soda, - 


24 


4 


— 


Spaghetti, 


25 


70 


— 


Bread, brown, 


— 


30 


— 


Cake, tea, 


26 


89 


7 


Bread, corn, - 


18 


11 


12 


Cookies, ginger, 


27 


5i 


4 


Bread, ginger, 


19 


3 


— 


Cookies, sugar, 


3D 


60 


— 


i Bread, graham, 


20 


8 


12 


Doughnuts, 


31 


76 


— 


Bread, wheat, 


21 


241 


. 8 


Pie, apple, 


— 


240 


— 


\ Crackers, 


— 


1 


— 


Pie, dried peach, 


34 


121 


10 


Spaghetti, 


25 


23 


9 


Sugar, ... 


— 


226 


— 


Cake, tea, 


26 


2 


4 


Molasses, 


— 


4 


2 


j Cookies, ginger, 


27 


2 


1 


Sirup, - - - 


— 


50 


4 


| Cookies, sugar, 


30 


1 


— 


Tapioca, - 


— 


19 


8 


Doughnuts, - 


3i 


— 


8 


Beans, dried, - 


— 


89 


— 


I Pie, apple, 


— 


10 


7 


Beets, ... 


1 — 


80 




| Pie, dried peach, 


34 


6 


— 



* All weights, unless otherwise specified, are of the edible material free from bone, 
skins, etc. 

f See pp. 126 and 127. 

\ Twenty-six pounds of cream was taken from this milk for use elsewhere than in 
this dietary. 



146 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Table 31. — (Continued.) 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.f 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.f 


Weight. 


Food Wasted. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Food Wasted. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Vegetable Food ( Con.) 








Vegetable Food ( Con.) 








Pudding, bread, 


35 


IQ 


12 


Squash, - 





IO 


— 


Pudding, rice, 


39 


33 


14 


Sweet potatoes, 


— 


131 " 


Pudding, tapioca, - 


4i 


30 


. — 


Turnips, 


— 


IS 


3 


Beans, dried, - 


— 


12 


9 


Apples, - - - 


— 


7 


4 


Beets, - 


— 


15 


7 


Prunes, dried, 


— 


7 


14 


Cabbage, 





n 

7 


10 
10 


Wet waste, 

Total veg. food, - 


50 


58 


5 


Celery, - 


— 


774 12 


Onions, - 


— 


11 


8 








Potatoes, 


— 


32 


14 


Total food, - 


— 


913 2 



t See pp. 126 and 127. 

Table 32. 

Weights and percentages of food materials and nutritive i?igre- 

dients used in dietary study No. 25J. 

{Quantities per person per day.] 











Percentages of Total 
















Food. 


































3 










5 




CO 


Nutrients. 


of 

> 


« 


Nutrients. 


of 

> 


Food Materials. 


13 of 






















2' C 
11 


rj 




oM 




o'C 


h 




6a 


3 




^rt 


CL> 


of 


A of 


ft 


*H 


tu 


of 


•9 <« 


ft 




ti 





ft 


C8T3 




H 



u 


ft 


Of -c 




Food Purchased. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


A nimal Food. 






















Beef, veal, mutton, - 


112 


19 


25 


— 


— 


7-9 


19.9 


28.3 


— 





Pork, - 


21 


4 


b 


— 


— 


1 


5 


3.9 


7.2 


— 





Fish, 


40 


8 


2 


I 


— 


3 


3 


7-7 


1.9 


.2 





Eggs, - 


8 


1 


1 


— 


— 




6 


1.2 


•9 





— 


Butter, - 


27 


— 


23 


— 


— 


1 


y 


■ 3 


25.3 








Cheese, - 


6 


1 


2 


— 


— 




3 


1.5 


2.1 








Milk, - . - 


241 

461 


8 

41 


9 

68 


12 

13 


855 


ib 


9 


8.2 


IO.I 


2.8 





Total animal food, 


32.4 


42.6 


75.8 


3.0 


28.6 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - - - 


559 


47 


20 


305 


— 


39-4 


48.5 


22.2 


71 .0 


— 


Sugars and starches, 


4b 


— 


— 


43 


— 


3-2 


— 


— 


IO.I 


— 


Vegetables, 


319 


8 


2 


62 


— 


22.4 


8.6 


1.8 


14.5 


— 


Fruits, - 


37 
961 


55 


22 


b 


— 


2.6 


• 3 


.2 


i-4 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


416 


2135 


67.6 


57.4 


24.2 


97.0 


71.4 


Total food, - 


1422 


96 


90 


429 


2990 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Waste. 






















Animal, - 


— 


4 


4 


2 


bo 


— 


4.4 


4-7 


.4 


2.0 


Vegetable, 


— 


8 


2 


50 


255 


— 


8.2 


2. I 


11. 6 


8.5 


Total, - 


— 


12 


6 


52 


315 


— 


12.6 


6.8 


12.0 


10.5 


Food Actually 






















Eaten. 






















Animal, - - - 


— 


37 


64 


11 


795 


— 


38.2 


71. 1 


2.6 


26.6 


Vegetable, 


— 


47 
84 


20 
84 


366 


1880 


— 


49-2 


22. 1 


85.4 


62.9 


Total, - 


377 


2675 


— 


87.4 


93.2 


88.0 


89.5 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



147 



No. 254. 



DIETARY AT MAIN BUILDING OF THE CONNEC- 
TICUT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. 



This study was begun with breakfast, November 14, 1898, and continued 
7 days. It was carried on in the part of the Hospital known as the 
" Main Building," which is somewhat larger than the " Middle Building." 
The method of this study was the same as that of the preceding. The number 
of persons included in this study is as follows: 

Men. Women. 
Patients, - - - - - 268 285 

Attendants and employes, - - - 45 52 



Total, - - - - - - 313 



337 



The total number of meals served was 13,650, equivalent to 4,550 persons 
for one day. 

Tabee 33. 
Weights* of food materials used in dietary No. 254.. 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 

No.f 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.f 


Weight. 


Food Purchased. 




L,bs. 


Oz. 


Food Purchased. 




L,bs. 


Oz. 


Animal Food. 








Vegetable Food. 








Beef: 








Barley, - 


— 


7 


8.0 


Beef-tea meat, 


— 


147 


4-5 


Corn meal, 


— 


61 


— 


Diet steak, - 


— 


52 


13-5 


Rice, ... 


— 


64 


I2.0 


Hamburg steak, - 


— 


209 


8.0 


Rolled oats, - 


— 


36 


— 


Liver, - - - 


— 


20 


4.0 


Flour, wheat. 


— 


80 


— 


Roast, - 


— 


233 


8.0 


Bread, brown, 


— 


268 


9-5 


Steak, - 


— 


I8 7 


9.0 


Bread, corn, - 


18 


206 




Soup meat, - 


— 


141 


3-5 


Bread, graham, 


20 


99 


8.0 


Corned, 


— 


455 


8.5 


Bread, wheat, 


21 


2761 


4.0 


Dried, - 


— 


34 


4.0 


Biscuit, soda, - 


24 


98 


4.0 


Pork: 








Crackers, soda. 


— 


55 


— 


Ham, - - - 


— 


305 


4-5 


Cake, tea, 


26 


124 


— 


Salt, fat, 


— 


40 


1.0 


Cookies, molasses, - 


29 


113 


12.0 


Fish, etc.: 








Cookies, sugar, 


30 


86 


— 


Cod, fresh, - 


— 


211 


8.0 


Doughnuts, 


32 


146 


— 


Cod, salt, 


— 


62 


4.0 


Pie, apple, 


— 


653 


i-5 


Oysters, 


— 


179 


4.0 


Spaghetti, 


25 


44 


9-5 


Eggs, 


— 


220 


13.0 


Molasses, 


— 


119 


12.0 


Butter, - 


— 


461 


8.0 


Sugar, - - - 


— 


466 


— 


Cheese, - - - 


— 


58 


4.0 


Tapioca, 


— 


3i 


8.0 


Milk, 


— 


4796 


4.0 


Beans, ... 


— 


265 


9.0 











Cabbage, 


— 


277 


13.0 






Total animal food, 


— 


7817 


1.5 


Carrots, - 


— 


29 


4.0 



* All weights, unless otherwise specified, are of the edible material free from bone, 
skin, etc. 
t See pp.126 and 127. 



148 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Table 33. — (Continued.) 



Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.* 


Weight. 


Food Materials. 


Ref. 
No.* 


Weight. 


Food Purchased. 




I,bs. 


Oz. 


Food Wasted. 




Lbs. 


Oz. 


Vegetable Food (Con.) 








Vegetable Food. 








Celery, - - - 


— 


92 


— 


Corn meal mush, - 


15 


57 


8.0 


Onions, - 


— 


206 


13-0 


Oatmeal mush, 


16 


49 


io.o 


Potatoes, 


— 


333 


9-5 


Rice, boiled, - 


17 


54 


12.0 


Squash, ... 


— 


229 


8.0 


Bread, brown, 


— 


96 


15-5 


Sweet potatoes, 


— 


519 


9-5 


Bread, corn, - 


18 


44 


4.0 


Turnips, 


— 


302 


— 


Bread, graham, 


20 


6 


12.0 


Peaches, dried, 


— 


49 


8.0 


Bread, wheat, 


21 


386 


14.0 


Prunes, dried, 


— 


68 


12.0 


Biscuit, soda, - 


24 


17 


8.0 











Crackers, soda, 


— 


1 


3.0 


Total veg. food, - 


— 


7896 


14.5 


Cake, tea, 


26 


6 












Cookies, molasses, - 


29 


2 


8.0 


Total food, - 


— 


15714 


— 


Cookies, sugar, 


30 


3 


— 










Doughnuts, 


32 


3 


8.0 










Griddle cakes, 


33 


10 


4.0 


Food Wasted. 








Spaghetti, 


25 


104 


12.0 


Animal Food. 








Pie, apple. 


— 


38 


4.0 


Beef: 

Beef-tea meat, 





147 


4-5 


Pudding, bread, 
Pudding, Indian 
meal, 


36 

38 


62 
80 


4.0 

8.0 


Diet steak, - 


— 


5 


4.0 


Pudding, rice, 


40 


51 


12.0 


Hamburg steak, - 
Liver, - 


— 


22 


4.0 


Pudding, tapioca, - 
Fish dressing, 


42 
44 


62 
9 


8.0 
12.0 


Roast, - 


— 


47 


14.0 


Beans, cooked, 




122 




Steak, - - - 

Corned, 

Dried, 


— 


3i 

99 

3 


4.0 
3.0 
8.0 


Cabbage, 
Celery, - 
Onions, - 
Squash, - 
Sweet potatoes, 
Turnips, 
Peach sauce, - 
Prune sauce, - 


— 


32 
66 


8.0 


Corned-beef hash, 
"Scramble," 
Soup, - 
Soup, - 
Pork: ham, smoked, - 


3 
4 

5 
6 


39 
44 
99 
125 
46 


4.0 

4.0 

12.0 

10. 


47 
48 


35 
5i 
37 
26 
32 
36 


4.0 
12.0 

4.o 
12.0 


Fish, etc. , as purchs'd : 
Cod, fresh, - 


8 


83 
50 
13 


10.5 


Wet waste, 

Total veg. food, - 


50 


94 


— 


Cod, salt, stewed, 
Oysters, 


— 


1683 


14.5 


Butter, - 


— 


11 


14.0 


Total food, 





2557 


6.5 


Cheese, - - - 




1 


8.0 










Total animal food, 


— 


873 


8.0 





* See pp. 126 and 127. 



STUDIES OF DIETARIES. 



149 



Table 34. 
Weights and percentages of food materials and mitritive ingre- 
dients used in dietary study No. 254.. 



{Quantities per person per day.] 





Weights. 


3 

> 

3 
to 


Percentages of Total 
Food. 






rji 

(U 

s 


Nutrients. 


O v 

a 


Nutrients. 


3 
> 




a 
"v 


u 

Ph 


ni. 

to 


u u 
OJT3 


a 

"v 
p 


0) 

to 






Food Purchased. 
Animal Food. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Gm. 


Cal. 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Beef, veal, mutton, - 
Pork, lard, etc., 
Fish, 
Eggs, - 
Butter, - 
Cheese, - 
Milk, - 


148 
34 
45 
22 
46 
6 

479 
780 


25 
5 
5 
3 

2 

16 

58 


35 
15 

2 

39 
2 

19 

112 


I 
24 

25 


1375 


9-4 
2.2 

2-9 

1.4 

2-9 

• 4 

30.5 


24.3 
4-7 
4-6 

15. I 

• 4 
i-4 

2.8 


26.0 

11. 6 

.2 

1.6 
29-5 

1-5 
14-5 


.2 
6.1 


— 


Total animal food, 


49.7 


53.3 


84.9 


6.3 


42.1 


Vegetable Food. 






















Cereals, - - - 
Sugars and starches, 
Vegetables, 
Fruits, - - - 


489 
62 

225 
12 

788 


39 

9 

48 


19 
1 

20 


257 
58 

45 
8 

368 


— 


31.2 

3-9 

14.4 

.8 


37-4 

8-9 
• 4 


14.2 
•9 


65.6 

14.6 

11. 4 

2.1 


— 


Total veg. food, - 


1890 


50.3 


46.7 


15.1 


93.7 


57.9 


Total food, - 


1568 


104 


132 


393 


3265 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Food Wasted. 
Animal, - 
Vegetable, 


— 


10 
10 

20 


12 

4 

16 


4 

55 
59 


170 
305 


— 


9.9 

9-3 


8.8 
3-0 


1.0 
13-9 


5.2 
9-3 


Total, 


475 


— 


19.2 


11.8 


14.9 


14.5 


Food Actually 
Eaten. 
Animal, - 
Vegetable, 


— 


46 
38 
84 


100 
16 

116 


21 
313 
334 


1205 
1585 


— 


43-4 
37-4 


76.1 
12. 1 


5-3 
79-8 


36.9 
48.6 


Total, 


2790 


— 


80.8 


88.2 


85.1 


85.& 



11 



i5o 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS, AND THE USE OF THEIR 
MILK IN FEEDING CADVES. 

By C. S. Phelps. 



In October, 1896, the Station made arrangements with the 
State Cattle Commissioners by which four condemned Devon 
cows were taken for experiment. The herd from which these 
animals came was first tested with tuberculin in March, 1896, 
but these particular animals failed to respond. In October, 
1896, the herd was again tested with tuberculin, and the four 
cows, which failed to respond in the earlier test, responded, 
and were shortly after taken to the Station. These tests were 
made under the supervision of the State Cattle Commissioners. 

The following table gives the temperatures in the two tests 
made before the cows were taken for experiment. The official 
numbers for the cows used in these tests have been retained by 
the Station. 

Table 35- 
Tuberculin tests made with cows prior to their arrival at the 

Station* 



Number of Cow. 


Before 
Injection. 


After Injection. 




8 P. M. 


10 P. M. 


6 A. M. 


8 A.M. 


10 A.M. 


12 M. 


2 P.M. 


Test made March 14-15, 
















i8g6. 
















T337. - - - - 


102.2 


102.8 


102.3 


102.6 


IO3.O 


I02.4 


102.4 


1341, - 


IOI.I 


IOI.3 


101.6 


102.2 


102.2 


I02.4 


I02.0 


1343. - 


IOI.O 


101.6 


101.S 


101.8 


102. 1 


102. 1 


I02.2 


1344- - - 


IOI.O 


101.5 


100.7 


101.6 


IOI.4 


I02.0 


IOI.4 


Test made October 26-27 , 
















i8g6. 
1337, - 


IOI.3 


101.4 


100.6 


101.6 


IO3.O 


104.4 


104.8 


1341, - - - - 


101.6 


101.4 


100.8 


101.7 


IO2.4 


104.4 


105.6 


1343, - - - - 


102.0 


101.7 


99.6 


101.6 


I02.8 


104.4 


105.0 


1344, - - - - 


101.8 


IOI.I 


102.0 


102.0 


105.0 


105.8 


105.6 



* Through the courtesy of the former Secretary of the State Cattle Commission we 
are able to publish the temperatures obtained in the tuberculin tests made prior to 
the arrival of the cows at the Station. These tests were made by Dr. L,. J. Storrs. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 151 

Care of the coivs, and tuberculin tests after they were taken in 
charge by the Station. — When the cows were brought to the 
Station they were placed in a high, light, and airy stable, 
affording about 1,500 cubic feet of air space per cow, although 
later several calves occupied the same stables with the cows. 
The Station barn is located about eighty rods from the College 
barn, and the tuberculous animals have been kept separate 
from •a.uy other cattle. Adjoining the stable is a yard about 
one-half acre in area, where the animals can exercise. In 
mild weather they have occupied the yard most of the day. 
No special treatment for the disease has been attempted, but 
good care and feed have been afforded at all times. Plans were 
made whereby the animals could be subjected to the tuberculin 
test from time to time. These tests were, in most cases, made 
. by the College veterinarian. 

The four cows have been under the care and observation of 
the Station for three and one-half years at the time this report 
closes (May, 1900). Accounts of the general health of the 
animals, and the results of tests on the use of their milk in 
feeding both their own offspring and calves from healthy cows, 
have been given in the last two reports of the Station. Up to 
September, 1897, these tests were made by Dr. George A. 
Waterman. The. test in September, 1897, was made by Dr. 
D- J. Storrs, as the College was temporarily without a vet- 
erinarian. Beginning with December, 1897, the tuberculin 
tests, and three physical examinations, have been made by 
Dr. N. S. Mayo. Since that time the tuberculin tests of 
the cows have been made less frequently than for the first 
year that the animals were at the Station. In the tests made 
by Dr. Waterman only two temperatures were taken before 
the tuberculin was injected, while in the tests made by Dr. 
Mayo temperatures were taken every two or three hours 
for a period of twelve to fifteen hours before injection. In the 
tables only the maximum and the average temperatures before 
injection are given. A rise of two or more degrees above 
the maximum temperature before injection, occurring within 
twenty-four hours after injection, is considered a response to 
the tests. The tuberculin tests made since January 1, 1897, 
are shown in the following table. The temperatures which 
indicate a response to the test are printed in bold-faced type. 



152 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 36. 
Tuberculin tests of tuberculous cozes, a?id of calves which were fed 

their milk. 



Date of Test, 


Before 




After Injection. 


Number and Age 


Injection.* 






of Animal. 


6 'A.M. 


8 A.M. 


10 A.M. 


12 M. 


2 P.M. 


4 P.M.I 6 P.M.' 8 P.M. 
1 1 


Jan. 26-27, i8q7. 


5 p.m. 


9 P.M. 


















1337, 4 yrs., - 


IOI.O 


IOI.2 


IOI.5 


I02. I 


104.0 105.2 


106.1 ■ 


104.8 


— 


1341, 6 yrs., - 


102.2 


IOI.5 


I02. I 


I02.5 


103.6 102.6 


103. 2104. 9 106.1 


— 


1343, 6 yrs., - 


100.9 


IOO.3 


101 .4 


I02.0 


102.9 105.1 


106.2 - 


105.0 


— 


1344, 6i yrs., 


100.6 


IOO. I 


IOI.2 


101 .6 


103.0 105.0 


105.9 ■ 


105.6 


— 


A (calf), 1 mo., 


102.0 


I02.0 


IOI.5 


IOI . 1 


101. 4 101. 6 


101. 6 





102.2 


— 


Mar. 3-4. 


4 P.M. 


9 P.M. 
















B (calf), | mo., - 


I02.7 


IO3.4 


I02. 1 


102.6 


102.2 


101. 5 


101. 7 





— 


— 


Mar. 2Q-30. 


5 P -M. 


9 P.M. 


















A (calf), 3 mos., - 


102.4 


I02.6 


102.4 


102.0 


101. 7 


101. 9 


102.4 





— 


— 


April 26-27. 


5 p-M. 


9 P.M. 


















1337, 4i yrs., 


T03.7 


I02.0 


I02.4 


102.2 


102.0 102.2 


102.0 





— 


— 


1 341, 6iyrs., 


102.8 


IOI.5 


I02.6 


103.7 


105.2 106.0105.8 





— 


— 


1343. 6iyrs., 


I02.0 


101.6 


I02.0 


102.0 


102.2 ;io2.o'ioi.8 





— 


— 


1344, 7 yrs., - 


101.6 


101. 


I02.5 


103.4 


103.8 103.8 


102.8 





— 


— 


July 30-31. 


5 P-M. 


II P.M. 


















1337, 4l yrs., 


101.8 


IOI.3 


I02.2 


102.0 


102.2 


102. 1 


102.2 101. 3 


102.4 


102. r 


1341, 6£yrs., 


101.6 


IOI.O 


I02.5 


102.8 


101. 9 


101. 8 


IOI. 5 IOI. 2 


101. 3 


IOI.O 


*343> 6iyrs., 


101.8 


IOI.O 


102.8 


102.7 


102. 1 


102.2 


102.0 101. 8 


IOI. 4 


101. 4 


1344, 7 yrs., - 


IOI.I 


100.6 


102. 1 


102.4 


101. 7 


102.0 


102.0 102.0 


102.0 


IOI .0 


A (calf), 7 mos., - 


102.5 


101.8 


101.8 


101. 8 


101. 4 


102.0 


101. 8 





— 


— 


B (calf), 5 mos., - 


101.8 


101.9 


101.2 


101. 4 


101. 6 


101. 6 


101. 9 





— 


— 


C (calf), 3 mos., - 


103.0 


102.0 


101.8 


101 .5 


101. 7 


101. 8 


102.4 





— 


— 


Sept. 27-28. 


8 P.M. 


10 P.M. 


















1337. 5 yrs., - 


— 


101.8 


102.0 


102. 1 


101. 9 


101 .6 


101 .6 





— 


— 


1341, 7 yrs., - 


— 


101.5 


101.3 


IOI. 2 


101. 5 


102.0 


101. 8 


■ 


— 


— 


T 343, 7 yrs., - 


— 


101.7 


101.5 


101. 6 


101. 5 101. 3 


101. 5 





— 


— 


1344, 7i yrs., 


— 


IOI.O 


IOI. I 


101. 4 


IOI. 2 IOI. 2 


IOI.I 





— 


— 


A (calf), 9 mos., - 


102.6 


101.6 


101 .6 


101. 4 


101. 7 iioi.8 


102.0 


— 


— 


— 


B (calf), 7 mos., - 


102.3 


101.7 


101. 7 


101. 3 


IOI.O 


IOI. 2 


101. 5 





— 


— 


C (calf), 6 mos., - 


102.4 


101.6 


101. 8 


101. 4 


101. 7 


101. 8 


101. 8 





— 


— 


Dec. 17-18. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Aver- 
age.f 


















1337, 5 yrs., - 


I02.8 


101.6 


101. 3 


101. 7 


102.9 


102.9 


102.6 


102.5 


103.0 103.5 


1341, 7 yrs., - 


102.2 


101.3 


101 .2 


102.0 


102.3 


103.0 


102.2 


I02.6 


I02.l'lOI.5 


1343, 7 yrs., - 


I02.2 


101.5 


IOI . I 


102.0 


101. 9 


102.4 


102.0 


101. 8 


101.0 101 .8 


1344- 7i yrs., 


IO2.3 


IOI.O 


101. 5 


102.2 


104.4 


106.4 


107.0 


105.7 


104.4 102.8 


A (calf), 1 yr., 


101.8 


IOI.I 


100.8 


101. 8 


101. 6 


101. 6 


100.9 


102.2 


101. 8 101 .0 


B (calf), 10 mos., - 


101.8 


101.3 


101 .0 


IOI. 2 


IOI.O 


IOI. 2 


101.9I101.7 


102.2 100.8 


C (calf), g mos., - 


102.2 


101.4 


IOI.O 


101. 5 


IOI. 2 


101. 4 


101. 7 101. 7 


102.2 101 .4 


D (calf), 1 mo., 


102.6 


102. 1 


102.0 


101. 7 


IOI. 2 


102.0 


101 .'8 


102.0 


102.0 


102.0 



* The tuberculin was injected between 9 and 11 p. M. of the first day. 

t Average of temperature taken once in two or once in three hours for 12 to 15 hours 
before injection. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 

T A ble 36. — ( Con tin iced. ) 



153 



Date of Test, 


Before 


After Injection. 


Number and Age 






Injection.* 




of Animal. 




















6 A.M 


8 A.M 


IO A.M 


12 M. 


2 P.M 


4 P.M 


6 P.M 


8 P.M. 




Maxi- 


Aver- 


















April 11-12, i8q8. 


mum 


age.! 


















1337, 5+ yrs., 


101. 8 


IOI. 3 


101.8 


102. i 


102.3 


102.2 


101. 8 


101. 8 


101 .g 


102.0 


1341, 7* yrs.. 


101.8 


IOI.3 


102.0 


102.6 


I02.4 


I02.6 


101. g 


102. c 


101. 8 101. 6 


1343, 7* yrs., 


102. 1 


IOI.5 


102.3 


104. C 


104.2 


104.5 


104.0 


102.5 


101 .9 102.0 


1344, 8 yrs., 


lor .2 


I00.8 


101 .7 


102.5 


102.7 


102.8 


102.7 


103.0 


103.2 103.0 


A, 16 mos., - 


102.2 


IOI.4 


101.6 


101. 8 


101. 6 


102.0 


101. 8 


IOI. 3 


102.0 102.0 


B, 14 mos., - 


101.9 


IOO.9 


100.5 


IOI.C 


100.6 


100.6 


100.8 


100.5 


IOI. 4 


101. 4 


D, 4 mos., - 


102.3 


101.8 


102.3 


101. 8 


101. 7 


101. 7 


102.0 


102.7 


102.6 


102.6 


Dec. 22-2 j. 






















1337. 6 yrs., ■ 


103.0 


101.9 


roi.2 


102.2 


102.9 


102.0 


101. 9 


101. 3 


101. 3 


— 


1341, 8 yrs., - 


103.0 


101.7 


102.6 


103.8 


103.9 


100. 


100.8 


102. 1 


101. 9 ■ 


1343, 8 yrs., - 


103.0 


102. 1 


104.2 


103.8 


103.8 


101. 5 


102. 1 


102.3 


101. 7 — 


1344, 8* yrs., 


102.4 


101.4 


101.6 


102.0 


102.4 


101. 4 


100.8 


IOI. I 


101. 3 — 


A, 2 yrs., 


102.5 


101.5 


101.4 


roi.7 


102.2 


102.6 


103. 1 


102.5 


102. 5 — 


B, 22 mos., - 


102.2 


101.7 


104.4 


106.2 


106.3 


104.9 


106.0 


105.3 


105.0 ■ 


C, 21 mos., - 


102.2 


100.6 


102. 1 


102.3 


101. 4 


101 .6 


102.9 


101. 6 


— 


— 


D, 13 mos., - 


102.2 


101.9 


iot.6 


102.2 


101. 8 


102.0 


101. 7 


101. 9 


IOI. 9 


— 


E, 4 mos., 


102.8 


102.0 


101.5 


101. 7 


101. 4 


102. 1 


101 .7 


101. 8 


101. 6 


F, 4 mos., 


103.3 


102. 1 


102.0 


102.0 


101. 6 


102.5 


101. 6 


101. 6 


102.7 


G, 4 mos., 


103.0 


102.6 


101.4 


101. 8 


100.8 


102.2 


103. 1 


102.9 


102.2 


— 


H, 3 mos., - 


102.4 


102.0 


102.6 


101. 4 


101. 5 


IOI .2 


IOI. 4 


101. 4 


101. 8 


— 


April 11-12, i8gg. 






















A, 2>Syrs., - 


102.4 


101.9 


102.0 


101. 4 


100.8 


100.4 


101. 9 


101. 3 


— 


— 


June 2-3. 






















I 337, 6| yrs., 


102.2 


101.4 


101. 1 


101. 8 


102.3 


102.0 


101 .7 


102. 1 


— 


— 


1341, 8-S- yrs., 


103.0 


102.0 


IOI .2 


100.8 


102.8 


102.6 


102.8 


102.0 


— . 


— 


1343, 8i.yrs., 


101.8 


101.4 


105.4 


104.7 


103.7 


104.7 


103.5 


100.5 


— 


— 


1344, 9 yrs., - 


102.0 


101.4 


102.2 


101. 7 


102.5 


102.8 


103. 1 


103.0 


— 


— 


D, 18 mos., - 


102. 1 


101.8 


roi .7 


100.8 


100.4 


IOI. 2 


101. 5 


101. 7 


— 


— 


E, 10 mos., - 


103.0 


ior.8 


roi.3 


IOI. 2 


101. 7 


IOI. 2 


101. 5 


101. 5 


— 


— 


F, 10 mos., - 


103.2 


101.9 


101. 5 


IOI. 4 


101. 6 


101. 8 


102.2 


102.6 


— 


— 


G, g mos., 


102.8 


102.2 


IOI. 2 


101. 7 


IOI. 2 


101. 5 


IOI. 2 


101. 7 


— 


— 


H, 9 mos., 


105.9 


105. 1 


103.4 


103.6 


104.5 


104.7 


105.4 


105.4 


— 


— 


I, 3 mos., 


102.6 


102.0 


101. 4 


102.8 


103.6 


103.8 


104.5 


104.6 


— 


— 


Dec. 1-2. 






















1337, 7 yrs., - 


100.6 


100.4 


IOI .2 


101. 4 


102.2 


102.4 


102.6 


101. 8 


101. 6 





1341, 9 yrs., - 


103.8 


102.4 


104.0 


103-4 


102.8 


106.2 


101. 8 


102.0 


102.7 


— 


*343, 9 yrs-, - 


103.8 


102.8 


105.6 


105.6 


105.4 


104.8 


103.6 


103.0 


103.4 


— 


1344, giyrs., 


102.0 


100.9 


102.4 


102.2 


102.4 


103.2 


100. 


100. 


103.0 


— 


E, 16 mos., - 

F, 16 mos., - 


102.9 


102.2 


IO3 . 2' 


104.4 


104.8 


106.1 


106.0 


105.2 


105.2 


— 


103.0 


102.2 


I02.2 


102.4 


101. 6 


101. 6 


102.0 


IOI.O 


101 .4 


— 


G, 15 mos., - 


103.2 


102.8 


IO4.2 


105.4 


106.0 


105.2 


105.0 103.8; 


103.8 


— 


H, 15 mos., - 


102 . 2 


101.5 


IO3.O 


103.8 


107.2 


106.0: 


105.4 105.4 


104.8 


— 


I, 9 mos., - - ; 


102.0 


101.8 


102.6 


103.2 


103.4 


104.01 


104.2: 


104.2 


103.0 


— 



* The tuberculin was injected between 9 and 11 p. m. of the first day. 

t Average of temperature taken once in two or once in three hours for 12 to 15 hours 
before injection. 



154 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Table 36. — (Continued.) 



Date of Test, 
Number and Age 


Before 
Injection.* 


After Injection. 


of Animal. 


6 A.M. 


8 a.m. 


10 A.M. 


12 M. 


2 P.M. 


4 P.M. 6 P.M. 




Maxi- 


Aver- 














Mar. iQ-20, 1 goo. 


mum. 


age.! 














1337, 7iyrs., 


IOI.7 


IOI.3 


101 .6 


IOI. 2 


101. 6 


I02.2 


I02.3 


IOO.S IOI. 2 


1341, 9iyrs., 


102.6 


XOI.8 


102.9 


IO3.9 


103.8 


IO4.2 


IOO.4 


100.9 io2 -3 


1343, 9i yrs., 


102. 1 


I0I.2 


102. I 


101. 6 


103.7 


I03.5 


101. 8 


102.0 102. 1 


1344, 10 yrs., 


101.8 


I00.6 


IOI .2 


101. 7 


101. 9 


IOI. 9 


102.0 


102.0 101 .7 


F, ig mos. , - 


102.2 


IOI.4 


I02. I 


102.6 


104.3 


105.2 


103.7 


104.8105.3 


H, 18 mos., - 


102.3 


101.6 


IO3.O 


103.2 


103.4 


104.0 


102.2 


101 .8 102.7 


K, 3 mos., - 


102.5 


102.2 


IO4.2 


105.0 


106.2 


107.2 


106.3 


106.7106.3 



* The tuberculin was injected between 9 and 11 P. M. of the first day. 
t Average of temperature taken once in two or once in three hours for 12 to 15 hours 
before injection. 

HISTORY AND PHYSICAL CONDITION OE THE COWS FROM 
FEBRUARY, 1899, TO MAY, I9OO. 

Cow No. 1337. — This cow was in good condition of flesh 
during the late winter and throughout the spring of 1899. 
She continued to suckle her calf (H), which had been dropped 
September 15, 1898, throughout the spring and summer of 
1899. The cow had a smooth, sleek coat, seemed bright and 
active, and showed no tendency to cough. The calf was pre- 
vented from sucking its dam after reaching the age of one 
year, September 15, 1899. At this time the cow was begin- 
ning to show indications of drying off preparatory to calving, 
and milking her was discontinued the latter part of September. 
This cow produced a vigorous calf, December 2, 1899, which 
appeared to be full sized and well developed. The calf was 
attacked bj^ scours soon after birth, and died December 4. 
The cow continued in a vigorous condition of health through- 
out the winter, having a sleek coat, remaining in a good state 
of flesh, and producing from 16 to 20 pounds of milk per day. 
In May, 1900, she appeared active and vigorous, with the excep- 
tion of a slight cough which developed during the latter part of 
the winter or in the early spring. Cow No. 1337 w T as subjected 
to the tuberculin test, June 2-3, and December 1-2, 1899, and 
March 19-20, 1900, but did not respond to an}- of the tests. 
This cow has not responded since January, 1897, a period of 
three and one-third years. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 1 55 

Cow No. 134.1. — -This cow remained in a fair condition of 
flesh during the late winter and throughout the spring of 1899. 
She continued to give a good flow of milk until the latter part 
of July of that year. At that time the animal was attacked by 
scours, showed loss of appetite, and began to decline in flesh 
quite rapidly. She was isolated from the rest of the herd in a 
small open shed, and after about a week ceased to give milk 
entirely for seven or eight days. Soon after this her appetite 
began to improve and she ate dry fodders quite freely. Milk- 
ing was then resumed, and the milk flow increased greatly in 
quantity for the next three weeks. This cow improved some- 
what in condition of flesh during August and September, 1899, 
and remained in a fair state of health throughout the fall and 
early winter. She was dried off, preparatory to calving, late 
in December. This cow has had a somewhat irregular ten- 
dency to a looseness of the bowels, but showed no further signs 
of .scours during the fall of 1899. Up to this time she had not 
coughed noticeably since coming to the Station in November, 
1896. Cow No. 1341 was dry from late in December, 1899, 
till February 11, 1900, at which time she dropped a vigorous 
calf. The calf appeared fully developed, but it was attacked 
by scours a few days after birth and died February 15. After 
calving the cow was rather thin in flesh, although she gave 
a good flow of milk, during March producing from 25 to 30 
pounds per day. During the spring of 1900 this cow seemed 
thin in flesh, had a rough coat, a dull, sunken eye, and was 
rather hollow and sunken at- the flanks. She has coughed 
considerably throughout the winter and spring, and if exer- 
cised vigorously will cough severely. This cow is evidently 
"running down," although she gives a good flow of milk at 
the present time (May, 1900). Cow No. 1341 was tested with 
tuberculin June 2-3, 1899, but did not respond, and again 
December 1-2, 1899, when she responded. March 19-20, 1900, 
she was tested again, but did not respond. 

Cow No. 134.3. — This cow remained in a good state of flesh 
during the late winter and throughout the spring of 1899. 
She has always shown a beefy tendency, appearing rather fat. 
During the latter part of the winter of 1898 and 1899 she did 
not appear as fleshy as formerly, but yet was in good order. 
She continued to produce a fair flow' of milk during the sum- 
mer and early fall of 1899, and remained in a fair state of 



156 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

flesh, although not as fat as during the summer of 1898. Up 
to the fall of 1899 she had shown more of a tendency to cough 
than any of the other cows. This was especially noticeable 
after feeding dry feeds or when the animal was made to exer- 
cise violently. This cow went dry about the middle of No- 
vember, and calved December 23, 1899, producing a strong, 
vigorous heifer calf. The calf had a mild attack of scours a 
few days after birth, but recovered within a short time. The 
cow lost flesh quite rapidly after calving, although she has 
continued to produce a good flow of milk. She gave from 16 
to 22 pounds of milk for the first three months after calving. 
At the present time (May, 1900,) she is rather thin, her ribs 
protruding quite plainly. Cow No. 1343 coughs more than 
any of the other cows, and her coughing has increased in 
frequency during the past six months. This cow was tested 
with tuberculin June 2-3, 1899, and responded to the test. 
She was again tested December 1-2, 1899, and March 19-20, 
1900, at which times she gave no response. 

Cow No. 134.4..— This cow remained farrow, after coming to 
the Station in the fall of 1896, until the fall of 1899. During 
this time she continued to produce a good flow of milk. In 
April and May, 1899, s ^ e was giviog from 8 to 11 pounds per 
day. During the spring and summer of 1899 she was in a fair 
state of flesh and appeared to be quite vigorous in health. 
She was dried off, preparatory to calving, about September 1, 
1899. This cow manifested a lameness in the stifle joint of 
the right rear leg some time during the summer of 1899, and 
although she became somewhat lame it seemed to give her 
comparatively little trouble. This cow dropped a bull calf 
October 15, 1899. The calf appeared rather weak at birth and 
refused to suckle its dam, and was probably premature by about 
a month. The calf died October 22, 1899. The cow began to 
produce a liberal flow of milk shortly after calving, and during 
the latter half of November was giving from 25 to 30 pounds 
per day. She kept up a good flow of milk throughout the 
winter, producing from 18 to 20 pounds per day near the end 
of March, 1900. Previous to the winter of 1899 and 1900 this 
cow had been in a fair state of flesh, with a tendenc}^ to remain 
rather fat, although during the summer of 1899 she was not 
as fleshy as in 1898. During the past six months she has lost 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 1 57 

flesh, and at the present time (May, 1900,) seems quite thin 
and shows the position of her ribs plainly. Previous to the 
fall of 1899, cow No. 1344 was not noticed to have any cough, 
but during the past winter she has coughed quite vigorously. 
The lame leg has been quite badly swollen about the stifle 
joint, and this lameness has caused her considerable inconve- 
nience in moving about. She was, however, less lame after 
warm weather came, and she was able to exercise freely in the 
yard. This cow was tested with tuberculin June 2-3, and 
December 1-2, 1899, and again March 19-20, 1900, but did 
not respond to any of these tests. 

PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS. 

On May 8, 1898, and February 7, 1899, Prof. N. S. Mayo, 
the College Veterinarian, made physical examinations of the 
animals. The report of these examinations were given in the 
article on the subject in the Report of the Station for 1898. 
They are repeated here for comparison with the report of the 
examination made by the same veterinarian, May 26, 1900. 
These reports are as follows: 

Report of the Veterinarian, May 8, i8g8. — It is a fact well recognized that 
bovine tuberculosis, unless well advanced, is one of the most difficult diseases 
to diagnose upon a physical examination. 

Of the seven animals examined four are the Devon cows that have been tested 
and found to respond at one time or another, three (A, B, and D) are young 
bulls that have been fed with the milk of the cows. The calves have not reacted 
to the tuberculin test, and a careful physical examination fails to reveal any 
indications that they have tuberculosis. 

Of the four cows that have responded to the test, No. 1337 presents no 
symptoms of tuberculosis. She is in good flesh and looks well. Her tempera- 
ture was 102. 2° F., respirations full and at the rate of twelve per minute. 

Cow No. 1341 is thinner in flesh than any of the others, and seems to be 
affected with a slight but chronic looseness of the bowels. Her temperature 
was 102° F., and respirations twelve per minute. 

Cow No. 1343 is rather fat. She is troubled with a chronic cough, and 
auscultation indicates that the anterior (cephalic) lobes of the lungs, especially 
the right, are tuberculous. Her temperature was 102. 6° F., and respirations 
are twenty-two per minute. Cows Nos. 1337, 1341, and 1343 are pregnant. 

Cow No. 1344 is in good flesh. Temperature 101.8 F., and respirations 
fifteen per minute. Nothing abnormal could be detected upon a physical 
examination. No enlarged glands could be detected in any of the animals 
examined. Of the four cows that have at some time responded to the test, 
Nos. 1337 and 1344 show no symptoms of the disease having developed. In 
No. 1 341 the chronic looseness of the bowels may be considered as a suspicious 
symptom of a tubercular affection of the digestive tract. In No. 1343 the 
physical symptoms indicate tuberculosis of the lungs. 



158 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

It must be remembered that all of these animals have had good care and 
attention, and have not been exposed to conditions or circumstances that would 
cause the disease to develop. 

Report of the Veteri?taria7t, February J, iSgg. — Of the four Devon cows 
examined, No. 1337 does not seem to be in as thrifty condition as she ought to 
be, considering her care and feed. No. 1341 is not in as thrifty condition as 
No. 1337, and would probably be condemned as tuberculous on a physical 
examination. Nos. 1343 and 1344 are in excellent condition, physically, both 
being rather fat, and are looking well. The only evidence of disease is found 
in No. 1343, her respirations not being as full and deep as they should be 
normally. No cough was noted in any of the animals. 

Report of the Veterinarian, May 26, igoo. — Cow No. 1337. In excellent 
physical condition as far as could be determined; good flesh, coat smooth and 
of good color, respirations sixteen per minute. I was unable to detect any 
abnormal sounds or absence of sounds in the lungs upon auscultation. This 
cow is evidently well along in pregnancy. 

Cow No. 1341. Thin in flesh and does not look in a thrifty condition. 
Coat is rough and has not shed well. A part of her physical condition may be 
attributed to her having been in milk for some time. This cow's lungs appear 
to be slightly affected. Respirations, twenty-two per minute. 

Cow No. 1343. Rather thin in flesh. Coat looks some better than No. 
1341, but No. 1343 coughs quite badly, and auscultation reveals considerable 
areas of solidification in both lungs. Respirations, thirty-six per minute. 

Cow No. 1344. Very thin in flesh, and her general physical condition is not 
good. She is suffering from severe lameness in the right hind leg, which 
appears to be due to a tubercular affection of the stifle joint. A considerable 
portion of this cow's poor condition must be attributed to her lameness. Res- 
pirations, twenty per minute. 

N. S. Mayo, D.V. S., College Veterinarian. 

FEEDING CALVES WITH THE MILK OF TUBERCULOUS COWS. 

A large part of the time during the past three and one-half 
years the milk of the four tuberculous cows has been fed to 
calves. In some instances the milk has been fed until the calf 
was a year or more in age. In a few cases the calves were 
allowed to suckle their dams, while in others they were fed the 
milk from pails. In most of these experiments the calves have 
been kept in the same stable with the cows, and, of course, 
there was considerable likeliness that the disease might be 
contracted from other sources than the milk. One object of 
the experiment was to test the relative danger in keeping 
calves associated with the cows. In some later experiments 
calves are being fed the milk of these cows while being quar- 
anteened from them. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 1 59 

During the first two years that the cows were at the Station 
four calves were kept in the stable with them a large part of 
the time, and were fed the milk of the diseased cows, but in 
no case did the calves show any sign of the disease as far as 
could be detected by the tuberculin test or by physical symp- 
toms. The following is a brief history of the feeding tests 
which have been made during the three and one-half years 
that the cows have been at the Station. 

Feeding Calf A with the milk of Cows 134.4. and 1341. — This 
calf was dropped December 25, 1896, by a vigorous grade cow 
in the .college herd. The calf was fed the milk of cow No. 
1344 from January 7 to March 28, 1897. It was tested with 
tuberculin January 26-27, an d again March 29-30, 1897, but 
gave no response to either of the tests. At that time the supply 
of milk from cow No. 1344 was less than the calf seemed to 
need, and it was fed the milk of cow No. 1341. Calf A was 
fed the milk of this cow from April 1, 1897, to July 9, 1898. 
In May, when about a year and a half old, it was castrated, 
and was sent to pasture early in July following. At the time 
this steer went to pasture it was a vigorous animal weighing 
about 500 pounds. Early in November steer A was returned 
to the same stable with the tuberculous cows, and during the 
following winter was fed a suitable ration for fattening. The 
animal was sold for beef in April, 1899. Tuberculin tests of 
this animal were made January 26-27, March 29-30, July 
30-31, September 27-28, December 17-18, 1897, and April 
11-12, and December 22-23, 1898, and again just before being 
sold for beef, April 11-12, 1899. From this record it may be 
seen that this animal was fed the milk of two of the tuberculous 
cows for about a year and a half, was then at pasture for about 
four months, then it was again kept in the same stall with 
the tuberculous cows for another period of five months. The 
animal remained healthy, as far as was indicated by the tuber- 
culin test or by physical examination, up to the time of 
slaughter, when nearly two years and four months old. 

Feeding Calf B with the milk of Cow 1343. — This calf was 
dropped by a vigorous Jersey cow in the college herd, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1897, an d was ten days old when the feeding period 
began. When about two weeks old it was tested with tuber- 
culin, and gave no response. From March 1, 1897, to early 



l6o STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

in July, 1898, calf B was fed the milk of cow No. 1343. This 
calf was not a vigorous eater, and at times refused single 
feeds of milk. The calf seemed healthy, and ate hay 
readily. When a year old the animal was thought to be 
rather small for its age, but this may have been due to the 
fact that it had always refused grain feeds. This animal 
was castrated in May, 1898, and was sent to pasture with 
steer A in the early part of July. It was returned to the same 
stable with the cows early in November, and started upon a 
heavy grain ration with a view to fattening for beef. Decem- 
ber 22-23, this steer gave a marked response to the tuberculin 
test (see temperature, Table 36, page 153). In addition to 
the marked rise in temperature, the steer showed physical 
symptoms by a roughness of the coat, shivering, and twitching 
of the muscles. Steer B was killed and carefully examined by 
the College Veterinarian, Dr. Mayo, December 30, 1898. The 
only trace of the disease found was a few small tubercles in 
one of the pharyngeal glands of the throat. The disease was, 
with little doubt, of recent origin. While, of course, there is 
no proof as to how this animal contracted the disease, it seems 
quite probable that the germs may have entered the system in 
the breath after the animal was returned to the stable early in 
November, 1898. 

Feeding Calf C with the milk of Cow 1337. — This was a heifer 
calf, dropped by cow No. 1337, April 5, 1897. The calf was 
allowed to suckle its dam until about six months old. About 
October 1 the calf was weaned, but was fed the milk of its 
dam until January, 1898. It was then gradually put upon a 
skim-milk diet, and was placed in the college herd with the 
intention of raising the calf for dairy purposes. The animal 
was tested with tuberculin July 30-31, September 27-28, and 
December 17-18, 1897, an( ^ again December 22-23, 1898. The 
heifer produced her first calf December 5, 1899, arj d has con- 
tinued to give a fair flow of milk. She was tested with 
tuberculin June 2-3 and December 7-8, 1S99, and April 25-26, 
1900, but gave no response. 

Feeding Calf D with the milk of Cow 134.4. — This was a bull 
calf, dropped by a vigorous grade cow, November 29, 1897. 
It was fed the milk of cow No. 1344 from early in December, 
1897, till February, 1899, after which it was given a grain and 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. l6l 

hay ration entirely. From the time of birth until June, 1899, 
this animal was kept in the same stable and yard with the 
cows. It was then sold to a farmer living near the Station , 
who was informed of the history of the animal, and has been 
used since that time for breeding purposes. This animal (D) 
was tested with tuberculin December 17-18, 1897, and April 
11-12, and December 22-23, 1898, and June 2-3, 1899, but 
in no case did it give any response to the test. When sold it 
it was a strong, vigorous animal, and seemed large for its age. 

From these records it will be seen that the milk of the four 
cows was fed to four calves for periods varying from three 
months to a year and four months, and that in no case was 
there any sign of the disease during the feeding period. One 
animal (B) did respond to the tuberculin test nearly six months 
after the feeding period with the milk was ended, but from the 
mild form in which the disease then existed it would seem 
doubtful if the disease was contracted from the milk. These 
tests point to the conclusion that the milk of tuberculous cows, 
in the early stages of the disease, is not very likely to transmit 
the disease when fed to healthy calves. 

As will be seen from the records of the history and condi- 
tions of the animals, cows Nos. 1337, 1341, and 1343 produced 
calves in August and September, 1898. It was decided to feed 
several of these calves upon the milk of their dams. These 
feeding tests were continued for about a year. 

Feedi?ig Calves E and F with the milk of Cow 134.1.— Calf K 
was a large heifer calf dropped by cow No. 1341, August 11, 
1898; and calf F was a bull calf dropped by a grade cow in the 
college herd about the same date. The dam of calf F was 
supposed to be healthy, but three months after the birth of 
the calf the cow developed a severe case of tuberculosis.* The 



* This cow was tested with tuberculin December 30-31, 1897, but gave no response 
to the test. She calved August 27, 1898, and appeared in a healthy, vigorous condition 
until the herd was placed in winter quarters early in November. Soon after, she 
began to refuse silage, and dropped off rapidly in milk flow, but manifested no serious 
symptoms until about ten days after she began to refuse silage. At that time the cow 
began to scour badly, and was placed in a box stall away from the rest of the herd. 
For the next ten days she ran down in flesh rapidly, so that it was thought wise to 
destroy her. A post-mortem examination showed a severe case of tuberculosis, the 
tubercular lesions being present in the liver, the spleen, and the lungs. Some of the 
lesions were encysted in such a way as to indicate that the disease was one of long 
standing, and it is probable that the tuberculin test which was made eleven months 
previous to the time of killing the cow failed to cause a response, owing to the 
advanced condition of the disease, or the failure may have been due to a poor lot of 
tuberculin. The cow showed no outward appearance of the disease, and remained 
in good condition of flesh until she began to refuse her feed early in November, 1898. 



1 62 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

calf appeared healthy and vigorous at birth, and continued so 
until more than a year and a half old. The plan of the test 
with these two calves was to pasteurize one-half of the milk of 
cow No. 1 341 and feed it to its offspring, and to feed the 
balance of the milk in its normal condition to calf F. This 
calf was chosen for the purpose, because it was supposed that 
its dam was free from tuberculosis, as she did not respond to 
the tuberculin test made about seven months prior to the birth 
of the calf. 

Both of these calves have been kept in a room separate from 
the tuberculous cows, although in the same barn with them. 
The calves were in the second story of the barn, while the 
cows were stabled in the basement underneath. The portion 
of the milk of cow No. 1341 which was fed to calf E was heated 
to a temperature of from 170 to 175 F., and diluted with cold 
water before feeding. The balance of the milk of the same 
cow, in a normal condition, was fed to calf F as soon as pos- 
sible after milking. Both calves had a small quantity of bran 
added to the milk after they were about two months old. The 
feeding tests of these two calves continued from August, 1898, 
till June 5, 1899. Both calves were tested with tuberculin 
when about four months old, December 22-23, I 898, and again 
June 2-3, 1899, when nearly ten months old. In neither of 
these cases did they show any response to the test. 

It was planned that the feeding tests of these two calves 
should continue for about two weeks longer, or until the 
animals could be sent to pasture; but by a misunderstanding 
on the part of the attendant the milk was not pasteurized for 
calf E, and both animals were fed the normal milk of cow No. 
1341 from June 5 to 24, or for a period of nearly three weeks. 
Both calf E and calf F were brought from the pasture November 
13, and were placed in the same stable with the tuberculous 
cows. They were again subjected to the tuberculin test De- 
cember 1-2, 1899. Calf E (the offspring of cow No. 1341) 
responded to the test, giving a maximum temperature of 106 , 
while calf F showed no rise of temperature. Calf F was kept 
in the same stable with the cows until April, 1899, and in 
March, 1899, when nineteen months old, it also responded to 
the tuberculin test. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. l6l 

hay ration entirely. From the time of birth until June, 1899, 
this animal was kept in the same stable and yard with the 
cows. It was then sold to a farmer living near the Station, 
who was informed of the historj^ of the animal, and has been 
used since that time for breeding purposes. This animal (D) 
was tested with tuberculin December 17-18, 1897, and April 
11-12, and December 22-23, I 898, and June 2-3, 1899, but 
in no case did it give any response to the test. When sold it 
it was a strong, vigorous animal, and seemed large for its age. 

From these records it will be seen that the milk of the four 
cows was fed to four calves for periods varying from three 
months to a year and four months, and that in no case was 
there anj r sign of the disease during the feeding period. One 
animal (B) did respond to the tuberculin test nearly six months 
after the feeding period with the milk was ended, but from the 
mild form in which the disease then existed it would seem 
doubtful if the disease was contracted from the milk. These 
tests point to the conclusion that the milk of tuberculous cows, 
in the early stages of the disease, is not very likely to transmit 
the disease when fed to healthy calves. 

As will be seen from the records of the history and condi- 
tions of the animals, cows Nos. 1337, 1341, and 1343 produced 
calves in August and September, 1898. It was decided to feed 
several of these calves upon the milk of their dams. These 
feeding tests were continued for about a year. 

Feeding Calves E and F with the milk of Cow 13 4.1.— Calf E 
was a large heifer calf dropped by cow No. 1341, August 11, 
1898; and calf F was a bull calf dropped by a grade cow in the 
college herd about the same date. The dam of calf F was 
supposed to be health}^ but three months after the birth of 
the calf the cow developed a severe case of tuberculosis.* The 



* This cow was tested with tuberculin December 30-31, 1897, but gave no response 
to the test. She calved August 27, 1S98, and appeared in a healthy, vigorous condition 
until the herd was placed in winter quarters early in November. Soon after, she 
began to refuse silage, and dropped off rapidly in milk flow, but manifested no serious 
sj'mptoms until about ten days after she began to refuse silage. At that time the cow 
began to scour badly, and was placed in a box stall away from the rest of the herd. 
For the next ten days she ran down in flesh rapidly, so that it was thought wise to 
destroy her. A post-mortem examination showed a severe case of tuberculosis, the 
tubercular lesions being present in the liver, the spleen, and the lungs. Some of the 
lesions were enc3 r sted in such a way as to indicate that the disease was one of long 
standing, and it is probable that the tuberculin test which was made eleven months 
previous to the time of killing the cow failed to cause a response, owing to the 
advanced condition of the disease, or the failure may have been due to a poor lot of 
tuberculin. The cow showed no outward appearance of the disease, and remained 
in good condition of flesh until she began to refuse her feed early in November, 1898. 



1 62 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

calf appeared healthy and vigorous at birth, and continued so 
until more than a year and a half old. The plan of the test 
with these two calves was to pasteurize one-half of the milk of 
cow No. 1 341 and feed it to its offspring, and to feed the 
balauce of the milk in its normal condition to calf F. This 
calf was chosen for the purpose, because it was supposed that 
its dam was free from tuberculosis, as she did not respond to 
the tuberculin test made about seven months prior to the birth 
of the calf. 

Both of these calves have been kept in a room separate from 
the tuberculous cows, although in the same barn with them. 
The calves were in the second stor)' of the barn, while the 
cows were stabled in the basement underneath. The portion 
of the milk of cow No. 1341 which was fed to calf E was heated 
to a temperature of from 170 to 175 F., and diluted with cold 
water before feeding. The balance of the milk of the same 
cow, in a normal condition, was fed to calf F as soon as pos- 
sible after milking. Both calves had a small quantity of bran 
added to the milk after the)' were about two months old. The 
feeding tests of these two calves continued from August, 1898, 
till June 5, 1899. Both calves were tested with tuberculin 
when about four months old, December 22-23, l &9%> an ^ again 
June 2-3, 1899, when nearly ten months old. In neither of 
these cases did the}' show an3^ response to the test. 

It was planned that the feeding tests of these two calves 
should continue for about two weeks longer, or until the 
animals could be sent to pasture; but by a misunderstanding 
on the part of the attendant the milk was not pasteurized for 
calf E, and both animals were fed the normal milk of cow No. 
1 341 from June 5 to 24, or for a period of nearly three weeks. 
Both calf E and calf F were brought from the pasture November 
13, and were placed in the same stable with the tuberculous 
cows. They were again subjected to the tuberculin test De- 
cember 1-2, 1899. Calf E (the offspring of cow No. 1341) 
responded to the test, giving a maximum temperature of 106 , 
while calf F showed no rise of temperature. Calf F was kept 
in the same stable with the cows until April, 1899, and in 
March, 1899, when nineteen months old, it also responded to 
the tuberculin test. 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MII,K. 1 63 

The history of these two calves and the peculiarity of the 
feeding tests are such as require more than passing notice. 
Calf F was the offspring of a cow which, within three months 
after birth of this calf, developed a severe case of tuberculosis. 
To the best of our knowledge also the dam of calf E was a 
pronounced case of tuberculosis. Dr. Mayo, in a report of 
the physical condition of the cows, February 7, 1899, says: 
" Cow No. 1 341 . . . would probably be condemned as 
tuberculous on physical examination." Calf F was fed the 
normal milk of a tuberculous cow (No. 1341) for about ten 
months; was then at pasture for about five months, and was in 
the stable with the tuberculous cows for about four months 
more before it responded to the tuberculin test. Calf K was 
fed pasteurized milk from cow No. 1341 for nearly ten months, 
then normal milk from the same cow for about three weeks, 
then was at pasture nearly five months, and responded to the 
tuberculin test within three weeks of the time she was returned 
to the stable. The result of these tests seem to show that 
there were marked differences in the two calves in their power 
to resist the germs of tuberculosis. It would seem either that 
calf E must have contracted the disease within the three weeks 
in June, 1899, while it was being fed the normal milk of its 
dam, or else that the quarantine between the calves and the 
cows in the same barn was not effectual. On the other hand 
calf F, the offspring of another badly diseased cow, resisted 
,the germs from the normal milk of cow No. 1341 for a period 
of over ten months, and also failed to contract the disease from 
association with the cows until a period of about a year had 
elapsed (omitting the time at pasture) . The post-mortem exam- 
ination of calf E was made by the College Veterinarian, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1900. The only trace of the disease discovered was 
in the liver, in which one tubercle, which was somewhat cheesy 
and about the size of a large walnut, was found in one of the 
smaller lobes. Calf F was sold in the Brighton market, under 
Government inspection, in April, 1900, and was passed as a 
slightly diseased animal. 

Feeding Calf G with the milk of Cow 134.3. — -This was a small 
heifer calf, dropped by cow No. 1343, August 28, 1898. It 
was small at birth and appeared rather puny until a year or 
more old. It was fed the milk of its dam from the time of 



164 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

birth until June 24, 1899, although it did not eat well and 
consumed only small quantities of the milk. This calf seemed 
to lack vigor, and remained thin in flesh until after it was sent 
to pasture late in June, 1899. This animal was at pasture 
with calves F and E from June 24 until November 13, 1899. 
It gave no response to tuberculin tests made December 22-23, 
1898, and on June 2-3, 1899, but did respond to a test made 
December 1-2, about three weeks after the calf was returned 
to the stable from the pasture. The post-mortem examination 
made February 12, 1900, showed the following organs affected: 
left lung, cordal lobe, one tubercle about the size of a small 
walnut; in liver, several tuberculous bunches about the size 
of large peas; one lymphatic gland of the small intestines was 
tuberculous, being much enlarged, with the tissues broken 
down and curdy. 

Feeding Calf H with the milk of Cow 1337. — This was a 
strong, vigorous heifer calf, dropped by cow No. 1337, Sep- 
tember 15, 1898. This calf suckled its dam from the time of 
birth until one year old, September 15, 1899. At this time it 
was a large, vigorous animal, and appeared fat and healthy. 
Calf H was kept in the same stable and yard with the cows 
until about nineteen months old (April, 1900). It was first 
tested with tuberculin December 22-23, 1 ^9^> afl d again June 
2-3, 1899, but did not respond to either of these tests. At the 
test made December 1-2, 1899, calf H gave a marked response. 
This animal was kept in the same stable with the cows through- 
out the winter of 1899 and 1900. It was sent to Brighton to 
be killed under Government inspection, in April, 1900, but was 
considered too badly diseased for the flesh to be used as food, 
and was ordered destroyed. 

Feeding Calf I with the milk of Cow 134.4.. — Calf I was dropped 
March 24, 1899, by a tuberculous cow owned by the College 
which was temporarily being kept at the Station barn. During 
the feeding period which followed this calf was kept in the 
same stable with the tuberculous cows. This calf was fed the 
milk of cow No. 1344 from the time of birth till about the 
middle of July, 1898. When a little over two months old, 
June 1-2, it responded to the tuberculin test, and again Decem- 
ber 2-3, 1899. From about the middle of July until October, 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 1 65 

1899, this calf was fed the milk of cow No. 1343. In October 
it was weaned, and was fed a hay and grain ration until it was 
killed, February 12, 1900. Post-mortem examination showed 
one posterior mediastinal gland affected with encysted tuber- 
cular material. As far as could be found there was no active 
tuberculosis present in the system. 

Feedi7ig Calf K with the milk of Cow 1343. — Calf K was 
dropped by cow No. 1343, December 23, 1899. From birth 
till May 26, 1900, this calf was kept in the second story of the 
barn, above the cows, in a room closed from the rest of the 
barn. It was thought that the animal was under conditions 
of thorough quarantine from the other animals in the barn. 
It was fed the normal milk of its dam for nearly three months 
before being tested. Calf K was tested with tuberculin March 
19-20, 1900, and gave a marked response. 

In order to test the question as to whether the transmission 
of the disease, has probably taken place through the milk or by 
association with the cows, some new feeding tests are being 
planned for the summer and fall of 1900. In these tests the 
calves will be kept at pasture, entirely separate from all other 
animals, and the milk of the tuberculous cows will be carried 
to them. 

SUMMARY OF FEEDING TESTS. 

Within the first two years that the tuberculous cows were under 
experiment one secondary case of tuberculosis developed. This case 
was discovered about twenty-five months after the cows came to the 
Station. During this time four animals , A, B, C, and D, were 

fed the milk of the cows in periods ranging from eighteen months 
to twelve mo7iths. lliroughout the whole of this time, except the 

five months while steers A and B were at pasture, the young 
animals were closely associated with the cows. As has already 
been shown, there was good reason for the belief that the disease 
was present hi its earlier stages when the cows came to the Station. 
The first two years' experience then would seem to show that when 
the disease exists i7i the cow in its earlier stages the chances for 
its transmission, either by the milk or by other means, to calves 
associated with the cows are quite limited. 

The bala?ice of the time that the cows have been at the Station, 
which includes the period from about two years to three and 
12 



1 66 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

one-half years after their arrival, enth~ely differe7it results are 
recorded. During the period from August 15, 1898, to March 
20, 1900 (nineteen months) , five animals were fed the milk of the 
same lot of cozes, and all five responded to one or more tuberculin 
tests made within that period, and proved to be diseased. Two 
cases developed within three months after birth, while the other 
three required from twelve to eighteen months for their develop- 
ment. The physical condition of the cows, for the past year, 
would seem to indicate that the disease has progressed decidedly 
in at least three of the four cows. 

PRACTICAL DEDUCTIONS. 

During the first two years it was practically impossible to detect 
any outward signs of tuberculosis in the cows, and careful physical 
examination by a?i expert only revealed a possible presence of the 
disease in one of the four animals, and a probable diseased con- 
dition in one other. During the past year and' one-half, how- 
ever, there have been noticeable outward sig?is of poor health, 
pointing towards a tubercular condition, and physical examina- 
tion showed quite conclusive evidence of the disease in three of the 
four animals. The fact that no secondary case of the disease 
developed until the calves had been fed the milk of the cows from 
one to one and o?ie-half years, and had been associated with the 
cows for about two years, would seem to show that there is little 
danger of the spread of the disease, where it exists in the earlier 
stages. 

In the feeding tests for the first two years the young animals to 
which the milk was. fed zvere kept, most of the time, in the same 
stable with the cows. Four calves were fed the milk of the 
tuberculous cows in periods ranging from nine months to eighteen 
months zvithout showing any signs of the disease. The first case 
among the young animals was discovered about six months after 
the feeding of milk was disconti?iued . 

In the second lot of feeding tests six calves were fed. Three of 
these were kept in a separate part of the barn from the cows, and 
three in the same stable. Two calves, one in the stable and one 
kept in another part of the barn, responded to the tuberculin test 
within three months after the feeding of the milk was begun. 
Of the other four, two responded soon after returning from the 
pashire where they had been for four months following a feeding 



TUBERCULOUS COWS AND USE OF THEIR MILK. 1 67 

period of ten months. Two others were in the same stable with 
the cows for periods of from three to six months, after feeding tests 
of ten and twelve months were ended, before showing any indica- 
tions of the disease. These tests would seem to show that as the 
disease in the cows becomes advanced the milk becomes more infec- 
tious, and that there is great danger to the health of other animals, 
both from the use of the milk and by association with the diseased 
animals. 

The resiclts of these experiments coincide with the general results 
of European observatio?is , and indicate that the danger from the 
spread of tuberculosis through the milk of cozvs to other ajiimals 
is not as great as has often been supposed, hi the earlier stages 
of the disease, and at all times when the udder is not affected, the 
danger from the use of the milk thus appears to be quite limited. 
Great stress, however, should be laid on the danger of using as 
food for ma?i or animals milk from cows which show any symp- 
toms of tedder affection, or when the disease is so far advanced in 
the cows as to be indicated by oidward signs or other marked 
physical symptoms. 



1 68 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 

BY W. O. ATWATER AND C. S. PHELPS. 



Owing in part to the fact that a large amount of other 
important work was pressing for publication, the field experi- 
ments of 1897 and 1898 have not yet been reported upon. In 
this article, therefore, an account is given of the field work of 
the Station for the past three* years. The experiments for the 
most part are in continuation of those carried out in preceding 
years and described in former reports of the Station. The 
field experiments have been mainly along the following lines: 

1. Special nitrogen experiments on corn, cow peas, and soy 
beans, for the purpose of studying the effects of nitrogen in 
different quantities and combinations in the fertilizers upon the 
yields and the composition of the crops. 

2. A rotation soil test on the Station land, for the purpose 
of studying the deficiencies of the soil and the needs of different 
crops for the different ingredients of fertilizers. 

3. Experiments with grasses and other forage crops, mainly 
for the purpose of comparing the feeding values of different 
fodder crops, and of studying the effects of the nitrogen in the 
fertilizers upon the proportion and amount of protein in the 
different crops. 

4. An experiment on soil improvement, for the purpose of 
comparing the relative economy of (1) stable manure, (2) a 
"complete" chemical fertilizer, and (3) green manures alone 
and in connection with mineral fertilizers for improving a soil 
apparently deficient in organic matter and in available nitrogen. 

The results of the special nitrogen experiments and of the 
soil tests, during the past three* years, are here given. The 
results of the experiments with grasses and forage crops will 

* In the case of soy beans the experiments of 1S96 are also included. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 1 69 

be given in a later Report with those of future experiments. 
The experiment on soil improvement was begun during the 
past year, and is to be continued for several years. An account 
of the nature and plan of this work and the results of the pre- 
liminary experiment are given in the article following this one. 

SPECIAL NITROGEN EXPERIMENTS. 

The special nitrogen experiments of the past three years are 
an extension of a series which was begun in 1895 and con- 
tinued in 1896, as described in the Reports of the Station for 
those years. The crops with which the experiments are made 
are corn, cow peas, and soy beans. These are grown on plots 
treated with fertilizers supplying nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and 
potash in different amounts and combinations, in the manner 
described in a later paragraph, the special purpose of the 
experiments being to study the effects of the nitrogen in the 
fertilizer upon the yields and the composition of the crops. 

The special nitrogen experiments with these crops are car- 
ried out on a series of plots which, prior to 1895, had been used 
for similar experiments with mixed grasses. For the earlier 
experiments with grasses the experimental field was divided into 
ten long, narrow plots, each one-eighth acre in size. These were 
numbered and fertilized as shown in the diagram on page 170. 

From this diagram it will be seen that two plots, Nos. o and 
00, receive no fertilizer, while each of the other plots receives 
dissolved bone-black at the rate of 320 pounds, with 53 pounds 
of phosphoric acid, per acre, and muriate of potash at the rate 
of 160 pounds, with 82 pounds of potash, per acre. For con- 
venience this mixture of superphosphate and potash salt is 
called " mixed minerals." Plots 7, 8, and 9 received, in addi- 
tion to the mixed minerals, respectively 160, 320, and 480 
pounds of nitrate of soda, with 25, 50, and 75 pounds of nitro- 
gen, per acre, and are called the nitrate of soda group; while 
plots 10, 11, and 12 received, in addition to the mixed minerals, 
respectively 160, 320, and 480 pounds of sulphate of ammonia, 
with 25, 50, and 75 pounds of nitrogen, per acre, and are called 
the sulphate of ammonia group. The adjoining plots are sep- 
arated from each other by narrow strips that are not fertilized. 



170 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Diagram illustrating the method of dividing the experimental 

field into plots, and the kinds and amounts of 

fertilizers used on each plot. 

Each plot is 272^ feet long- by 20 feet wide. The unmanured strips separat- 
ing the adjoining plots are 3 feet wide. The weights 
of the fertilizers are per acre. 

EAST. 



















Plot 


0. 


Nothing. 
























Plot 


7- 


\ Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 480 lbs. 
\ Nitrate of Soda, - - 160 lbs. 


V Nitrogen, 


25 lbs. 




















Plot 


8. 


j Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 480 lbs. 
( Nitrate of Soda, - - 320 lbs. 


[■'Nitrogen, 


50 lbs. 




















Plot 


9- 


j Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 480 lbs. 
\ Nitrate of Soda, - - 480 lbs. 


V Nitrogen, 


75 lbs. 




















Plot 


6a. 


j Dissolved Bone-black, - 320 lbs. 
{ Muriate of Potash, - 160 lbs. 


[■ " Mixed minera 


Is." 


















Plot 


10. 


j Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 4S0 lbs. 
\ Sulphate of Ammonia, 120 lbs. 


;- Nitrogen, 
) 


25 lbs. 




















Plot 


11. 


j Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 480 lbs. 
1 Sulphate of Ammonia, 240 lbs. 


f- Nitrogen, 


50 lbs. 




















Plot 


12. 


j Mixed minerals as Plot 6a, 480 lbs. 
1 Sulphate of Ammonia, 360 lbs. 


> Nitrogen, 


75 lbs. 




















Plot 00. 


Nothing. 
























Plot 


6b. 


Mixed minerals as Plot 6<7, 480 lbs. 


\ Phosphoric acid 
/ Potash, - 


=;3 lbs. 
82 lbs. 



















X I Plot 6a. j ^^^0^0^^' - 160 lbs! ) " Mixed minerals -" | g 



WEST. 

In the experiments with grasses previous to 1895, each of 
these plots was fertilized in the manner just described year 
after year, and the same crop — mixed grasses — was grown on 
all of them. In the experiments with corn, cow peas, and soy 
beans, which have been carried out on the same plots since 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 171 

1895, the same arrangement of the plots and the same method 
of fertilizing them has been continued, namely those shown 
in the preceding diagram. But for the purpose of the later 
experiments the plots, which extend north and south, are sub- 
divided by paths crossing them from east to west, so that each 
plot contains six subdivisions or sections, each one-fiftieth of 
an acre in size. The method of dividing the plots into sec- 
tions is illustrated by the diagram on page 172, which shows 
also the crop grown on each section. 

It is hardly to be expected that the effects of the fertilizers 
upon the yields of the crops can be determined as accurately 
from experiments made on plots of this size as from experi- 
ments made on larger plots. This is a matter, however, that 
is already quite generally understood, so that the results of 
these experiments in this respect are neither novel nor striking. 
The more important object of the experiments, and one with 
which farmers are not so familiar, is the study of the effects of 
the nitrogen of the fertilizers upon the proportion of nitrogen 
in the crop. It is believed that in this respect the results are 
quite as reliable from the experiments made on the small plots 
as could be obtained if larger plots were used. The particular 
advantage in the small plots is that a larger number of crops 
can be used for the experiments. Three different crops were 
grown on each plot, and the number might have been six. 

The numbers of the plots in the diagram on page 172 are 
given at both ends of each plot. For convenience in referring 
to the sections they are designated by letters, A, B, C, etc., 
beginning with the section at the north end of each plot, and 
lettering to the south, as indicated for plots o and 6b in the dia- 
gram. A series of sections will include all the sections of the 
same letter. Thus, in discussing the experiments with corn, 
for instance, " Series A " will include all the sections at the 
north ends of the ten plots, and "Series F" will include all 
the sections at the south ends of the plots. It will be observed 
that each crop is grown on two sections of each plot; that is, 
upon two series of sections. In the accounts of some of the 
experiments the results from two series with the same crop are 
combined as if from a single series of sections twice the size of 
these; while in other experiments the results from each series 
are considered separately. 



172 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Diagram illustrating the method of dividing the plots into sections, 
and the ki?id of crop planted on each section. 

The plots are fertilized exactly as shown in the preceding diagram. The plots 
are indicated by numbers, the sections by letters. 



EAST. 





A B C D E F 







Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 











7 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 1 Corn. 


7 








8 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 1 Soy beans. 


Corn. 


8 








9 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


9 








6a 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


6a 








10 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


10 








11 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 1 Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


11 








12 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


12 








00 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


00 








6b 


Corn. 


Soy beans. 


Cow peas. 


Cow peas. 


Soy beans. 


Corn. 


6l> 




A B C D E F 





WEST. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



173 



Explanation of tables. — Two tables, containing the data of 
the experiments, are given in the discussion of the results for 
each crop. The first table in each case shows the total weight 
of the crop taken from each section, the crops being weighed 
either at the time of harvesting or after drying in the field. 
In the experiments with corn and soy beans the total grain or 
seed from each plot was taken to the barn and allowed to dry 
before it was weighed. The corn stover was weighed after it 
had dried in the field. The cow pea fodder was weighed green 
as soon as possible after it was cut. The table shows also the 
estimated yields per acre for each crop as calculated from the 
size of the section and the weight of the crop taken from 
it, as well as the increase in the weight of the crop from the 
plots with the different fertilizers over the weight of the crop 
from the plots with no fertilizer. The costs of the fertilizers 
given in one column of the table are based upon the system of 
valuation adopted each year by the New England Experiment 
Stations, which varies slightly from year to year. For the years 
in which experiments reported in this article were made the 
valuations per pound of the different ingredients of fertilizers 
were as follows: 

Assumed costs per pound. 





1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


Nitrogen (as nitrate of soda), 
Nitrogen (as sulphate of ammonia), 
Phosphoric acid (soluble*), - 
Potash (as muriate), - 


Cents. 

- 13^ 

15 

4K 


Cents. 
14 

SVz 
4^ 


Cents. 

14 
14 

4% 

4K 


Cents. 
15 



The second table in each case shows the estimated total yields 
of the crop per acre, the percentage of water-free substance or 
dry matter in the crop when weighed, the percentage of protein 
(N. X 6.25) in the dry matter, and the calculated yields of dry 
matter and of protein. The total yield of dry matter per acre 
is found by multiplying the total weight of the crop by the 
percentage of dry matter in it; and the total yield of protein 
per acre is found by multiplying the yield of dry matter per 

* A small proportion of the phosphoric acid was probably present in the form 
known as " reverted." but the valuation for this is only one-half cent less per pound 
than for the soluble. 



174 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

acre by its percentage of protein. The last two columns of 
the table show the percentage of the yields of dr} r matter and 
of protein from each plot if the average of the yields from the 
mineral plots be taken as a basis. 

In making the analyses of the samples of these field crops 
tests for nitric acid were made in a considerable number of 
samples, especially those from the plots in which the largest 
quantities of nitrogen in nitric acid and other forms were applied 
in the fertilizers. The tests were made by treating cold water 
extracts with a sulphuric acid solution of di-phenylamin. The 
deep color of the extract interfered somewhat with the reac- 
tions and prevented quantitative determinations. But it was 
estimated that in no instance was the amount of nitric acid 
indicated sufficient to make one per cent, of the total nitrogen 
found in the samples. 

In 1897 the experiments were vitiated by excessive rains 
during the growing season. The nitrogenous fertilizers failed 
to produce results in amount and uniformity of yield such as 
had been obtained in other years. This may have been due to 
a loss of the materials in which the nitrogen was supplied to 
the soil, these being readily washed out of the soil by heavy 
rains when they are not taken up by the plants. The weights 
of the crops when harvested in 1897 were considerably below 
those of former years, and the general irregularities of the 
experiments indicated that the results as a whole would not 
warrant the usual analyses. In the tables giving the data of 
the experiments, therefore, only the weights of the crops at 
harvest are found for 1897*, and these are so unusually low 
that they are not included in the averages. The results of the 
experiments of 1898 and 1899 appear to be fairly normal. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH CORN. 

When these experiments were begun in 1895 two varieties 
of corn, ' ' yellow flint ' ' and ' ' white flint, ' ' were grown. Analy- 
ses of samples of the grain used for seed in the first of the 
experiments, in 1895, showed a difference in the composition 
of the two varieties, the white flint corn having thirteen per 
cent, of protein in the dry matter of the grain, while the yellow 
flint contained only eleven per cent. The latter had been grown 
upon poor soil for many years. 

* Except cow pea fodder, of which analyses also were made. 



FIE.LD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 1 75 

One object of the experiments was to determine whether the 
two varieties, which differed so much in composition at the 
beginning of the experiments, would still show the same differ- 
ence after they had been grown for a period of years under the 
same conditions regarding methods of cultivation, kinds and 
amounts of fertilizer used, 'etc. For three years the experi- 
ments with these two varieties of corn were carried on, seed 
taken from the crop on each section in one year being saved 
for planting on the same section the following year. To 
prevent, if possible, a crossing of the varieties that might 
follow if they were grown on adjoining sections, the yellow 
flint corn was grown on the series of sections at the north end 
of the plots (Series A), and the white flint on the series of sections 
at the south end (Series F), the two series being about 175 feet 
apart. In spite of this separation a slight amount of mixing or 
crossing occurred during the first year (1895). Care was taken , 
however, in saving the seed for the following year, to select 
that which was believed to be unmixed. In 1896 the yellow 
flint corn, which was naturally somewhat slower than the white 
flint in reaching maturity, was planted a week later than the 
white flint, so that the blossoming of the two varieties might 
occur at different periods. In that year mixing or crossing of 
the varieties was apparently prevented. The seed from the 
experiments of 1896 was planted as usual in 1897, but in the 
wet, cool season of that year the yellow flint corn failed to 
mature sufficiently to warrant the use of the seed for planting 
in 1898; and as it was found impossible to secure more seed 
of the same variety from the grower who furnished in 1895 the 
seed used in the first of these experiments, the use of the yellow 
flint corn was discontinued in 1898, and since that time, as will 
be explained in a later paragraph, only white flint corn has 
been used. 

The results of the experiments for 1895 and 1896 may be 
found in the Reports of the Station for those years. The 
results of the 1897 experiments are incorporated with those of 
1898 and 1899 in the present article. As already explained,, 
the crops grown in the experiments of 1897 were not analyzed, 
only the weights of the crops at harvest being given in the fol- 
lowing tables; and these are so irregular that they are not 



176 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

included in the general averages. No attempt is made, there- 
fore, to draw conclusions concerning the effects of the fertilizers 
from the experiments of that year. 

The experiments of 1895 an & 1896 indicate, in brief, that as 
regards both yield and composition the nitrogenous fertilizers 
benefited greatly both the corn and the stover in the two 
varieties. The yields from the plots with nitrogenous fertilizers 
were considerably larger than those from the plots which had 
the mineral fertilizers only or no fertilizers at all. The pro- 
portion of protein in the crops was higher where nitrogen was 
used in the fertilizer, although the percentage of protein did 
not increase in proportion to the amount of nitrogen used. 
The percentage of protein in the seed taken from the 1896 
crops for planting in 1897 was not so l ar ge in either variety as 
was found in the original seed planted in 1895; the average 
composition of the grain of each variety from all the plots 
showing only 1 1 per cent, of protein in the white flint in the 
latter season, as against 13 per cent, in the original sample; 
and the yellow flint 10.2 per cent, in the latter season as against 
11 per cent, in the original sample. The experiment with the 
two varieties was not continued long enough, however, to draw 7 
any conclusions from these results regarding the relative ten- 
dencies to maintain, increase or diminish their percentages of 
nitrogen under the different methods of fertilizing. 

Inasmuch as for lack of proper seed the experiment with 
yellow flint corn could not be continued, a new lot of white 
flint corn was obtained in 1898 from the grower who had fur- 
nished the seed of this variety in 1895, and this new lot of seed 
was planted on the sections (Series A) previously devoted to 
yellow flint corn, and since that time only the one variety — 
white flint — has been used in these experiments with corn. 
The sections (Series F) at the south end of the field, however, 
were planted with seed grown on the same sections in the pre- 
ceding year. There was, therefore, a difference in the con- 
ditions under which the two lots of seed had been grown 
prior to 1898. Furthermore, a difference was made in the 
fertilizing of the two series (A and F), as explained in the 
next paragraph; lime being applied on Series A in addition to 
the regular fertilizers, while on Series F no lime was applied in 
addition. For these reasons it was thought best to keep the data 
from the two series separate, as is done in Tables 37 and 38. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



177 



In earlier experiments on this field it had been observed that 
yields from some of the plots of the sulphate of ammonia group 
were smaller than those from corresponding plots of the nitrate 
of soda group, the differences being most conspicuous in the 
cases where the largest amounts of the sulphate were used. 
Experiments* elsewhere, however, have given similar results, 
and suggest that the smaller yield with the sulphate of ammo- 
nia may be due to an acid condition of the soil resulting from 
the surplus sulphuric acid left as a residue in the soil after the 
nitrification of the ammonia of the sulphate. In these latter 
experiments air-slacked lime was applied for the purpose of 
neutralizing the acidity, apparently with excellent results. 
Accordingly, in the experiments at the Station in 1898, forty 
pounds of air-slacked lime was applied, in addition to the 
regular fertilizer, on each section in Series A at the north 
end of the field upon which the new lot of seed was planted 
in 1898. On the sections at the south end of the plots- (Series 
F), which were planted with corn grown on the same sec- 
tions, the fertilizers were applied without the additional lime. 
A comparison of the yields from the two series, the one with 
and the other without the extra lime, is given in the following 
table. The figures in this table are the averages of the results 
of the experiments of 1898 and 1899 given in Tables 37 and 38 
following. 

Yields of com and stover from sections treated with lime compared 
with yields from sections not treated with lime. 





Plot No. 


Yields per Acre. 


Kind of Fertilizer. 


Series F, 
without lime. 


Series A, 
with lime. 




Shelled 
corn. 


Stover. 


Shelled 
corn. 


Stover. 


Nothing, .-.. 
Mixed minerals "- 

Nitrate of soda group, 

( 
Sulphate of ammonia group, •< 


0, 00 

6a, 66 

1 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 


bu. 

15-3 
31-7 
28.8 

42.5 . 

43-6 

39-9 

44-0 

36.0 


lbs. 

901 
22l6 
2013 

2480 
2310 
2463 
2438 
1995 


bu. 

12.7 
36.6 
35-2 
52.6 
52.0 
48.6 
48.2 
51-4 


lbs. 

1139 
2647 

2575 
3000 

2675 
2938 
3600 
3200 



* For a discussion of the subject of the acidity of soils and the beneficial action of 
lime upon acid soils, see articles by H. J. Wheeler, Ph. D., in the Reports and Bulletins 
of the R. I. Fxperiment Station. See also U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bulletin, No. 77, 
The Iyiming of Soils, by the same author. 



178 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

It will be observed that on the sections without additional 
lime the yield from plot 12, having the largest ration of sul- 
phate of ammonia, was considerably smaller than that from 
plot 9, having the largest ration of nitrate of soda; while on the 
sections treated with lime in addition to the regular fertilizers 
the yield from plot 12 was practically the same as that from 
plot 9. If the difference between the yield with the sulphate 
and that with the nitrate is due to an acid condition of soil 
caused by the former material, then in this particular case it 
would seem not improbable that the sulphuric acid from the 
ammonium sulphate might have been neutralized by the lime. 
It is not meant by this, however, that the neutralizing of sul- 
phuric acid set free by the nitrification of ammonia, or of acids 
otherwise formed in the soil, is the sole or necessarily the chief 
factor to be considered in explaining the beneficial action of 
lime. Indeed, the results of experiments for 1898 and 1899, 
as seen in the table above, show that the yields from all the 
fertilized sections, which were treated with lime in addition to 
the regular fertilizers (not considering the plots with no fertil- 
izer), were better than the yields from sections without lime. 
The fact that where lime was used there was a considerable 
increase in the yields from the nitrate of soda group as well as 
in those from the sulphate of ammonia group of plots would 
seem to indicate that the lime had some direct beneficial effect 
upon the fertility of the soils aside from its neutralizing action, 
as nitrate of soda would hardly cause injurious acidit)^. It may 
be that the lime aided in the nitrification of the ammonia of 
the sulphate and of other nitrogen compounds present in the 
soil. In how far this may be the case these experiments are 
not calculated to indicate. 

The amounts of nitrogen in the fertilizers and the yields of the 
crop. — The figures in the following tables are intended to show 
what increase in the total yield (corn and stover) accompanies 
the increase in the amount of nitrogen in the fertilizer. The 
yields from the sections (Series A) at the north ends of the 
plots are given in Table 37; those from sections at the south 
ends (Series F) in Table 38. The weights of the yields are 
given per section and per acre. The yields per section are 
determined by actual weighings of the crop from each section. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. I 79 

From these weighings and the size of the plots the correspond- 
ing yields per acre are calculated. By comparing the yields from 
the sections having different kinds and amounts of fertilizers 
the effect of the different fertilizers upon the yields may be 
estimated. 

As might be expected, the jdelds from the sections of plots o 
and 00, which have received no fertilizer for over ten years, 
are poor. The yields from the section of plots 6a and 6b, which 
have only the mineral fertilizers, are much better than might 
be expected in consideration of the fact that no nitrogenous 
fertilizers of any kind have been applied upon these plots for 
more than ten years. In this respect the results of the 
experiments with corn are much better than those obtained in 
experiments with common grasses, such as timothy or red top, 
under similar conditions. This accords with the belief that 
corn may be better able than the common grasses to gather 
nitrogen from natural sources in the soil. 

In the average of the results from both series of sections A 
and F for 1898 and 1899 the yields from the sections of plot 7, 
with the smaller ration of nitrate of soda, are smaller than 
those from the sections of the mineral plots, 6a and 6b. This 
smaller yield with nitrogenous fertilizers than without them 
is unusual, and the explanation is not apparent. 

In comparing the yields of shelled corn from the sections of the 
different plots it will be noticed that, with one exception, the 
yields from the sections of the nitrate of soda group of plots, 7, 
8, and 9, are largest from plot 9, upon which the largest ration — 
seventy-five pounds per acre — of nitrogen is used. It will be 
observed, however, that the yields from plot 9 are but little 
larger than those from plot 8, upon which only fifty pounds of 
nitrogen per acre are used; while in the exception noted above 
in 1899 the yield from section A of plot 8 was larger than that 
from the same section of any other plot. This generally small 
increase in yield of crop accompanying a relatively large increase 
in the quantity of nitrogen in the fertilizers would seem to in- 
dicate that the corn in this case could not utilize profitably the 
larger quantities of nitrogen when supplied in a readily soluble 
fertilizer such as nitrate of soda. 



i8o 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 37. 
special nitrogen experiments on white* flint corn 

(SERIES A). 

Weight and cost of fertilizers per acre, total crop, arid increase of 

crop over that of the ?iothing plots. 





Fertilizers per Acre. 


Yield 
per Sec. 
1-50 Acre. 


Yield 
per 

At RK. 


bo 








Kind. 


.1? 
'33 








u 

O 

<U 

m 


u 

V 

> 



-x 


O 

O 

V 
~V 


u 

V 

p 
to 


. 
a « 
u c 

v — 

'3 

-J 






Lbs. 




$ 


Lbs.J Libs. 


Bu. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 






r 


1897 




2.723.5 


2-4 


"75 


— 





Nothing, - - - - 


1 

1 


1898 
1899 
Av.t 


— 


II. 3 25.0 

12.2 I9.6 

11.8 22.3 


IO. I 
IO.9 

10.5 


1250 

980 

1115 


— 


7 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Nitrate of Soda, (25 lbs. N.), 


r 
480! 
160] 


1897 
1898 
1899 
Av.t 


10. 11 

9-37 
9.00 


4.045.0 
33-345-0 
45-5 58.0 
39.4 51.5 


3-6 
29.7 
40.7 
35.2 


2250 
2250 
2900 
2575 


-0.4 
15.5 
29.4 

22.5 


8 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Nitrate of Soda, (50 lbs. N.), 


4S0J 
320 ] 

1 


1897 
1898 
1899 
Av.t 


13.61 

12.87 
12.13 


12.5 
52.5 
65.2 
58.9 


29.5 

50.5 
69.5 
60.0 


11. 2 
46.9 
58.2 
52.6 


1475 

2525 
3475 

3000 


7.2 
32.7 
46.9 
39.3 


9 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Nitrate of Soda, (75 lbs. N.), 


480 J 

480] 

1 


1897 
1898 
1899 
Av.t 


17. 11 
16.37 
r5-26 


10.6 

56.5 
59-8 
58.2 


31.5 
59-5 
47-5 
53,5 


9-5 
50.5 

53-4 
52.0 


1575 
2975 
2375 
2675 


5-5 
36.3 
42.1 
39.2 


6a 


j Dis. Bone-black, { Mixed j 
( Mur. of Potash, J Minerals, j 


320 j 
160 ] 


1897 
1898 
1899 
Av.t 


6.61 
5.87 
5-87 


11. 1 

32.5 
40.9 
36.7 


25.0 
43-0 
70.3 
56.7 


9.9 
29.0 
36.5 
32.8 


1250 
2150 

3515 
2833 


5-9 
14.8 
25.2 
20.0 


10 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), - 


480 J 
120 j 

1 


1897 
1898 
1899 
Av.t 


9.99 

9-37 
9.62 


21.3 

45-5 
63.3 
54.4 


34-5 
53-o 
64-5 
58.8 


19.0 
40.6 
56.6 
48.6 


1725 
2650 
3225 
2938 


15.0 
26.4 
45-3 
35.9 


11 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), - 


480] 

240 1 

1 


1897 13.37 

1898 12.87 

1899 13-37 

Av.t 


27.0 

58.7 

49-3 

54.0 


37-0 
64.0 
80.0 
72.0 


24.1 

52.4 
44.0 
48.2 


1S50 20. 1 
320038.2 
4000 32 . 7 
3600 35.5 


12 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 
I Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), - 


480 J 


189716.75 
189816.37 
1899 17. 12 
Av.t 


27.0 

55.8 

59-2 

57.5 


41.0 24.1 

50.549-8 
77-5 52.9 
64.0 51.4 


2050 20. 1 
2525 35-6 
3S7541.6 
3200 38.6 






r 


1897 




6.3 


22.0 


5.6 


1 100 — 


00 


Nothing, .... 


-1 


1S98 
1899 
Av.t 




20.5 
13.0 
16.8 


25.0 
21.5 
23.3 


18.3 
11. 6 
15.0 


1250 — 
1075 — 
1163 






r 


1897 6.61 


6.7 


39-° 


6.0 


1950 2.0 


6b 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, - 


480^ 

1 


1898 
1899 

Av.t 


5.87 
5.87 


45-o 
45-7 
45.4 


41 .0 

57-5 
49.3 


40.2 
40.8 
40.5 


2050 
2875 
2463 


26.0 
29.5 
27.8 



* Yellow flint corn in 1897. 



t Average omitting 1897. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



ISI 



Table 38. 

SPECIAL NITROGEN EXPERIMENTS ON WHITE FLINT CORN 

(SERIES F). 

Weight and cost of fertilizers per acre, total crop, and ificrease of 
crop over that of the nothing plots. 



Fertilizers per Acre. 



Kind. 



Yield 
per Sec. 
1-50 Acre. 



Yield 
per 

Acre. 



Lbs. 



Nothing;, 



( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
7 } Nitrate of Soda, (25 lbs. N.), 



c * Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
'( Nitrate of Soda, (50 lbs. N.), 



\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
} Nitrate of Soda, (75 lbs. N.), 



( Dis. Bone-black, ) Mixed \ 
} Mur. of Potash, \ Minerals, } 



, Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
10 I Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), - 



\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 

\ Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), - 



( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), - 



Nothing:, 



6b\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 



1897 



Av. ! 



Lbs. 

7-7 
14.2 
20.2 



Lbs. 

12.5 
16. 1 
23.3 



Bu. 

6. 9 
12.7 
18.0 



17.2 20.015.4 998 - 



24.7J26.0 
28.0)27.0 
36-4153-5 



Lbs., Bu. 

625 — 
S05 — 
II90 



22.L1300 13.8 
25.0 1350 IO. I 



32.512675 



1897 



Av.* 



32.2 40.3 28.8 2013 

15.427.0 13.8:1350 
47.7I44.2J42.6 2210 
47-4 55.042.3 2750 
47.6.49.6 42.5 2480 



11 31.5,25.0 
48.1 41.4 
49-4!5i.o 
48.8 46.2 



1897; 6. 

1898 
IS99 

Av.* 



1S97 
1898 
1891 
Av. 



1899 
Av.* 



5.9 22.0 23 
36.935.832. 
33.0 52.0I29 
35.0 43.9 31 



1)1250 
9 2070 

2 2550 
62310 

1 1 100 
9 1790 
5 2600 

2 2195 



29.9 
43 .0 
46 



33.0)26.7 1650 
40.5)38.4 2025 
58.041.3 2900 



44.7149.3 39.9 2463 
39.6 33-035-4 1650 



47-7 
50. S 

49.3 



44.5J42.6 
53.045.4 
48.8 44.0 



•75 38.5:32.o ; 34.4 

• 37 43.2 : 37.Sj38.6 

.1236.442.033.4 

39.8 39.9 36.0 

10.7J10.0 9.6 

19.0 14.7 17.0 

- I5.II7.5I3.5 

17.1 16.1 15.3 



2225 
2650 
2438 

1600 
1S90 
2100 
1995 

500 
735 

S75 
805 



16.7 
13.4 

5.5 
27.7 
26.7 
27.2 

19. s 
28.0 
28.4 
28.2 

14. s 

18.0 
13.7 
15.9 

1S.4 

23.5 
25.6 
24.6 
27.1 

27-7 
29.6 
28.7 

26.1 

23-7 
17.6 

20.7 



6.61 25 .3 29.0 22.6 1450 14.3 

5.8741.837.037.3 1850*22.4 

5.S730.352.527.1J2625J11.3 

36.1)44.8 32.2,2238 16.9 



13 



Average omitting 1897. 



1 82 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

From a comparison of the yields of shelled corn from all 
the sections in the same series it will be seen that the yields 
from the sections of the sulphate of ammonia group of plots — 
10, ii, and 12 — correspond somewhat with those from the 
nitrate of soda group — 7, 8, and 9 — the most noticeable dis- 
agreement being that between the yields from section F of 
plot 12, with the large ration of sulphate of ammonia, and the 
yield from section F of plot 9, with the large ration of nitrate 
of soda. That the smaller yield from plot 12 may be due to 
acidity of the soil has already been suggested. 

The amounts of nitrogen in the fertilizers and the proportion of 
protein in the crop. — The following tables are intended to illus- 
trate, by the analyses of the crops, the apparent effects of the 
different fertilizers upon the composition of the plants, and 
especially the increase in the proportion of nitrogen in the 
crops following the increase in the quantity of nitrogen in the 
fertilizers. The results for the grain and the stover respectively 
are shown in Tables 39 and 40 for the sections (Series A) at 
the north end of the plots, and in Tables 41 and 42 for the 
sections (Series F) at the south end. The data in these tables 
include the weights per acre of the crops on the different sec- 
tions at harvest, the percentages and amounts of dry matter 
and of protein in the crop, and a comparison — expressed in 
percentages in the last two columns — of the yields of dry mat- 
ter and of protein from the sections of plots having nitrogen 
with the average of the yields from sections of the mineral 
plots. This comparison between the results from sections of 
the mineral plots and those from sections of plots with nitrog- 
enous fertilizers in addition to the minerals shows the increase 
in dry matter and protein that follows the use of the nitroge- 
nous fertilizers, and serves to indicate the relative effects of 
the different quantities of nitrogen upon the proportion of 
nitrogenous compounds (protein) in the crops. 

We here follow common usage in multiplying the total nitro- 
gen found by analysis by the factor 6.25 and designate the 
product as protein. It is, of course, understood that not all of 
the nitrogen is present in the plant in the form of true proteids. 
More or less occurs in non-proteid organic compounds. Small 
quantities are at times present in plants in the form of nitrates. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 1 83 

The methods for distinguishing between proteid and non- 
proteid nitrogen are not satisfactory. We nevertheless hope 
at some future time to inquire into the quantities of proteid 
and non-proteid nitrogen in the plants grown on the different 
plots in these experiments, even though there is little reason 
to believe that the results will prove of special importance. 
Had the resources of the Station allowed it this would have 
been done already. 

In view of the possibility of the occurrence of nitrogen in 
the form of nitrates a number of tests were made for nitric acid 
in samples of crops from plots on which the nitrogenous fertil- 
izers were applied, but the results of the tests were negative, 
as stated on page 174. 

From the figures in these tables it will be noticed that in 
many instances the percentage of protein is higher in crops 
grown with no fertilizers than it is in crops grown with fertil- 
izers. This same thing has been observed in previous experi- 
ments, and is explained in former Reports* as probably due to 
the fact that in the grain grown without fertilizers there is a 
large proportion of "poor" or "soft" kernels. These latter 
have been shown by analysis to contain a larger percentage of 
protein than is found in matured corn, owing possibly to an 
incomplete development of starch and oil in the immature seeds. 
In the crop from sections of the mineral plots (6a and 6b) the 
percentages of protein are seen to be in nearly all cases smaller 
than in the crops from sections of plots with nitrogen. In 
plants from the nitrate of soda group of plots the percentages 
of protein were largest in both grain and stover from sections 
of plot 9. The increase, however, in the protein in the crops 
from sections of plot 9 over that in the crops from sections of 
plot 8 did not correspond in all cases to the increase in the 
quantity of nitrogen in the fertilizers. In many instances the 
percentage of protein in crops from sections of plot 9, with 
seventy-five pounds of nitrogen per acre, are but little larger 
than in those from sections of plots 8 or 7, with fifty or 
twenty-five pounds of nitrogen per acre. Similar facts are 
noticed in the results from the sulphate of ammonia group of 
plots. 



* See p. 28 of the Report of this Station for 1890; also p. 136 of Report for 189S. 



STORKS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 59. 
special nitrogen experiments on white flint corn 

(SERIES A). 

Percentages and pounds per ac7'e of dry matter and of protein in 

the grain. 







Fertilizers. 


i- 

.2 

<u 

O 

X, 
_b0 

'3 


u 
CIS 
V 


at harvest per 
acre. 

■y matter. 


Protein in dry matter. 
N. X 6.25. 


Percentage of 
yield on basis 
of yield from 

mineral plots. 


to 


x. 

be 

'C 


% 


'53 
p 






LL>s. 




Lbs. % 


I,bs. 


% 


I,bs 


A 





Nothing, ... . 


-! 


i8 9 8 ; 56584.3 
1899 61089.7 
Av. 588 87.0 


476 

547 

512 


9-79 
10. 19 

9.99 


47 
56 
52 


29 

29 
29 


29 
29 

30 


7 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
1 60/j 


iSgS'^s 81.5 
1899 2275 88.9 

Av. 1970 85.2 


1357 
2022 
1690 


10.35 
10.31 
10.33 


140 
209 
175 


S2 
I06 

95 


87 

109 

99 


8 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 


480 ( 
320") 


1898 262584.6 

1899 3 2DO 86.5 
Av. ,2943 85.6 


2221 
2820 
2521 


10.05 
10.94 
10.50 


223 
309 
266 


134 
148 
142 


139 

i6r 
151 


9 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a. 
( Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
480 j 


1898.2825 S3. 1 
1899 2990 87.3 
Av. 2908 85.2 


2348 
2610 
2479 


10.60 

".37 
10.99 


249 
297 

273 


142 
137 
139 


155 

155 

155 


6a 


j Dis. Bone-black, ) Mixed j 
I Mur. of Potash, <j Min'ls, { 


320 j 
160 j 


1898 1625 85.0 
18992045 S7.4 
Av. 1835 86.2 


1381 

1787 
1584 


9.70 
10.31 
10.01 


134 

1S4 
159 


* 
* 


* 
* 


10 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


480 ( 
120") 


1898 2275 83.4 
1899316s S5.4 
A v. 12720 84.4 


1897 

2703 
2300 


IO. 12 

II. 56 

10.84 


192 
313 
253 


115 
142 
129 


120 
163 
143 


11 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
240 j 


1898^293585.8 
1899 2 4°5 85.5 
Av. 2700 85.7 


25 1 s 

210S 
2313 


9.98 
11.63 
10.81 


251 
245 
248 


152 
in 
130 


156 
128- 
141 


12 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
360 | 


1S98 2790 85.1 
1S992960 S6.2 
A v. 2875 85.7 


2374 
2552 
2463 


10.43 

II . so 

10.97 


24S 
294 
271 


144 

134 
138 


i55 
i53 
154 


00 


Nothing, - - - - 


-1 


18981025 S3. 2 
1899 650 89.6 
Av. 836 86 .4 


S53 
582 
718 


10.59 
11 . 19 

10.89 


90 
65 
78 


5 2 
3i 
40 


56 

34 
44 


66 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6<7, 


480 j 


i8g8 i 22=;o 85.6 
18992285 88.5 
Av. 2268 87.1 


1926 
2022 
1974 


9.71 
9-87 
9.79 


187 
200 
194 


* 
* 
* 


* 

* 



* The average of the yields on plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



18.5 



Table 40. 
special nitrogen experiments on white flint corn 

(SERIES A). 

Percentages and pounds per acre of dry matter a?id of protein i?i 

stover. 



Fertilizers. 



a X 






'w 



Nothi 



ng. 



6£ 



j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6«, 
I Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.). 



Lbs. 



160 



Lbs. 



% ; Lbs. 



\ 

Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 480 j 
Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 320 1 

Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 480 
Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 480 



j Dis. Bone-black, 
( Mur. of Potash, 



Mixed 
Min'ls, 



Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 

Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 

j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 



Nothing, 



320 
160 



'480 

[20 

480^ 
240 j 

! 4 8o j 

! 3 6o| 



Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 480 



iSgfc 
189c 
Av. 



1899 
Av. 



Av. 

189S 
189c 
Av. 



Av. 



Av. 



1899 
Av. 



1899 
Av. 



Av. 



1899 
Av. 



125068.6; 858J 7. 

g8o'68.3 66g| 9.00 

1115 68.5 764 8.42 

2-250164.3j1.447! 6.23 

290057.21659' 6.19 

2575 60.81553 6.21 



2525 
3475 

3000 

2975 
2375 
2675 

2150 
3515 
2833 

2650 
3225 
2938 



70.3 1775 

62.7 2179 
66.51977 

58.0 1726 
56.5 1342 
57.31534 

62.8 1350 
57.912035 
60.41693 

66.411760 
60.711958 
63. 6 1859 



320057.6,1843 

4000|55 .0 ! 2200 

3600 56.3 2022 

2525 61.6 1555 
3875I50.4 1953 
3200 56.01754 



1250 
1075 
1163 

2050 
2875 
2463 



62.0 
68.1 
65.1 



63 



775 
732 
754 

1398 
1688 
1543 



Lbs 

67 
60 

64 

90 

103 

97 

101 
163 

132 

108 
97 

103 

92 
t35 

114 

103 

i53 
128 

6.09 112 
7-94 175 
7.02144 

6.82 106 
S. ig 160 
7.51133 

9 . 08 70 
ir. 63 85 
10.36| 78 

6.47.1 91 
5.81 98 
6.14 95 



5.71 
7.50 
6.61 

6.25 
7.19 
6.72 

6.81 
6.62 
6.72 

5.83 
7.81 
6.82 



62 
36 
47 

105 
89 
96 

129 
117 
122 

126 

72 
95 



128 

105 
115 

134 
118 
125 

113 

105 
108 

56 
39 

47 



73 
52 
61 

90 
88 
93 

no 
140 
126 
118 
83 
99 



"3 
131 
122 

122 
150 
138 

116 

J 37 

127 

77 

73 
75 



* The average of the yields 011 plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



i86 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 41. 
special nitrogen experiments on white flint corn 

(SERIES F). 

Percentages and pounds per acre of dry matter a?id of protein in 

the grain. 



s 




Fertilizers. 


u 

V 

u 

<L> 


M 

'5 


11 

>< 


u 

<u 

p. 

If. 

> 

;- . 

Gi 11 

^ 1- 

O 

'v 




<S 


Percentage of 
yield on basis 
of yield fn mi 
mineral plots. 


fe 


a 


s 2; 
'3 



u 


PS 2 




Lbs. 




Lbs. 


% 


Lbs. 


0/ 
/o 


Lbs 


% % 


Nothing, - - - - 


-1 


I898 
I899 

Av. 


710 
IOIO 

860 


88.2 
88.3 
88,3 


626 
892 

759 


10.70 
II. 19 
10.95 


67 
IOO 

84 


37 41 
65 73 

49 57 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
7 } Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
160 1 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


1400 
1820 
1610 


85.6 
88.8 
87.2 


1198 
1616 
1407 


10.51 
10.00 
10.26 


126 
162 
144 


71 76 

117 126 

92 98 


8 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 


480 ( 
320 j 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2385 
2370 
2378 


86.1 
88.7 
87.4 


2053 
2102 

2078 


10.39 
10.00 
10.20 


213 
210 
212 


121 129 
152 163 
135 144 


9 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
480 | 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2405 
2470 
2438 


84.9 
86.4 

85.7 


2042 
2134 
2088 


11. 41 
11.12 
11.27 


233 

237 
235 


121 141 
155 184 
136 159 


6a 


\ Dis. Bone-black, ) Mixed j 
] Mur. of Potash, ) Min'ls, } 


320 \ 
160] 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


1845 
1650 
1748 


86.6 
87.1 
86.9 


1598 
1437 
1518 


9-75 
9-13 
9.44 


156 
131 
144 


* * 

* * 

* * 


10 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


48o | 
120 j 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2150.S4.4 

23is : 88.7 
2233 86.6 


1815 10.60 
2053I10.06 
193410.33 


192 
207 
200 


107 116 
149 161 
126 136 


11 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
'( Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
240 j 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


238583.6 
2^40 SS.i 
2463.85.9 


199410.54 
2238110.63 
211610.59 


210 
238 
224 


11S 127 

162 1S5 
138 152 


12 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 


480 i 
360") 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2160 84.5 
iS2o'S6.2 
1990 85.4 


1S25U0.S0 
1569 10. Si 
169710.81 


i97 
170 
184 


108 119 
114 132 

111 125 


00 


Nothing, - - - - 


"I 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


95084.9 
755S7.3 
853 86.1 


807 10.90 
659 11. 19 
73311.05 


88 
74 
81 


48 
48 
48 


53 
5S 
55 


6b 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


480 j 


1898 2090 85.3 

1899 1515 87.2 
Av. 1 1803 86.3 


1783 9.82 
1321 9.56 
1552 9.69 


175 
126 
151 


* 


* 
* 
* 



* The average of the yields on plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



I8 7 



Table 42. 
special nitrogen experiments on white flint corn 

(SERIES F). 

Perce?itages a?id pounds per acre of dry matter and of protein in 

stover. 






Fertilizers. 


u 

V 
N 

V 

to 

'5 


u 

<u 


ft 

V 

> 

u . 

.£? 


V 

S 


lH 

V 

ts 

a * 

l-c VO 

V 


u 
Ph 


Percentage of 
yield on basis ' 
of yield from 
mineral plots. 


£ 





u 

1- £ 

a 


"v 



u 
Ph 






Lbs. 




Lbs. 


% 


Lbs. 




Lbs 


% 


% 





Nothing, - - - - 


S 


1898 
1899 

Av. 


805 
1 1 90 

993 


76.5 
72.7 
74.6 


616 

865 

741 


5.80 
8.56 
7.18 


36 
74 
55 


48 
50 
49 


54 
64 

60 


7 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
160") 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


1350 
2675 
2013 


72.9 
61.2 
67.1 


984 
1637 
1311 


5.17 
8.12 
6.65 


51 

133 

92 


76 

95 
87 


77 
114 

100 


8 


| Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
} Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 


480 \ 
320 | 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2210 

2750 
2480 


73-6 
69.9 

71.8 


1627 
1922 
1775 


5-57 
8.69 
7.13 


91 
167 
129 


126 
112 
118 


137 
143 
140 


9 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
480 1 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2070 
2550 
2310 


63.6 
61.2 
62.4 


1317 
1561 
1439 


6.62 

11 .31 

8.97 


87 
177 
132 


102 
9 1 
95 


131 
152 
143 


6a 


( Dis. Bone-black, { Mixed \ 
I Mux. of Potash, \ Min'ls, ] 


320 \ 
160] 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


1790 
2600 
2195 


70.9 
64.3 
67.6 


1269 
1672 
1471 


5-35 
7.50 
6.43 


68 

125 

97 


* 


* 
* 
* 


10 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
I20 ) 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2025 
2900 
2463 


73-3 
65.2 
69.3 


1484 
1891 
1688 


4.67 

.7-38 

6.03 


69 
140 
105 


"5 
no 
112 


104 
120 
114 


11 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


48o j 
240 j 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


2225 
2650 
2438 


66.9 
65.8 
66.4 


1489 
1744 
1617 


5.08 

12.69 

8.89 


76 
221 
149 


"5 
101 

107 


114 
190 
162 


12 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 


48o j 
360 | 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


1890 
2100 
1995 


70.9 
63.6 
67.3 


1340 
1336 
1338 


5-55 
14-75 
10.15 


74 
197 
136 


104 

78 
89 


in 
169 
148 


00 


Nothing, - - - - 


1 

"1 


1898 
1899 
Av. 


735 
875 
805 


70.0 
71.9 
71.0 


515 
629 
572 


8.30 

10.37 

9.34 


43 
65 
54 


40 
37 
38 


65 
56 
59 


6b 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


48o j 


1898 
1899 

Av. 


1850 
2625 
2238 


71-3 
67.6 
69.5 


1319 

1775 
1547 


4.89 
6.06 
5.48 


65 

108 

87 


* 


* 
* 
* 



* The average of the yields on plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



1 88 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Ill comparing the results of the experiments for 1898 with 
those for 1899, it will be noticed that in 1898 the increase in 
the percentages of protein in the crops which might be ascribed 
to an increase in the nitrogen in the fertilizer was much less 
noticeable, on the whole, and corresponded much less regularly 
with the increase in the quantities of nitrogen used than was 
the case in 1899. This may be due in part to exceptionally 
heavy rains in July and August,* 1898, which seemed to cur- 
tail the yields and may also have modified the effects of nitro- 
gen on the protein of the crop. As suggested in a preceding 
paragraph, excessive rain during the growing season may cause 
considerable of the nitrogen in soluble materials, as nitrates, 
etc. , to be washed away in drainage water, and by thus reduc- 
ing the amount of nitrogen available to the plants may modify 
the effect upon both the yield and the composition of the crop. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH COW PEAS. 

From the diagram on page 172, which illustrates the method 
of dividing each of *the plots in the experimental field into six 
equal sections one-fiftieth of an acre in size, and shows what 
crop is grown on each section, it will be seen that cow peas are 
grown on the two series of sections lettered C and D. The 
kinds and amounts of fertilizer used on each plot are shown iu 
the diagram on page 170. 

The Clay variety of cow peas are used in these experiments. 
The seed is obtained each year from Tennessee, because it has 
been found that in this climate cow peas do not mature suffici- 
ently to use the seed grown in the experiments of one year for 
planting the following 3^ear. On the two series of sections, 
C and D, the cow peas are planted in drills at the rate of about 
forty quarts per acre. Although the two series of sections are 
kept separate in growing the crops, the data from both are 
combined and the results of the experiments are given as if 
obtained from one series of sections, each one-twenty-fifth of an 
acre in size. 

The results of the experiments for 1897, 1898, and 1899 are 
given in Tables 43 and 44 which follow. The weights at 
harvest of the crops on the different sections are given per 
section and per acre in Table 43; but the figures for the 1897 

* See Meteorological observations on p. 245 of the Report for 1S98. ' 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 1 89 

-experiments are not included in the averages in the table 
because of the irregularity of the experiments of that year, as 
above explained. Table 44 gives the percentages and amounts 
of dry matter in the crop at harvest, and of protein in the dry 
matter. The analyses for 1897 are a ^ so given in this table, 
but are not included in the averages. These are the only 
.analyses made of any of the crops grown in the special nitrogen 
experiments of 1897. 

The amounts of ?iitroge?i in the fertilizers and the total yields 
of the crop. — The results of the special nitrogen experiments in 
their bearing upon the effect of the different fertilizers upon 
the total yield of the crop are shown in the figures in Table 43. 
From these figures it will be seen that the 3delds from all the 
fertilized plots are about twice as large as those from the plots 
with no fertilizer. The most noticeable feature of these results 
is the large yields from the sections of the plots (6a and 65), 
with the mineral fertilizers only, as compared with the }aelds 
from the sections of plots having the nitrogenous fertilizers 
in addition to the minerals. The average of the yields from 
the sections of the two mineral plots is larger than the yield 
from either one of a number of the sections of plots with 
nitrogen. Even where an increase in yield accompanies the 
application of the nitrogenous fertilizers, the amount of in- 
crease does not correspond at all with the quantities of nitrogen 
used. For instance, in the experiments of both 1898 and 1899, 
the yield from the sections of plot 7 of the nitrate of soda 
group, with twenty-five pounds of nitrogen per acre, was larger 
than that from the sections of either plot 8 or 9 of the same 
group, with fifty and seventy-five pounds per acre respectively, 
or from sections of the plots — 10, 1 1 , and 12 — of the sulphate of 
ammonia group. The inference from these results is that, so 
far as the growth of the plants is concerned, good returns fol- 
low the application of the mineral fertilizers upon cow peas, 
but the application of nitrogen has little effect upon the yield. 

In the experiments of 1898 the total yield of this crop from 
the sulphate of ammonia group of plots was practically the 
same as that from the nitrate of soda group. In the 1899 
experiments, however, and in all other experiments with this 
crop during the past five years, except those of 1898, the yields 
of cow pea fodder were, on the whole, smaller from the sul- 
phate of ammonia group than from the nitrate of soda group. 



190 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 43. 

special nitrogen experiments on cow pea fodder. 

Weight and cost of fertilizers per acre, total crop, and increase of 

crop over that of the nothing plots. 












it of 
zer. 

r. 

of 
zer. 


per 
an. 

ere. 

per 

as 

ited. 

over 

ing 

ts. 


■g 


Fertilzers. 






cr;" 


13— ' n 


XJ '4J V £ r ~~ ^ 


. 








'tu > 


3^ 


5 8 J? 


% £ *p a- 











££ 


4h 


t* m « 


>«2 |o- 










Lbs. 




$ 


Lbs. 


Ivbs. 


Tons 


Lbs. 










f 


1897 




39 2 


9800 


4-9 


— 





Nothing, 


- 


- 


1 


1898 
1899 





456 1 1400 

430 1 10750 


5-7 
5-4 












I 


Av.* 


— 


443 11075 


5.6 • 










r 


1897 


10. II 


814 20350 


10.2:12200 




\ Mixed Minerals, as 
( Nitrate of Soda (25 


No. 


6a, 


480 1 


1898 9.37 


958 23950 


12.0 13450 


7 


lbs. 


N.), - 


160 1 1899 


9.00 


910 122750 


11. 4 131S7 










1 lAv.* 


— 


934 23350 


11.713319 










fi8 97 


13.61 


766 19150 


9.6 1 1000 


8 


j Mixed Minerals, as 
( Nitrate of Soda (50 


No 


6a, 


480! 1898I12.87 


886 '22150 


11. 2 11650 


lbs. 


N.), - 


320 1 1899 12.13 


875 :2187s 


10. g 12312 










L Av.* 


— 


881 22013 


11.111981 










r 1897 


17. II 


676 16900 


8.5 8750 




( Mixed Minerals, as 
( Nitrate of Soda (75 


No. 


6a, 


480) 1898 
480) 1899 


16.37 


930 123250 


11. 6 12750 


9 


lbs. 


N.), - 


15.26 


852 ^21300 


10.711737 










t Av.* 


— 


891 22275 


11 .2 12244 










320] ;I8 9 8 


6.61 


822 20550 


10.3 12400 


6(2 


j Dis. Bone-black, j 
( Mur. of Potash, ] 


Mixed j 
Minerals, | 


5. 87 


922 23050 


11. 5)12550 


160"] 1899 
L Av.* 


5.87 


850 21250 


10.611687 












886 22150 


11.112119 










r 1S97 


9-99 


692 17300 


8.7; 9150 




j Mixed Minerals, as 


No 


6a, - 


480 | 189s 9.37 


906 '22650 


II.3iI2I50 


10 


( Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. 


N.), - 


]20 1 1899 

I Av.* 


9.62 


845 21125 


IO.6 II562 










— 


876 21888 


11.011856 










r 1897 
480J 1898 


13.37 


666 16650 


8.3 8500 




j Mixed Minerals, as 
j Sulph. of Am. (50 1 


No 


6a, 


12.87 


934 !2335o 


11. 7 12S50 


11 


bs. 


N.), - 


240 ] 1899 


13-37 


765 119125 


9.6 9562 










l Av.* 


— 


850 21238 


10.711206 










r 1897 
480 j 1898 


16.75 


604 1 5 100 


7.6 6950 




\ Mixed Minerals, as 


No. 


6a, 


16.37 


926 23150 


11. 6 


12650 


12 \ Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. 


NO, - 


360I 1899 


17.12 


770 19250 


9-6 


96S7 










[ Av.* 


— 


848 21200 


10.6 


11169 










r 1897 


— 


260 6500 


3-3 


— 


00 


Nothing, 


- 


- 


_ 1 1898 
1 1899 


— 


3 84 ! 9600 

335 ; 8375 


4.8 
4.2 













1 Av.* 


— 


360 8988 


4.5 


— 










r 1897 


6.61 


744 18600 


9-3 


10450 


6b 


Mixed Minerals, as 


No 


6a, 


5.87 
5.87 


8 So 22000 
893 22325 


11. 
11. 2 


1 1 500 
12762 








{ Av.* 




887 22163 


11.1 


12131 



* Average omitting 1S97. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 191 

In the case of corn, in which similar results have been noted, 
the smaller yield with the sulphate has been explained as pos- 
sibly due to an acidity of soil resulting from the repeated appli- 
cation of this material to the same plots year after year. The 
exception in 1898 noted above may, perhaps, be the result of 
the exceptional rainfall of 1897, and heavy rains also in 1898, 
which may have washed considerable of the surplus acid out of 
the soil at that time. No experiments have been made by the 
Station to test the advantages of lime upon the sections of the 
sulphate of ammonia plots upon which cow peas are grown. 

The amounts of nitrogen in the fertilizers and the proportions 
ofproteifi in the crop. — From Table 44 below, giving the percent- 
ages and amounts of dry matter in the crop at harvest and the 
percentages and amounts of protein in the dry matter, it will 
be seen that in many instances the percentages of protein are 
larger in the crops from sections of plots without fertilizers than 
in those from sections of plots with fertilizers. This has been 
noticed in the case of corn also, and may, perhaps, be due to 
premature ripening of the plants on the sections without fertili- 
zer. It has been shown by analyses that the proportion of 
protein is larger in immature, or "poor" corn, than in mature, 
or " good " corn. 

From the results given in Table 44 there appears to be but 
little relationship between the quantity of nitrogen in the fer- 
tilizer and the proportion of protein in the crop. In the 1898- 
experiments the percentage of protein was higher in the aver- 
age of the crops from the sections of the two mineral plots than 
in the crop from sections of any of the plots with nitrogen. In 
the 1899 experiments, however, there appeared to be some 
increase in the proportion of protein in the crop accompanying 
the increase in the nitrogen in the fertilizer, as may be seen 
by comparing with each other the percentages of protein in the 
crops from sections of plots 7, 8, and 9, with respectively 25, 
50, and 75 pounds of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, and also those 
from sections of plots 10, 11, and 12, with like amounts of 
nitrogen in sulphate of ammonia. In the experiments with cow 
peas, as a whole, the increase in the protein in the crop which 
accompanies the application of the nitrogen in the fertilizers, 
as shown by figures for percentages and yields of protein per 
acre, has been smaller and less uniform than in the experiments 
with common grasses. 



192 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 44. 

SPECIAL NITROGEN EXPERIMENTS ON COW PEA FODDER. 
Percentages and potinds per acre of dry matter and of protein. 





5 




Fertilizers. 


,13 S 


nS 

> 




!-' 
V 

a 

2 


.StsX 


Percentage of 
yield on basis 
of yield from 
mineral plots. 


fc 




P 1 " 




a 


u 

p< 


Dry 
matter. 


Pro- 
tein. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


% Vas. 


% 


Lbs. 


% 


% 


O 


Nothing, ... 


r 1897 
J ji8 9 8 
1 1899 

[ JAv.* 


9800 
1 1400 
10750 

11075 


18.51813 

18.9 2155 
16.3 1752 

17.61954 


21.69 
16.26 
20.81 
18.54 


393 
350 
365 
358 


56 
58 

54 

56 


65 
50 

55 

56 


7 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), 


r 11897 

480 ! 1898 
160 ] I1899 

I Av.* 


20350 
23950 
22750 
23350 


17.8 3622 
18.14335 
14-8 3367 
16.5 3851 


17.68 
16.38 
21.06 
18.72 


640 
710 

709 
710 


112 
116 
104 
110 


106 

IOI 

106 
112 


8 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 


r'1897 
480 j 1898 
320] J1899 

L Av.* 


19150 

22150 
21875 
22013 


17.8.340919-03 

17-5 3876, l6 -9! 
15.2 332519. 69 

16.4 3601 18.30 


649 
655 
655 
655 


106 
104 
103 
103 


107 
93 
98 

103 


9 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
} Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 


r 1897 

480] 1898 
480 ] 1899 

L Av.* 


16900 
23250 
21300 
22275 


17. 1 2890 18.43 
18.64325 17.51 
14. 8 ! 3i52 22.94 
16.7 3739:20.23 


533 

757 
723 
740 


90 
116 

97 
107 


8S 
108 
108 
117 


6« 


$ Dis. Bone-black, ( Mixed j 
j Mur. of Potash, { Min., { 


rii8 97 

320 ! 1S98 

160 1 1899 

[ Av.* 


20550 
23050 
21250 
22150 


16.23329 
17.33988 
15.03188 
16.2 3588 


19.2=; 
17.98 
21.12 
19.55 


641 
717 
673 
695 


t 
t 
t 
t 


t 
t 
t 
t 


10 


\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Suiph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


r 1897 

480 ! 11898 

120 "j ! i899 

l|Av.* 


17300 
22650 
21125 
21888 


16.52855 
17.94055 
15.73317 
16.8 3686 


18.43 
16.82 
20.07 
18.45 


526 
682 
666 
674 


S8 
108 
103 

106 


87 

97 

100 

106 


11 


5 Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
( Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


r 1897 
4S0 J 1898 

240] 11899 
[ 'Av.* 


16650 
23350 
19125 
21238 


17.2 2864 
17.03970 

15.3 2926 
16.2 3448 


15-91 
17.99 
20. S8 
19.44 


456 
714 
611 
663 


s 9 

106 

90 

99 


75 
102 

91 
104 


12 


3 Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 


r 1897 
480! 1898 
360 ] IS99 

L Av.* 


15100 18.0 2718 
23150 16.83889 
19250 14.2 2734 
2120015.5 3312 


22.79 
17.03 
22.94 
19.99 


619 
662 
627 
645 


84 

104 

85 

95 


102 
94 
94 

102 


00 


Nothing, ... 


fii3 9 7 

_ j HS98 

I 1899 

MAv.* 


6500 
9600 
3375 
8988 


1S.9 1229 
18.91814 
16.2I1357 
17.61586 


18.13 
17.87 
23-31 
20.59 


223 

324 
316 
320 


38 
48 
42 
45 


37 
46 

47 

50 


6£ 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


r 1897 

J 11808 

480-^ ! Q v 
* 1 11899 
L Av.* 


18600 16. 83125 
22000 15.9 349S 
22325'i4. 7^3282 
2216315.3 3390 


18.17 

19-57 
20. 19 
19.88 


568 
685 
663 
674 


t 
t 
t 
t 


+ 
t 
t 
t 



* Average omitting 1897. 

j The average of the yields on plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 193 

EXPERIMENTS WITH SOY BEANS. 

As seen by the diagram on page 172 soy beans are grown 
upoti the two series of sections lettered B and E. In the ex- 
periments with this crop, as in those with cow peas, the two 
series are used for growing the crops, but the results obtained 
on both are combined and reported as if only one series of sec- 
tions twice the size were used. The results of the experiments 
with this crop are given in "Tables 45 and 46 following. The 
experiments with this crop in 1S96 are also included here, 
inasmuch as they have not been reported previously. The 
averages in the tables, therefore, include the results of three 
years — 1896, 1898, and 1899— instead of two as in the case of 
corn and cow peas. The weights of the yields for 1897 are 
given in Table 45, but, as previously explained, they are not 
included in the averages nor considered in the discussion. 

In these experiments with soy beans only the seed is taken 
into account. No attempt was made to estimate the yields of 
the vines after the seed was removed, because by the time the 
seed is well matured nearly all of the leaves have fallen from 
the vines. 

The amounts of nitrogen in the fertilizers and the total yield 
of the crop. — The results of the experiments as regards the yields 
of the crop, given in Table 45 below, show that in many cases 
the yields from sections of plots with mineral fertilizers only 
were smaller than from sections of plots with nitrogen in addi- 
tion to the minerals. The differences, on the whole, are more 
noticeable in the experiments with soy beans than in those 
with cow peas, suggesting that probably the nitrogenous fer- 
tilizers had more effect in increasing the yields of the soy beans. 
The total increase in the yields, however, accompanying the 
increase in the nitrogen of the fertilizer, did not correspond 
with the amounts of nitrogen used. In the experiments with 
soy beans here reported, in no case was the yield largest from 
the section of the plot with the largest quantity of nitrogen in 
the nitrate of soda group, and only in one case in the sulphate 
of ammonia group. The largest yields, on the average, were 
generally obtained from sections of plots with nitrogen at fifty 
pounds per acre. The value of the increase, however, which 
might be attributed to the nitrogenous fertilizers, was not suf- 
cient in most cases to cover the cost of the nitrogen added to 
the mineral fertilizers. 



i 9 4 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 45. 

SPECIAL NITROGEN EXPERIMENTS ON SOY BEAN SEED. 

Weight and cost of fertilizers per acre, total crop, and increase of 

crop over that of the nothing plots. 






Fertilizers. 








■C3 cC 


Id per 
ere. 


11 over 
hing 
lots. 


d 






>< 


-j- 1 

£ 




V as 
> 


'5 2^ 
O - 






I,bs. 




1 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 






r 


1896 





23-6 


590 


9.8 


— 






1 


1897 





9.0 


225 


3-8 • 





Nothing, - 


— { 


1898 





19.6 


490 


8.2 — 






1 


1899 





30.2 


755 


12.6 — 






1 


Av.* 


— 


24.5 


61.2 


10.2 - 






r 


1896 


9.99 


39-9 


99S 


16.6 5.5 




\ Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


480) 
160 j 


1897110. II 


23.6 


590 


9.8 6.1 


7 


} Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), - 


1898 

1899 


9-37 
9.00 


33-6 

42.8 


840 
1070 


14.0 5-9 
17-8 5-7 






1 


Av.* 


— 


38.8 


969 


16.1 5.7 






r 


1896 


13-37 


41.8 


1045 


17.4 6.3 


■8 


( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
■ { Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), - 


480 J 
320 j 


1897 
1898 
1899 


13.61 
12.87 
12.13 


13-9 
40.1 

48.8 


348 
1003 
1220 


5.8 2.1 
16.7 8.6 
20.3 8.2 






Av.* 


— 


43.6 


1089 


18.1 7.7 






r 


1896 


16.75 


40.4 


IOIO 


16.8 5.7 




j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 

I Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), - 


480 j 

480^ 


1897 17. 11 


17.6 


440 


7-3 3-6 


9 


1898 
1899 


10.37 
15-26 


36.2 
48.7 


905 
1218 


15-.1 7.0 

20.3 8.2 






Av.* 


— 


41.8 


1044 


17.4 7.0 






r 


1896 


6.61 


37-4 


935 


15-6 4-5 


6a 


j Dis. Bone-black, j Mixed ( 
I Mur. of Potash, ( Minerals, ] 


320J 
160] 


1897 
1898 
1899 


6.61 

5-37 
5-87 


11. 4 

31-5 
3S.4 


285 
788 
960 


4.8 1.1 
13- 1 5.o 
16.0 3.9 






1 


Av.* 


— 


35.8 


894 


14.9 4.5 






r 


1896 


10.36 


38. 6 


965 


16. 1 5.0 




j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


480 J 
120 j 


[897 


9-99 


S.6 


215 


3.6 .1 


10 


1898 
1899 


9-37 
9.62 


30.4 
41.7 


760 
1043 


12.7 4.6 

17.4 5-3 






1 


Av.* 


— 


36.9 


923 


15.4 5.0 






r 


1896 


14. 11 


3S.8 


970 


16.2 5.1 




( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
I Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


480 ! 


1897 


13-37 


15-4 


385 


6.4 2.7 


.11 


* 1 iSgg 13-37 


36.0 

43-9 


900 
1098 


15.0 6.9 
18.3 6.2 






L 


Av.* 


— 


39.6 


989 


16.5 6.1 






r 


1896 


17.86 


42.0 


1050 


17.5 6.4 


12 


J Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 

\ Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), - 


480 J 

36o"j 


1897 
1898 
1899 


16-75 
16.37 
17. 12 


17.0 
35-2 
43-3 


425 

880 

1083 


7-i 3-4 
14.7 6.6 
18. 1 6.0 






1 


Av.* 


— 


40.2 


1004 


16.8 


6.3 



* Average omitting 1S97. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 195 

Table 45. — (Continued.) 






& 


Fertilizers. 


'53 *- 


u 
at 

> 


, 1- 

N 
4-1 


n £ ^ 

•H U N 




o.Si« 

-~ 

"52^ 






Lbs. 




$ 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 






r 


1896 


— 


28.O 


750 


12.5 


— 






i 


I8q 7 


— 


8.4 


210 


3-5 


— 


00 


Nothing, - - - - 


— < 


1898 


— 


lq.2 


480 


8.0 


— 






i 


i8qq 


— 


27. 5 


688 


11. 5 


— 






Av.* 


— 


24.9 


639 


10.7 


— 






r 


i8q6 


6.61 


36.9 


923 


15-4 


4-3 






i 


I8q 7 


6.61 


14.9 


373 


6.2 


2-5 


bb 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


4 8o^ 


i8q8 


5.87 


38. 7 


. q68 


16. 1 


8.0 






1 


i8qq 


S.87 


44-7 


1118 


18.6 


6.S 






1 


Av.* 


— 


40.1 


1003 


16.7 


6.3 



* Average omitting 1897. 

The amounts of nitrogen i?i the fertilizers and the proportion of 
protein in the crop. — As seen by the figures in Table 46 below, 
the percentage of protein in the crop from the plots with 
minerals only is in some cases smaller and in others larger than 
in the crop from the sections of plots with nitrogen in addition 
to the minerals. The average of the yields from the sections 
of both the mineral plots is somewhat smaller than the average 
yield from any of the sections of plots with nitrogen; but be- 
cause of the irregularity in this respect it can hardly be said 
that a lack of nitrogen in the fertilizer was accompanied by a 
smaller percentage of protein in the crop. In the crops from 
the sections of plots with the nitrogenous fertilizers, in the 
experiments of 1896 and 1899, the percentage of protein was 
largest where the largest quantities of nitrogen were used. 
The experiments of 1898, as has been suggested in the dis- 
cussion of experiments with other crops, may have been 
modified by heavy rains in the growing season. 

It will be observed from the figures in Table 46, that not only 
the percentage of protein in the crop, but also the total yields 
of protein per acre were largest in several cases where the 
largest quantities of nitrogen were used in the fertilizers. On 
the whole, the experiments with this crop seem to indicate that 
the nitrogenous fertilizers tend to increase the }aelds of dry 
matter and of protein more than was found in the experiments 
with cow peas, but the increase does not correspond with the 
amounts of nitrogen used. 



ig6 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 46. 

special nitrogen experiments on soy bean seed. 

Percentages and pounds per acre of dry matter and of protein. 











«« 




>, 


Percentage of 







*o b 




2 1- 




"0 .uS 


yield on basis 


T. 




V 


u 


^ cS 


ij 


•HfcS 


of yield from 





Fertilizers. 


£3 


0! 

> 


.Sf"K 


>> 




.StsX • 


mineral plots. 


6 


Dry 


Pro- 












PM 


matter. 


tein. 






Lbs. 




Lbs. 


% 


Lbs. 


% 


Lbs. 


% 


% 






r 


1896 


590 


94.5 


558 


38.14 


213 


63 


63 





Nothing, - 


1 

-1 


1898 

1899 


490 

755 


93-2 
90.8 


45744-21 

68642.50 


202 
292 


57 
7i 


60 

76 






1 


Av. 


612 


92.8 


567 41.62 


236 


64 


66 






r 


1896 


998 


96-3 


961 


37.58 


361 


109 


106 




j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Nitrate of Soda (25 lbs. N.), 


480 1 
160] 


1898 


S40 


90.9 


764 44. 9 1 


343 


96 


IOI 


7 


1899 


1070 


91.8 


982140.57 


398 


102 


103 






L 


Av. 


963 


93.0 


902 41.02 


367 


102 


103 






r 


1896 


1045 


96.4 


1007 38.00 


383 


114 


112 


8 


j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
{ Nitrate of Soda (50 lbs. N.), 


480 j 
320 ] 


1898 


1003 


91.4 


91744.77 


411 


"5 


121 


1899 


1220 


92.6 


1130:40.06 


453 


117 


"7 






1 


Av. 


1089 


93.5 


1018 40.94 


416 


115 


117 






r 


1896 


IOIO 


96.2 


972 38.09 


370 


no 


109 




( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


480 1 
480 } 


1898 


905 


91 .0 


82444.40 


366 


103 


10S 


9 


I Nitrate of Soda (75 lbs. N.), 


1899 


1218 


9*-7 


111741.31 


461 


116 


119 






1 


Av. 


1044 


93.0 


97141.27 


399 


110 


112 






320! 
160 j 


1896 


935 


95-i 


S89'38.32 


341 


t 


t 


6a 


| Dis. Bone-black, \ Mixed j 


1898 


788 


91.8 


723J42.23 


305 


t 


t 


I Mur. of Potash, | Min., { 


1899 


960 


92.2 


8854L57 


368 


t 


t 






1 


Av. 


894 


93.0 


832 


40.71 


338 


t 


t 






r 


1896 


965 


97.2 


938 


41.45 


389 


106 


114 




( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


480,1 
120 } 


1898 


760 


90.7 


689 


41.64 


387 


S6 


114 


10 


I Sulph. of Am. (25 lbs. N.), 


1S99 


1043 


91.2 


95i 


40.94 


389 


99 


IOI 






Av. 


923 


93.0 


859 


41.34 


355 


97 


100 






r 


1896 


970 


9 6 -3 


934 


41.93 


392 


106 


115 




j Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Sulph. of Am. (50 lbs. N.), 


480 j 


1898 


900 


9°-5 


815 


42.54 


347 


102 


102 


11 


240 1 


1899 


1098 


91.6 


1006 


40.88 


411 


105 


106 






1 


Av. 


989 


92.8 


918 


41.78 


383 


104 


108 






480 J 
360] 


1S96 


1050 


95-4 


1002 


42.12 


422 


113 


124 




( Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 
\ Sulph. of Am. (75 lbs. N.), 


1898 


880 


90.7 


798 


42.05 


336 


100 


99 


12 


1899 


1083 


91.7 


993 


43-25 


420 


103 


109 






1 


Av. 


1004 


92.6 


931 


42.47 


396 


106 


111 






f 


1896 


750 


95-0 


713 


37.27 


266 


81 


78 




Nothing, ... 


1898 


480 


91.6 


440 


45.65 


201 


55 


59 


00 


1 


1899 


688 


90.6 


623 


47.06 


293 


65 


76 






1 


Av. 


639 


92.4 


592 


43.33 


253 


67 


71 






r 


1896 


923 


95-5 


881 


38.55 


340 






t 


6b 


Mixed Minerals, as No. 6a, 


4S0- 


1898 
1899 


968 
1118 


90.6 
92.9 


877 
1039 


42.64 
3S.94 


374 
405 






t 
t 






1 


Av. 


1003 


93.0 


932 


40.04 


373 






t 



■f The average of the yields on plots 6a and 6b is here taken at 100 for comparison. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 197 

SOIL TEST EXPERIMENTS. 

In 1890 the Station began at Storrs, on the same field as 
that used for the special nitrogen experiments, a series of 
experiments known as " soil tests." The purpose was to study 
the deficiencies of soils and the particular needs of different 
crops for the different ingredients of fertilizers. The fertilizers 
used in these soil tests are, in general, of the same kinds of 
materials — dissolved bone-black, muriate of potash, and nitrate 
of soda — as those used in the special nitrogen experiments, and 
supply the phosphorus, potash, and nitrogen in the same com- 
binations. In the special nitrogen experiments a uniform 
mixture of the mineral fertilizers — super-phosphate and potash 
salt — is used as a basis, and to this nitrogen is added in 
increasing proportions. In the soil test experiments the phos- 
phoric acid, potash, and nitrogen are applied upon parallel 
plots of land first singly, then two by two, and finally all three 
together, as shown in the diagram on page 198. 

For this series of soil test experiments a double group of 
plots was arranged as explained in the following paragraph, 
and upon these the experiments have been continued year by 
year, with the same plots and the same kinds and amounts of 
fertilizers on each indicated in the diagram below. The crops 
used in these experiments were grown in the following rota- 
tion, beginning with 1890: corn, potatoes, oats, cow peas, 
corn, potatoes, oats, soy beans, corn, potatoes. The experi- 
ments of 1897, J898, and 1899, nere reported, are the eighth, 
ninth, and tenth of this series, the crops grown in those years 
being respectively soy beans, corn, potatoes. The results of 
experiments previous to these are given in the annual Reports 
of the Station up to and including 1896. 

The method of dividing the field into plots for these experi- 
ments, and the kinds of fertilizers and the amounts per acre 
used on each plot, are illustrated by the following diagram. 
The plots are laid out with the long dimension north and 
south. The field slopes gently to the south, but with not 
enough incline to cause serious washing and cutting of the 
surface by water. The soil of the field is a heavy loam, with 
a yellow clay loam subsoil. In 1888 and 1889, when the field 
was being cropped preparatory to being laid out for this series 
of experiments, it was noticed that the soil seemed to be poorer 

14 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



toward the west side of the field. For this reason the field was 
divided into two sets of plots, each one-twenty-fourth acre in 
size, and the order of the plots in one of the two sets was 
reversed, as shown in the diagram. In considering the results 
of the experiments the data from both plots of the same num- 
ber are combined and the results considered as if obtained from 
one plot one-twelfth acre in size. In this way errors due to 
the irregularities of the soil are partially eliminated. 

Diagram illustrating the arrangement of the plots i?i the soil test, 

a?id the kinds of fertilizers and amounts per acre 

used on each plot. 

Unfertilized strips separate the adjoining plots. 
EAST. 



Plot o. Nothing. 



Plot A. Nit. of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Plot B. Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 



Plot C. Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 



Plot 00. Nothing. 



Plot D 



j Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 
I Nit. of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Plot E. 



Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 
Nit. of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Plot F 



j Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 
( Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 



( Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 

Plot G. \ Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 

(• Nit. of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Plot 000. Nothing. 



Plot X. 



Stable manure, 1000 lbs. 
Dis. Bone-bl'k, 160 lbs. 



Plot Y. Stable manure, 16000 lbs. 



Plot Y. Stable manure, 16000 lbs. 



Plot X. 



( Stable man., 10000 lbs. 
) Dis. Bone-bl'k, 160 lbs. 



Plot 000. Nothing:. 



( Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 

Plot G. \ Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 

f Nit. of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Plot 



-p. \ Dis. Bone-bl'k, 320 lbs. 
*■ 1 Mur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 



Plot E, 



j Mu 
i Nit 



ur. of Pot., 160 lbs. 
of Soda, 160 lbs. 



Pt rvr n $ Dis - Bone-bl'k, 320 
±loi ^ ■) Nit. of Soda, 160 



lbs. 
lbs. 



Plot 


00. 


Nothing. 




Plot 


C. 


Mur. of Pot., 


160 lbs. 


Plot 


B. 


Dis. Bone-bl'k, 


320 lbs. 


Plot 


A. 


Nit. of Soda, 


160 lbs. 



Plot o. Nothing;. 



WEST. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



199 



In addition to the plots in the regular soil test, which include 
the plots from o to 000 inclusive in the above diagram, and are 
treated with the commercial fertilizers as explained, two other 
plots, X and Y, of the same size are included in the series, the 
former being treated wit,h stable manure and phosphoric acid, 
and the latter with a larger quantity of stable manure, but 
without the addition of the mineral fertilizer. 

Experiment 0/1897. — From the rotation of crops given above 
it will be seen that soy beans were planted in 1897 following 
oats in 1896, instead of cow peas which had previously suc- 
ceeded oats in the order of rotation. The' results of the ex- 
periments with this crop are given in Table 47 below. The 
season was so wet, as before explained, that the field experi- 
ments were spoiled. The experiments for 1897, therefore, are 
not discussed. 

'Table 47. 
soil test with fertilizers on soy beans. 

By the Station, Storrs, 1897. 



^ 


Fertilizers per Acre. 








in k^ 











v E 


V 


ci bo . 


K 




jj 




ft+j 


2o 


£.5i2 










^J O cfl 




H- 13 ° 





Kind. 


be 
'53 





"3 ftw 


3 u 

V 


■jSa 


& 




£ 





> » 


p. 


O s 






IybS. 


$ 


Ivbs. 


r,bs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 





Nothing, - 





— 


34-0 


408 


6.8 


— 


A 


Nitrate of Soda, .- 


l60 


3-50 


31.0 


372 


6.2 


-I .O 


B 


Dis. Bone-black, ... 


320 


2.92 


35-5 


426 


7-i 


-. I 


C 


Muriate of Potash, - 


l60 


3-69 


3i-9 


383 


6.4 


-.8 


00 


Nothing, - 
| Nitrate of Soda, 
/ Dis. Bone-black, - 


160 I 


— 


35-5 


426 


7-i 


— 


D 


320 1 


6.42 


44-8 


538 


9.0 


1 .8 




j Nitrate of Soda, 

j Muriate of Potash, - 


l60 | 












E 


I6O J 


7.19 


37-9 


455 


7.6 


• 4 


F 


j Dis. Bone-black, 

] Muriate of Potash, - 

( Nitrate of Soda, ... 


320 / 

160 J 
160 


6.61 


46.7 


560 


9-3 


2.1 


G 


-j Dis. Bone-black, - - - 
( Muriate of Potash, - 


320 - 
J 60 ) 


10. n 


43-i 


517 


8.6 


1.4 














000 


Nothing, - 


— 


— 


38.5 


462 


7-7 


— 


X 


\ Stable manure, - 

\ Dis. Bone-black, ... 


f roooo [ 
160 f 


8.12* 


57-3 


688 


"•5 


4-3 


Y 


Stable manure, - 


^16000 


10.68* 


63-7 


764 


12.7 


5-5 



* The manure was valued at : 
j Equivalent to 3.56 cords. 



per cord of 4,500 pounds, f Equivalent to 2.22 cords. 



Experiments 0/1898. — The soil test of 1898 was made with 
corn and seemed to be normal throughout, although the grow- 
ing season of this year, while not so wet as that of 1897, was 
somewhat wetter than the average, owing to heavy rains in 
July and August. Quite a marked difference in the growth on 



200 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



the different plots manifested itself throughout the season. In 
general the crops on the plots having no nitrogen in the fertil- 
izer were pale yellow in color and more backward in growth 
than those on the plots with nitrogen. A comparison of the 
results from plot D with those from plots K and F, as given in 
Table 48 below, suggests that in this particular experiment the 
corn seemed to be benefited most by the combination of nitro- 
gen and phosphoric acid in the fertilizer. The table shows, 
however, that the largest yields of corn in 1898 were obtained 
from plots X and Y, which had the stable manure with and 
without phosphoric acid. This is the third time that corn has 
come into the rotation of crops in this series of experiments; 
and, as will be seen by comparing the results for the three 
years, given in Table 50, in two of the three years the largest 
yield has been obtained from plot Y, with the largest amount 
of stable manure, while in the other year the yield from this 
plot was essentially the same as that from the plot G, with 
the mixed minerals and nitrogen. 

Table 48. 
' soil test with fertilizers on white flint corn. 

By the Station, Storrs, 1898. 





Fertilizers per Acre. 


Yield per Plot. 
1-12 Acre. 


Yield per Acre. 


P4 
O 
O 


Kind. 


M 


in 
O 
O 


u 

"3 

O 


<u 
X, v 

1/2 


V 

> 


w 


T3 

ad 

"3 

CO 


ad 

v 
X 


V 

> 



55 


1- 01 
Op, 

5 M ' 
O 2 






Lbs. 


$ 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


O 


Nothing, - 


— 


— 


129.0 


IIO.O 


81 


1320 


23.6 


972 


— 


A 


Nit. of Soda, 


160 


3-5o 


151-0 


128.0 91 


153627.4 


1092 


7.6 


B 


Dis. Bone-black, 


320 


2.39 


147-5 


128.0 95 


I536|27.4 


1 140 


7.6 


C 


Mur. of Potash, - 


160 


3.48 


117. 


100. 110 


1200 21 .4 


I320 


1.6 


00 


Nothing, 


— 




94.0 


78.5! 72 


1 942 


16.8 


864 


— 


D 


j Nit. of Soda, 
( Dis. Bone-black, 


160) 

320 \ 


5.S9 


184.0 


156.0 


128 


l8'72 


33-4 


1536 


13.6 


E 


j Nit. of Soda, 

I Mur. of Potash, - 


160 ) 
160 f 


6.98 


160.0 


138.0 


125 


1656 


29.6 


1500 


9-8 


F 


j Dis. Bone-black, 
( Mur. of Potash, - 
Nit. of Soda, 


320 | 

160 \ 
160 


5.87 


134.5 


112. 


153 


1344 


24.O 


1836 


4-2 


G 


■I Dis. Bone-black, 


320 - 


9-37 


194.0 


i65.o!i59 


I980 


35-4 


1 90S 


15.6 




( Mur. of Potash, - 


160) 


















000 


Nothing, 


— 


— 


104.0 


88.5 


91 


I062 


19.0 


1092 


— 


X 


j Stable manure, - 
( Dis. Bone-black, 


f I 0000 } 

160 \ 


7.85* 


216.5 


188.0 


155 


2256 


40.3 


i860 


20.5 


Y 


Stable manure, - 


X 1 6000 


10.6S* 


235.0 


201.0 185 


2412 43.I 


2220 


23-3- 



* The manure was valued at $3 per cord of 4,500 pounds. 
X Equivalent to 3.56 cords. 



t Equivalent to 2.22 cords. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 



20I 



Experiments 0/1899. — Potatoes were grown in the soil tests 
of 1899. This is the third time this crop has been grown in 
this series of experiments. Two early varieties of potatoes 
were planted: " Fortune " on the set of plots on the north side 
of the field, and " Queen" on the set on the south side. In 
the early part of the season all the plants made a ' ' full stand ' ' 
and a fairly even growth; but, as the season advanced, quite 
striking differences were noticed in the growth on the different 
plots. Throughout the latter half of the season there was a 
healthier and more vigorous growth of plants on the plots upon 
which potash was applied. The beneficial effect of the potash 
upon this crop in this experiment is indicated by a comparison 
of the results from plots A, B, and C with each other, and also 
those from plots D, E, and F, as given in Table 49 below. 

Table 49. 
soil test with fertilizers on potatoes. 

By the Station, Storrs, 1899. 





Fertilizers per Acre 




Yield per 


Plot. 


Yield per Acre. 










1- 


2 ACRE. 






E 




















1h 03 


<4-. 
O 

O 


Kind. 


'S 


en 


O 


a 
i-t 


"3 

n 


4 



v 
bo 

5 
i-T 


2 
£ 

CO 


O 


JJ.M 
> O 

•S be 
CO 






Lbs. 


$ 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 





Nothing, - 


— - 


— 


121 


149 


270 


24.2 


29.8 


54-0 


— 


A 


Nit. of Soda, - 


160 


3-13 


67 


79 


146 


13.4 


15.8 


29.2 


-6.8 


B 


Dis. Bone-black, 


320 


2-39 


70 


130 


200 


14.0 


26.O 


40.O 


4.o 


C 


Mur. of Potash, 


160 


3.48 


228 


99 


327 


45-6 


19.8 


65-4 


29.4 


00 


Nothing, - 


— 


— 


52 


77 


•129 


10.4 


15-4 


25. 8 


— 


D 


j Nit. of Soda, - 
1 Uis. Bone-black, 


160 ) 
320 J 


5-52 


90 


88 


178 


18.0 


17.6 


35-6 


-.4 


E 


j Nit. of Soda, - 
I Mur. of Potash, 


160/ 

160 f 


6.61 


345 


132 


477 


69.0 


26.4 


95-4 


59-4 


F 


\ Dis. Bone-black, 
j Mur. of Potash, 
I Nit. of Soda, - 


320 | 
160 j 
160 
320 I- 


5.87 


3" 


171 


482 


62.2 


34-2 


96.4 


58.4 


G 


•j Dis. Bone-black, 


9.00 


463 


149 


612 


92.6 


29.8 


122.4 


86.4 




( Mur. of Potash, 


160) 


















000 


Nothing, - 


— 


— 


56 


85 


141 


11. 2 


17.0 


28.2 


— 


X 


j Stable manure, - 
I Dis. Bone-black, 


f I OOOO I 
160 j 


7.85* 


281 


160 


441 


56.2 


32.0 


88.2 


52.2 


Y 


Stable manure, - 


^16000 


10. 6S* 


415 


194 


609 


83.0 


38.8 


121. 8 


S5.8 



* The manure was valued at : 
J Equivalent to 3.56 cords. 



per cord of 4,500 pounds, t Equivalent to 2.22 cords. 



202 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



In each case the yield from the plots with potash was very 
much larger than from those without. The total yields per acre, 
however, and the proportion of merchantable tubers were largest 
from plot G, with the complete fertilizer, i. e., nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid, and potash. It will be seen from Table 50 that for 
the three years in which this crop has been used in this series of 
experiments the largest yields have in all cases been obtained 
from plot G, although the yields have been nearly as large 
from plot Y, with the largest amount of stable manure. 

The results of these experiments for the ten years in which 
the series has been thus far carried on, with the rotation of 
crops as stated, are summarized in the following table. They 
seem to indicate that there is no striking deficiency of any one 
of the ingredients — nitrogen, phosphoric acid, or potash — in 
this particular soil. The special requirements for fertilizers, as 
shown by the results from year to year, seem to be determined 
more largely by the needs of the particular crop than by the 
peculiarities of the soil. This fact is illustrated quite clearly 
by the figures in Table 50. 

Table 50. 
Yields in the Station soil test experiments for the past ten years. 



6 



Fertilizers. 


v u 

& CI 

p. 


i~ ON 


t/3 

v . 
O ~ 
rtoo 

O " 
Ph 


« 00 
« 


if s 


00 

" 


<L> . 

O m 

" 
P4 


~ 


XT. 

a 

>»" 




C 00 
000 


in 

v . 
as 

-1 Os 
C3 00 

M 






Lbs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


L,bs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. i Bu. 


Bu. 





Nothing, 


— 


28.9 


89 


29.I 


10230 


33-6 


55 


29.6 


6.823.6 


54-0 


A 


Nit. of Soda, 


160 


32.4 


105 J36.0 


10960 41.0 


50 


39-° 


6.2 


27.4 


29.2 


B 


Dis. Bn.-bl'k, 


320 


33-3 


97 


27.O 


10710137.6 


56 


34-9 


7-1 


27.4 


40.0 


C 


Mur. of Pot., 


160 


30.4 


171 


26.3 


1 1680 40.8 


88 


27.8 


6.4 


21 .4 


65.4 


00 


Nothing, 


— 


26.7 


87 


24.2 


9725 


28.0 


38 


26.3 


7-i 


16.8 


25.8 


D 


( Nit. of Soda, 
j Dis. Bn.-bl'k, 


160 } 
320 \ 


36.1 


no 


37-9 


12920 


40.8 


■ 57 


48.0 


9.0 


33-4 


35-6 


E 


j Nit. of Soda, 
| Mur. of Pot., 


160 I 

160 > 


32.3 


160 


30.O 


13335 


47-6 


104 


41-3 


7-6 


29.6 


95-4 


F 


i Dis. Bn.-bl'k, 

} Mur. of Pot., 

Nit. of Soda, 


320 1 
160 \ 
160 j 
320 I 
160 ) 


34-4 


214 


27.8 


15790 


48.2 


109 


36.4 


9-3 


24.0 


96.4 


G 


- Dis. Bn.-bl'k, 


37-4 


259 


39-4 


16210 


53.2 


129 


50.6 


8.6 


35-4 


122.4 




( Mur. of Pot., 






















000 


Nothing, 


— 


28.5 


88 


22.5 


1 2 IOO 


38.0 


49 


29-3 


7-7 


19.0 


28.2 


X 


j Stable man., 
| Dis. Bn.-bl'k, 


IOOOO / 

160 s 


44-1 


210 


40.9 


15795 


57-o 


no 


48.8 


11. 5 


40.3 


88.2 


Y 


Stable man., 


16000 


43-6 


250 


41.3 


15375 


56.7 


125 


55-i 


12.7 


43-1 


121. S 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS. 203 

SUMMARY AND GENERAL DEDUCTIONS. 

The special nitrogen experiments here reported were made with 
corn, cow peas, and soy beans. The purpose of the experiments 
is twofold: First, to study the effects upon the yields of the crops 
when different kinds and quantities of nitrogenous fertilizers are 
used in addition to uniform qtiantities of mineral fertilizers; and 
second, to study the effect of the nitrogen in the fertilizers upon the 
proportion and amount of proteiii in the crops. 

'The experime7its with corn seem to i?idicate that mineral fertil- 
izers alone are of comparatively little value for increasing the 
yields of the crops, while nitrogenous fertilizers with the minerals 
greatly iiicrease the yields. In considering the yields alone the 
nitrogenous fertilizers are most profitable on this crop when used 
in qztantities sufficient to supply from twenty -five to fifty pounds 
of nitrogen per acre, in connectio?i with liberal quantities of phos- 
phoric acid and potash. But when the increased feeding value is 
also considered, as indicated by the percentages and total yields of 
protein per acre, even larger quantities of the nitrogenous fertil- 
izers may sometimes prove economical. In these experiments in 
most cases the largest percentages of pro tern have been found, in 
both the corn and stover, from plots where the largest quantities 
of 'nitrogen have been used in the fertilizers. 

In contrast with corn, the experiments with legtimes indicate 
that nitrogenous fertilizers increase the yield but very little over 
that which is obtained from the use of mineral fertilizers only. In 
the experiments with the cow pea fodder , the average of the results 
here reported shows essentially no advantage in the tise of the nitrog- 
enous fertilizers. The results of the experiments with soy bea?is 
grown for seed show some increase from the use of the nitrogenous 
fertilizers, but the increase was small. As regai'ds the percent- 
ages and yields of protein in either cozv peas or soy beans the 
results show very little i?icrease accompanying the increase in the 
amount of nitrogen in the fertilizers . On the whole, therefore, 
the experiments appear to i?idicale that where an abundance of 
mineral fertilizers are available, nitrogen has very little effect in 
increasing either the total yield or feeding value of cow peas or 
soy beans* 



* A more complete discussion of the effects of nitrogenous fertilizers upon the yields 
and the composition of certain grasses, grains, and legumes will be found on pp. 113- 
203 of the Report of this Station for 1898. 



204 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

From the results of the soil test experiments here reported it 
appears that, in the case of the soil upon which the experiment was 
made, the peculiarities of the crop grown in any particular experi- 
ment is of more importance than any deficiency of the soil in regu- 
lating the demand for fertilizers . During the ten years in which 
the experiments have been made on the field with a rotation of 
crops, the ingredient or ingredie?tts that have been most essential 
have varied with the crop. When com and oats were grozvn phos- 
phoric acid and nitrogen appeared to be most essential, while the 
requirement of potatoes seemed to be potash. 

In soil tests made for a number of years by the Station, in coop- 
eration with farmers on farms in different parts of the State, the 
results in numerous instances have shown that deficiencies in the 
soil rather than the kind of crop have regidated the demands f 01 
fertilizers . Some soils are naturally lacking in some one of the 
essential ingredients of plant food, but are well supplied with the 
others; while other soils, like that in experiments at the Station, 
show no special deficie?icy i?i any one of the essential ingredients 
of plant food , but seem to be lacking in all of them. The particu- 
lar importance of these results to the farmer is the indication of the 
need of studying and testing his own soil to lear?i its deficiencies 
and peculiar needs. 



EXPERIMENT ON SOIL IMPROVEMENT. 205 



AN EXPERIMENT ON SOIL. IMPROVEMENT. 

BY C. S. PHELPS. 



An experiment on soil improvement, which is to be continued 
through quite a period of years, was laid out by the Station on 
a series of plots of land at Storrs in the spring of 1899. An 
account of the preliminarj^ experiment is here given. The soil 
on which the experiment is being carried out appears to be 
lacking in organic matter and probably in available nitrogen. 
Such a soil is commonly spoken of as " poor " or " worn out." 
The purpose of the experiment is to compare the value and 
economy of different methods of manuring for restoring fertil- 
ity to a soil of this kind. The fertilizers used in the experi- 
ments, the kinds and quantities of which are f ully explained in 
a later paragraph, are (1) stable manure, (2) a "complete" 
chemical fertilizer, and (3) " green" manures, both alone and 
in combination with mineral fertilizers. The plan of the experi- 
ments, which is given in detail beyond, consists briefly in 
applying the fertilizers of the different kinds and combinations 
upon the different plots, growing the same crop on all of the 
plots, and comparing the results in the yields of the crop. 

The field selected for this experiment is one which had been 
used for a peach orchard since 1889. While the peach trees 
were growing the field had been liberally treated with mineral 
fertilizers, but not very much nitrogen had been supplied. 
During the years 1889 to 1894 different crops had been grown 
between the rows of trees and had been removed from the 
land; after 1894 the land remained under cultivation' most of 
the time, but without cropping. Part of the peach trees were 
removed in the fall of 1897 and the balance in the fall of 1898. 
When the field was plowed in the spring of 1899 the soil, which 
is a medium heavy loam and holds moisture well, was compact 
and hard and seemed to be lacking in organic matter. 



206 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Plan of the experiment. — The arrangement of the plots on 
the experimental field, and the method of fertilizing each plot, 
are illustrated by the diagram below. The field is divided into 
five plots, each one-eighth acre in size, with strips 3.3 feet 
wide between them. In planting the field these strips between 
the plots, as well as similar strips at the sides and ends of the 
field, are planted the same as the plots, but no manure nor fer- 
tilizer of any kind is used on them, and the crop which grows 
on them is removed before that on the plots. In carrying out 
these experiments the same crop will be grown on the whole 
field in the same year, and the crops will vary from year to 
year in the following order of rotation: Corn, potatoes, oats and 
peas for fodder, and soy beans. 

Diagram illustrating arrangement and method of fertilizing plots 
in experiment on soil improvement. 

The narrow strips at the sides and ends of the plots are without fertilizer. 















Plot 


K. 


"Complete" fertilizer, 1200 lbs. per acre. 
















Plot 


L. 


Stable manure, 12 tons per acre. 


1 
1 




Plot 


M. 








No fertilizer, but clover or other legume for green ma- 
nuring. 
















?L ° T 


N. 


Mineral fertilizers, 700 lbs. per acre, and rye for green 
manuring. 
















Plot 


P. 


Mineral fertilizers, 700 lbs. per acre, and clover for green 
manuring. 









On plot K will be used a " complete" fertilizer, which will 
be composed of several of the various ingredients commonly 
used in different chemical fertilizers, in quantities sufficient to 
supply liberal amounts of phosphoric acid, potash, and nitrogen 
per acre. On plot L, will be used good mixed stable manure 
at the rate of twelve tons per acre. On plot M no fertilizer 
will be used, but clover or some other legume, sown either in 
the spring with the crop, as with oats, or in the fall as a catch 
crop after the removal of the regular crop, will be allowed to 



EXPERIMENT ON SOIL IMPROVEMENT. 207 

grow until the following spring and then turned under for 
green manuring. On plot N 700 pounds of mineral fertilizers, 
consisting of 200 pounds muriate of potash and 500 pounds 
South Carolina acid phosphate, will be used with the regular 
crop grown in the experiment, and rye will be sown for a 
catch crop in the fall and plowed under the following spring. 
On plot P the same kinds and amounts of mineral fertilizers 
will be used as on ploc N, but clover or some other legume 
will be sown as a catch crop and plowed under in the 
spring. The same plots are to be fertilized in the same 
manner as here described year after year. An effort will 
be made each year to have the money value of the stable manure 
equal to that of the complete fertilizer. The values of both 
the complete fertilizer and the mineral fertilizers used will 
be determined according to the s}^stem of valuation adopted 
annually by the New England Experiment Stations; the value 
of the stable manure for the present will be considered as $3 
per cord of 4,500 pounds. 

In 1899 the ingredients of the complete fertilizer on plot K, 
and the rates per acre at which they were combined, were as 
follows: Nitrate of soda, 200 pounds; sulphate of ammonia, 100 
pounds; tankage, 200 pounds; South Carolina acid phosphate, 
500 pounds, making a total of 1,200 pounds of the mixture per 
acre. The stable manure on plot L, was a mixture of horse 
and cattle manure, weighing 4,500 pounds to the cord, and was 
used at the rate of 12 tons or 5^3 cords per acre. There was 
no fertilizer applied on plot M,.and as no clover had been 
planted the preceding year there was none to plow under for 
green manuring in 1899. The next two plots, N and P, were 
fertilized with the minerals as indicated above, but, as in the 
case of plot M, no crops were ready to plow under until after 
the removal of the crop grown for experiment in 1899. On 
July 20, after the corn was well grown, alsike clover was sown 
on plots M and P at the rate of twenty-four pounds of seed per 
acre; rye was sown on plot N after the corn was harvested. 

The yields from the different plots for the preliminary experi- 
ment of 1899 are given in Table 51. Inasmuch as the condi- 
tions of this experiment were such that no crops for green 
manuring could be grown so as to be of use as fertilizer for the 
first year's crop, the results are not discussed in this report. 



208 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 51. 

Yields of corn and stove)' from the different plots in the preliminary 

experiment on soil improvement in i8gg. 





Fertilizers. 


Yield per Plot. 
l /s Acre. 


Yield 
per Acre. 











Shelled 




Shelled 







Kind. 


'v 1- 


O °l 

O 1- 

ft 


corn. 


> 
O 

to 


corn. 


V 


PM 




O 






-d 




O 


u 


Ph 




CO 






Lbs. 


$ 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Lbs. 


K 


Complete fertilizer, 


1200 


16.94 


495-0 


24.6 


102070.7 


3-5 


8160 


L 


Stable manure, ... 


24OOO 


16.00 


41.S.8 


35-6 85559.0 


5-1 


6840 


M 


No fertilizer, ... 


— 


— 


360.4 


24.4 872:51.5 


3-5 ^97° 


M 


Mineral fertilizer, 


700 


7.18 


403-3 


15-9 788|57-6 


2.2 6304 


P 


Mineral fertilizer, 


700 


7.18 


375-4 


22.81 705I53.6 


3-3 5640 

1 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 20Q 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 

BY F. G. BENEDICT. 



During the past year analyses have been made of over 200 
food materials used in connection with metabolism and diges- 
tion experiments with men, and of about 120 samples of crops 
grown in field experiments with fertilizers. The methods of 
analysis were those recommended by the Association of Official 
Agricultural Chemists, with such minor modifications as have 
been found desirable.* 

The descriptions and results of analyses of food materials 
used in the experiments with man will be published with other 
details of the investigations. The descriptions and results of 
the analyses of the samples of field crops are given on pages 
211-218 of the present Report. The data of Table 52 show 
only the percentages of water, dry matter, nitrogen, and protein 
(N. X 6.25) in the fresh substance, and of nitrogen and protein 
(N. X 6.25) in the water-free material, as these suffice to indi- 
cate the proportions of nitrogen in the crop and also the effect 
of the nitrogenous fertilizers upon the proportions of protein 
in the plants. In previous Reports the complete analyses of 
both fresh and dry substances have been given, but the work 
of the Station has increased to such extent as to make it neces- 
sary to reduce the details to the minimum consistent with the 
purpose of the inquiry. It would have been interesting to 
determine the proportions of proteid and non-proteid nitrogen 
had the resources of the Station and the accuracy of the 
methods now in use been such as to warrant it. Tests for the 
presence of nitric acid were made in a considerable number of 
samples, especially those from the plots in which the largest 
quantities of nitrogen were applied in the fertilizers. In a 
few cases there were indications of minute quantities of nitric 
acid in the samples tested, but in most not even traces were 
detected. 



* See Report of this Station for 1891. 



2IO 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



For the sake of comparison of the results of these experi- 
ments with those given in former Reports, the protein in Table 
52 is calculated by the usual method, as nitrogen multiplied by 
the factor 6.25, according to the assumption that protein con- 
tains sixteen per cent, of nitrogen. It has been repeatedly 
pointed out, however, that this factor is only approximately 
correct. This matter is discussed in some detail on page 76 of 
the present Report. 

Two sets of averages are given in Table 52 beyond. The 
first are the averages of the analyses that are published for the 
first time in the present Report; the second are the averages of 
all analyses of similar materials made in this laboratory up to 
the present time. 

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLES. 

All the analyses reported in the following table, excepting 
those of so} r bean fodder (No. 6089), and silage corn (No. 
6090), are those of crops grown in the plot experiments con- 
ducted by the Station for the purpose of studying the effects of 
different kinds and amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers upon the 
yield and composition of different crops. For convenience in 
describing the samples and the growth of the crop from w T hich 
they were taken, it may be stated here* that all plots on the 
experimental field having the same number have the same 
kinds and amounts of fertilizers per acre. In the following 
descriptions of samples, therefore, the number of the plot will 
serve to indicate the fertilizer used in growing the crop, as 
shown by the scheme given here: 





Kinds of Fertilizer Applied and Amounts per Acre. 


Plot No. 












Dissolved 


Muriate of 


Nitrate of 


Sulphate of 




bone-black. 


potash. 


soda. 


ammonia. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


0, 00 


— 


— 


— 


— 


ba, bb 


320 


160 


— 


— 


7 


320 


160 


160 


— 


S 


320 


160 


320 


— 


9 


320 


160 


480 


— 


10 


320 


160 


— 


160 


11 


320 


160 


— 


320 


12 


320 


160 


— 


4S0 



* For more complete description of the experiments see previous Reports of the 
Station, and also pages 16S-204 of the present Report. 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 211 

GRASSES AND GREEN FODDERS. 

The following grasses were grown on plots in the Station grass garden dur- 
ing the year 1899. A large sample was taken from each of the plots, composed 
of small quantities of grass taken from several different parts of the plot, 
except from a strip next to other plots and next to paths. Care was taken to 
•exclude from the sample all clover and all other grasses than the one to be 
analyzed. Each large sample was cut at once into pieces about one inch long, 
which were then thoroughly mixed. From this mass a smaller sample was 
taken, and, after being weighed, was dried in a steam drier especially con- 
structed for such purpose. 

JVos. 607 1-6074. Bromc grass ( ' Bromus inermis); — Samples taken June 
27, 1899, when in late bloom, some seed forming. 

No. 6071 was from plot o. Growth very light, thi#, spindled, irregular, pale 
in color. Hardly sufficient grass on plot for a good sample. Some weeds and 
odd grasses on plot. 

No. 6072 was from plot 6. Growth light, thin, slender, pale in color, slightly 
heavier than on plot o. , Some clover and odd grasses on plot. 

No. 6073 was from plot 7. Growth medium heavy, good color, and fair pro- 
portion of bottom growth. (Not so good growth as that of fescue and orchard 
grass on corresponding plots.) Some weeds and odd grasses on plot. 

No. 6074 was from plot 9. Growth heavy, dense, rich green in color, with 
fair proportion of bottom grass. (Not so heavy growth as that of fescue or 
orchard grass on corresponding plots.) 

Nos. 6067-6070. Meadow fescue ( Festuca elatior). — Samples were taken 
July 3, 1899, when the grass was in early seed stage. 

No. 6067 was grown on plot o. The growth was very thin, slender, pale in 
•color, with practically no bottom growth. Only a little grass was left after the 
sample was cut. Some weeds and odd grasses grew on the plot. 

No. 6068 was from plot 6. The growth was thin, light, pale in color, with 
practically no bottom growth. A little heavier than that on plot o. Some 
weeds, clover, and odd grasses on the plot. 

No. 6069 was from plot 7. The growth was much heavier than that on plot 6, 
of fair color, medium bottom growth. Some weeds and odd grasses on the plot. 

No. 6070 was from plot 9. The growth was heavy, dense, of dark green 
color, with very heavy bottom growth. Some odd grasses on plot. 

Nos. 6o6j-6o66. Orchard grass ( Dactylis glomerata). — Samples taken June 
12, 1899, when a little past full bloom. 

No. 6063 was from plot o. The growth was thin and spindled, pale in color, 
"with little bottom growth. There was a considerable mixture of weeds and 
other grasses and some clover on the plot. 

No. 6064 was from plot 6. Growth thin and spindled, pale in color, little 
bottom growth. But little heavier growth than on plot o. Considerable mix- 
ture of clover, with some weeds and other grasses. 

No. 6065 was grown on plot 7. Growth fair, dark green color, much heavier 
than on plot 6, with considerable bottom growth. Some weeds and odd grasses 
on plot. 

No. 6066 was grown on plot 9. Growth dense and heavy, about twice as heavy 
as on plot 7; dark green color, thick bottom growth. Some odd grasses on the plot. 



212 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Nos. 6073-6078. Timothy ( Phleum pratense). Samples taken July 6, 1S99, 
when the grass was in early seed stage. 

No. 6075 was from plot O. Growth very thin, light, and irregular; pale in 
color. Practically no bottom growth. Large proportion of weeds and odd 
grasses on plot. 

No. 6076 was from plot 6. Growth very thin, light, and irregular; pale in 
color, with practically no bottom growth. Somewhat heavier than that on 
plot o. Considerable clover and odd grasses. 

No. 6077 was from plot 7. Growth medium heavy, fair color, little bottom 
growth. Some weeds and odd grasses on plot. 

No. 6078 was from plot 9. Growth heavy, dense; rich green color; about 
twice as heavy as that on plot 7. Fair proportion of bottom growth. Some 
weeds and odd grasses on plot. 

Of the following green fodders, Nos. 6079-6088 were grown as part of the 
special nitrogen experiments already mentioned, while Nos. 6089-6090 were 
grown especially for fodder. In each case a large sample, weighing from forty 
to fifty pounds, was taken by removing small quantities from different parts of 
the crop as it was being cut up in a silage cutter. Each large sample was 
thoroughly mixed, then a sub-sample was taken, weighed, and dried in the 
steam drier. 

Nos. 6o7q-6o88. Cow pea fodder : — Samples taken September 27, 1899. 

Nos. 6079 and 6080 were from plots o and 00 respectively. The crop on 
these plots was very light; growth small and slender; the plants were drying up 
when harvested. 

Nos. 6081 and 6082 were from plots 6a and 66 respectively. Growth quite 
heavy, succulent, with few seed pods; good color, and much the same growth 
as on nitrogen plots. 

No. 6083 was from plot 7. Growth quite heavy, succulent, few seed pods. 

No. 6084 was from plot 8. Growth fair, succulent, few seed pods. Crop 
not so heavy as on plot 7. 

No. 60S5 was from plot 9. Fair growth, succulent; not so heavy as on plot 7. 
Few seed pods. 

No. 6086 was from plot 10. Growth quite heavy, succulent, few seed pods. 
Crop better than on plots 11 and 12. 

No. 6087 was from plot 11. Growth medium heavy, succulent, few immature 
seed pods. Crop not so heavy as that on plot g. 

No. 6088 was from plot 12. Medium heavy growth, succulent, few immature 
seed pods. Crop not so heavy as on plot 9. 

No. 6o8g* Soy bean fodder. — Grown for silage, with mineral fertilizers 
only. Sample taken on September 25, 1899, from about a ton of the fodder 
which was being cut in silage cutter. There was a medium growth of fodder, 
which was quite well seeded when cut, but was still green and quite succulent. 

No. 6ogo* Ensilage corn ( Ohio white dent J. Sample taken on September 

25, 1899, from eleven rows as weighed for test of yield. The corn (grain) was 

mostly in the " dough " stage, some of it just beginning to glaze. The stalks 

were green and succulent. About fifty pounds were taken for a large sample as 

the crop was being run through a silage cutter; this was mixed and sub-sampled. 

* The complete analyses of these two samples were made. The composition of 
each, in the water-free* substance and calculated to water content at time of taking 
sample, is shown in the table on the following page. 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 



213 



Complete analyses of samples Nos. 6089 and 6090. 



6 

CO 

i-r 


Feeding Stuffs. 


1) 


"E 



CS 


V 

V 
U ^J 




in 
< 


eg 

ft 




In Water-free Sub- 


















stance. 


* 


* 


^ 


* 


* 


% 


Cal. 


6089 


Soy bean fodder, 


— 


I7-56 


8-57 


40.05 


28.75 


8.07 


1965 


6090 


Ensilage corn, 
In Fresh Substance. 




7.84 


4-95 


61.OO 


21.24 


4-97 


1885 


6089 


Soy bean fodder, 


74-36 


4.42 


2.15 


IO.O7 


6.47 


2.03 


480 


6090 


Ensilage corn, 


74.00 


2.04 


1.29 


15-86 


5-52 


1.29 


490 



CURED FODDERS. 

Of the following cured fodders Nos. 6022-6031 and Nos. 6033-6042 were 
from the special nitrogen experiments of 1898, and Nos. 6091-61 10 were from 
the same experiments of 1899. The samples of stover were taken just after the 
corn was husked and the stover was weighed. In 1898 a large sample of 
stover was taken from each plot by gathering small quantities from different 
parts of the total crop on the plot. These were cut into pieces one to two 
inches long, which were then thoroughly mixed, and from different parts of the 
whole mass a smaller sub-sample was taken, which was weighed and dried in 
the steam drier. In 1899 the entire crop of stover on each plot was cut into 
small pieces and mixed, and from this a sub-sample was taken. 

Nos. 6022-6031, 6033-6042. Stover of white flint com. — Grown in 1898. 
Nos. 6022-6031 were from plots on the north side of the field, on which lime 
was applied in addition to the regular fertilizers. Nos. 6033-6042 were from 
plots on the south side of the field on which the fertilizers were applied without 
the lime. The dates of taking the samples were as follows: Nos. 6034, 6035, 
6036, 6040 on November n; Nos. 6033, 6037, 6041 on November 14; Nos. 
6022, 6030, 6031, 6038, 6039 on November 16; and Nos. 6023 to 6029, 
inclusive, on November 17. 

Nos. 6022 and 6023 were from plots 00 and o. The growth on plot o was 
small, spindled, pale in color, with few ears; mostly "poor" or unmerchant- 
able 1 corn. On plot 00 the stalks were small and slender, ears small, corn 
mostly poor or unmerchantable. 

Nos. 6024 and 6025 were from plots ba and 6b. Stalks were small and 
slender, pale in color; small proportion of merchantable ears. 

No. 6026 was from plot 7. Growth better than on plot 6; stalks medium in 
size, color fair, ears and total crop rather light. 

No. 6027 was from plot 8. Growth and color of stalks fair, with fair pro- 
portion of ears; better crop than on plot 7. 

No. 6028 was from plot 9. Growth of stalks quite heavy and of good color. 
Fair growth of ears. 

No. 6029 was from plot 10. Fair sized stalks of good color; fair proportion 
of good or merchantable ears. Growth, was considerably better than that on 
plot 7, and much better than that on corresponding plot on south end of field. 
15 



214 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

No. 6030 was from plot n. Growth on the whole much like that on plot 10; 
much better than that on corresponding plot on south end of field. 

No. 6031 was from plot 12. Stalks rather small and slightly pale in color. 
Growth not so heavy as on plots 10 and 11, but much better than that on cor- 
responding plot on south end of field. 

Nos. 6033 and 6034 were from plots o and 00 respectively. The growth on 
plot o was small and spindling, pale in color, and with few ears. The growth 
on plot 00 was somewhat better, but stalks and ears were small. The ears in 
both crops were mostly "poor," or unmerchantable. There were many imma- 
ture or partially developed kernels on the ears. 

Nos. 6035 and 6036 were from plots 6a and 6b respectively. The growth on 
plot 6a was small, spindled, pale in color, but better than on plot o, with not 
many merchantable ears. The growth on plot 6b was similar, with a little 
better color, and ears slightly better. The proportion of merchantable ears 
was small. 

No. 6037 was from plot 7. The growth on this plot was rather small, of 
fair color, with small proportion of ears. Many hills were missing. 

No. 6038 was from plot 8. The growth on this plot was better than that on 
plot 7, of fair color, and fair proportion of ears. Many hills missing. 

No. 6039 was from plot 9. The stover moulded a little when curing. The 
growth on this plot was heavier than that on plot 8; the color was good, ears 
fair. 

No. 6040 was from plot 10. The growth on this plot was heavier than that 
on plot 7; good color, fair growth of ears. 

No. 6041 was from plot 11. The growth was much the same as on plot 8. 
Color good and fair growth of ears. 

No. 6042 was from plot 12. The growth was much the same as that on 
plot 9; good color, but paler than that on plot 11; fairly heavy, and good 
growth of ears. Some hills missing. 

A r os. 6ogi-6no. Stover of white flint com. — Grown in 1899. Nos. 6091 to 
6100 were from plots on the north side of the field, on which lime was applied 
in addition to the regular fertilizers. These were sampled on October 18, 1899. 
Nos. 6101 to 61 10 were from plots on the south side of the field, without the 
addition of lime. These were sampled October 20, 1899. 

Nos. 6091 and 6092 were from plots o and 00 respectively. The stalks were 
very slender, the ears few and small. 

Nos. 6093 and 6094 were from plots 6a and 6b respectively. The stalks 
were medium heavy, but pale in color; the proportion of ears was small. 

No. 6095 was from plot 7. Fair growth of stalks and ears; stalks of good 
color. 

No. 6096 was from plot 8. Good growth of stalks and ears; stalks of good 
color. 

No. 6097 was from plot 9. Growth like that on plot S. 

No. 6098 was from plot 10. Growth much the same as on plot 7. 

No. 6099 was from plot 11. Growth much the same as on plot 8. 

No. 6100 was from plot 12. Growth better than that on plot 9. 

Nos. 6101 and 6102 were from plot%o and 00 respectively. Stalks small and 
slender; ears very few and small. 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 215 

Nos. 6103 and 6104 were from plots ba and bb respectively. Fair growth of 
stalks, pale in color. Small proportion of ears. 

No. 6105 was from plot 7. Fair growth of stalks and ears. Stover rather 
slender, fair in color. 

No. 6106 was from plot 8. Fair growth of stalks and ears, dark green 
stover; crop nearly as good as on plot 9. 

No. 6107 was from plot 9. Fair growth of stalks and ears; stover dark 
green. 

No. 6108 was from plot 10. Light growth of stalks and ears, about the 
same as on plot 7. 

No. 6109 was from plot 11. Growth light; not equal to that on plot S, but 
better than that on plot 12. 

No. 61 10 was from plot 12. Growth light, not so good as that on plot 9. 

SEEDS. 

A T os. 6111-6120. Soy beati seed. — Grown in 1899. Samples of about a quart 
each were taken December 28, 1899, after the weighing of the total crop of 
seeds from each plot was made. 

Nos. 61 1 1 and 6112 were from plots o and 00 respectively. Growth light, 
plants very small, seed fairly good. 

Nos. 6113 and 61 14 were from plots ba and bb respectively. On both plots 
the seeds were well matured. The growth on ba was medium heavy; that on 
bb was nearly equal to that on the best nitrogen plots. 

No. 6115 was from plot 7. Seed well matured, medium growth; much the 
same as on plot 10. 

Nos. 6015 and 6016 were from plots 8 and 9 respectively. The growth on 
these two plots was about alike, quite heavy, with seed well matured. 

No. 6118 was from plot 10. Growth much the same as on plot 7. 

No. 61 19 was from plot n. Growth not quite so heavy as that on plot 8. 

No. 6120 was from plot 12. Growth not so heavy as on plot 9. 

Nos. 6043-6062. White flint com (Grain). — Grown in 1898. Nos. 6043 
to 6052 were from plots on the south side of the field, Nos. 6053 to 6062 from 
plots on the north side. The entire growth of corn (ears) from each plot was 
dried in the Station barn from the time of husking until February 18, 1899; it 
was then shelled and dried farther until March 17, the date of sampling. At 
this date the corn was weighed, and from each crop a sample of two quarts was 
taken, from which about one quart of " good" kernels was selected for a final 
sample, which was then sealed in a tight jar. For description of the growth 
on the different plots see description of the corresponding samples of stover, 
Nos. 6022-6031, 6033-6042. 

Nos. 6i4o-6ijg. White flint corn (Grain). — Grown in 1899, sampled Jan- 
uary 15, 1900. A sample of about three pints was taken from the total amount 
of "good" corn from each plot at the time of weighing the yields from the 
plot. The chaff and immature corn was picked out and discarded, and the 
sample sealed in a quart jar. Nos. 6140 to 6149 were from plots on the south 
side of the field; Nos. 6150-6159 from plots on the north side. For descrip- 
tion of the growth on the different pjpts see description of the corresponding 
samples of stover, Nos. 6091-61 10. 



2l6 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



Table 52. 
Composition of samples of field crops grown with different fertilizers . 

[Averages of analyses here given together with those of former years.] 







In Water-free 











,0 


Material. 


Substance. 


In Fresh Substance. 


, 


d'i? 




u 




A >n 


i-r 




_: 


<U VO 


V 


>>ii 


p ■ 


'CvO 














£>< 






% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


6071 


Bromus inermis, 


I.09 


6.81 


62.3 


37-7 


• 4 


2.6 


6072 


Bromus inermis, 


1. 17 


7.31 


64.8 


35-2 


• 4 


2.6 


6073 


Bromus inermis, 


1 .24 


7-75 


66.8 


33-2 


• 4 


2.6 


6074 


Bromus inermis, 


I.23 


7.69 


70.4 


29.6 


• 4 


2.3 




Average (4), - 


1.18 


7.39 


66.1 


33.9 


.4 


2.5 




Average all analyses (12), 


1.41 


8.79 


65.8 


34.2 


.5 


3.1 


6067 


Meadow fescue, 


X.OI 


6.31 


65.6 


34-4 


• 4 


2.2 


6068 


Meadow fescue, 


• 99 


6.19 


68.5 


3i.5 


• 3 


1.9 


6069 


Meadow fescue, 


1 .24 


7-75 


69.9 


30.1 


• 4 


2.3 


6070 


Meadow fescue, 


1.58 


9.88 


73-6 


26.4 


.4 


2.6 




Average (4), - 


1.21 


7.53 


69.4 


30.6 


.4 


2.3 




Average all analyses (26), 


1.36 


8.50 


69.8 


30.2 


.4 


2.5 


6063 


Orchard grass, - - - 


1.24 


7-75 


70.8 


29.2 


•4 


2.3 


6064 


Orchard grass, - 


1 .22 


7-°3 


71.9 


28.1 


• 3 


2.1 


6065 


Orchard grass, - 


1. 21 


7.56 


75-3 


24.7 


• 3 


1.9 


6066 


Orchard grass, ... 


1. 81 


11. 31 


76.5 


23.5 


• 4 


2.6 




Average (4), - 


1.37 


8.56 


73.6 


26.4 


.4 


.2.2 




Average all analyses (28), 


1.48 


9.23 


69.5 


30.5 


.4 


2.8 


6075 


Timothy, - - - - 


1.09 


6.81 


57-5 


42.5 


• 5 


2.9 


6076 


Timothy, - - - - 


1.04 


6.50 


59-5 


40.5 


• 4 


2.6 


6077 


Timothy, - 


.98 


6.12 


62.0 


38.0 


• 4 


2.3 


6078 


Timothy, - 


1. 14 


7. 12 


63.1 


36.9 


• 4 


2.6 




Average (4), - 


1.06 


6.64 


60.5 


39.5 


.4 


2.6 




Average all analyses (2S), 


1.23 


7.66 


65.7 


34.3 


.4 


2.6 


6079 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-33 


20.81 


S3- 7 


16.3 


• 5 


3-4 


6080 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-73 


23.31 


83. s 


16.2 


.6 


3-8 


6081 


Cow pea fodder, 


3.38 


21.12 


85.0 


15.0 


• 5 


3-2 


6082 


Cow pea fodder, 


3.23 


20. 19 


85.3 


14.7 


■ 5 


2-9 


6083 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-37 


21 .06 


85.2 


14.8 


• 5 


3-i 


6084 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-15 


19.69 


84.8 


15.2 


■ 5 


3.o 


6085 


Cow pea fodder, 


3.67 


22.94 


85.2 


14.8 


• 5 


3-4 


6086 


Cow pea fodder, 


3.21 


20.07 


84.3 


15.7 


• 5 


3-1 


6087 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-34 


20.88 


84.7 


15.3 


• 5 


3-2 


6088 


Cow pea fodder, 


3-67 


22.94 


85.8 


14.2 


• 5 


3-3 




Average (10), 


3.41 


21.30 


84.8 


15.2 


.5 


3.2 




Average all analyses (77), 


2.97 


18.54 


83.1 


16.9 


.5 


3.1 


6089 


Soy bean fodder,* 


2.81 


17.56 


74-9 


25-1 


• 7 


4.4 




Average all analyses (17), 


2.51 


15.67 


76.2 


23.8 


.6 


3.7 


6022 


Corn stover, - - - 


i-33 


8.31 


30.1 


69.9 


•9 


5.8 


6023 


Corn stover, ... 


•93 


5.81 


23.6 


76.4 


• 7 


4-4 



* For complete analysis of this sample see p. 213. 



ANALYSES OF FODDERS AND FEEDING STUFFS. 



217 



Table 52. — ( ' Contimied. ) 







In Water-free 








6 
.d 


Material. 


Substance. 


In Fresh Substais 


CE. 


, 




u 


U 1 




fit? 


03 




2 c 


*<D \6 


V 


***£ 8 


a 


"3j\d 


hT 






2>< 


"S 
£ 


«i -i 


V 

bJO 


2>< 






% 


% 


% 


% 


i 


% 


6024 


Corn stover, - 


.86 


5-37 


29.1 


70.9 


.6 


3-8 


6025 


Corn stover, - 


.78 


4.88 


28.8 


71 .2 


.6 


3 


■ 5 


6026 


Corn stover, ... 


• 83 


5.19 


27.1 


72.9 


.6 


3 


8 


6027 


Corn stover, ... 


.89 


5.56 


26.4 


73-6 


• 7 


4 


1 


6028 


Corn stover, - 


1.06 


6.62 


36-4 


63.6 


• 7 


4 


2 


6029 


Corn stover, - - - 


•75 


4.69 


26.7 


73-3 


.6 


3 


4 


6030 


Corn stover, - - - 


.81 


5.06 


33-1 


66.9 


5 


3 


4 


6031 


Corn stover, ... 


.89 


5.56 


39-i 


60.9 


• 5 


3 


4 


6033 


Corn stover, - - - 


1.25 


7-Si 


31-4 


68.6 


9 


5 


4 


6034 


Corn stover, - - - 


i-45 


9.06 


38.0 


62.0 


9 


5 


6 


&O35 


Corn stover, 


1.09 


6.81 


37-2 


62.8 


7 


4 


3 


6036 


Corn stover, 


1 .04 


6.50 


31.8 


68.2 


7 


4 


4 


6037 


Corn stover, ... 


1 .00 


6.25 


35-7 


64.3 


6 


4 





6038 


Corn stover, 


.91 


5-69 


29.7 


70.3 


6 


4 





6039 


Corn stover, - - - 


1. 00 


6.25 


42.0 


58.0 


6 


3 


6 


6040 


Corn stover, ... 


•93 


5.81 


33-6 


66.4 


6 


3 


9 


604I 


Corn stover, 


•97 


6.06 


42.4 


57-6 


6 


3 


5 


6042 


Corn stover, ... 


1.09 


6.81 


38.4 


61.6 


7 


4 


2 


609I 


Corn stover, ... 


1.44 


9.00 


3i-7 


68.3 1 





6 


1 


6092 


Corn stover, - 


1.86 


1 1 . 63 


31-9 


68.1 1 


3 


7 


9 


6093 


Corn stover, - - - 


1.06 


6.62 


42.1 


57-9 


6 


3 


8 


6094 


Corn stover, ... 


•93 


5.81 


41-3 


58.7 


5 


3 


2 


6095 


Corn stover, - - - 


•99 


6.19 


42.8 


57-2 


6 


3 


6 


6096 


Corn stover, - - - 


1.20 


7-50 


37-3 


62.7 


8 


4 


7 


6097 


Corn stover, 


!-I5 


7.19 


43-5 


56.5 


7 


4 


1 


6098 


Corn stover, ... 


1.25 


7.81 


39-3 


60.7 


8 


4 


8 


6099 


Corn stover, 


1.27 


7-94 


45 -o 


55-o 


7 


4 


4 


6lOO 


Corn stover, - 


1. 3i 


8.19 


49.6 


50.4 


7 


4 


1 


6lOI 


Corn stover, ... 


1-37 


8.56 


27-3 


72.7 1 





6 


3 


6l02 


Corn stover, - - - 


1.66 


10.37 


28.1 


71.9 1 


2 


7 


5 


6103 


Corn stover, ... 


1 .20 


7-50 


35-7 


64-3 


S 


4 


8 


6104 


Corn stover, - 


■ 97 


6.06 


32.4 


67.6 


7 


4 


1 


6105 


Corn stover, - 


1.50 


8.12 


38.8 


61.2 


8 


4 


9 


6106 


Corn stover, - - - 


x -39 


8.69 


30.1 


69.9 1 





6 


1 


6107 


Corn stover, - 


1. 81 


11. 31 


38.8 


61.2 1 


1 


6 


9 


6108 


Corn stover, - 


1.18 


7.38 


34-8 


65.2 


S 


4 


8 


6109 


Corn stover, ... 


2.03 


12.69 


34-2 


65.8 1 


3 


8 


4 


6lIO 


Corn stover, 


2.36 


14.75 


36-4 


63.6 1 


5 


9 


4 




Average (40), 


1.19 


7.44 


35.0 


65.0 


8 


4.8 




Average all analyses (220), 


1.05 


6.58 


39.8 


60.2 


6 


3.9 


609O 


Ensilage corn,* -. 


1.26 


7.84 


74.0 


26.0 


3 


2.0 




Average all analyses (2), 


1.35 


8.42 


73.1 


26.9 


4 


2.3 


6lII 


Soy beans, 


6.80 


42.50 


9.2 


90 . 8 6 . 


2 


38.6 


6lI2 


Soy beans, - - - 


7-53 


47.06 


9-4 


90 . 6 6 . 


8 


42.6 


6113 


Soy beans, - 


6.65 


41-57 


7-8 


92.2 6. 


1 


38.3 


6114 


Soy beans, - 


6.23 


38.94 


7-i 


92.9 5- 


8 


36.2 


6115 


Soy beans, - - - 


6.49 


40.57 


8.2 


91.8 6. 





37-3 


6116 


Soy beans, ... 


6.41 


40.06 


7-4 


92.6 5- 


9 


40. 


1 



* For complete analysis of this sample see p. 213. 



2l8 STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

Table $2.—(Contimied.) 







In Water-free 










6 


Material. 


Substance. 


In Fresh Substance. 


8 a 


a" J? 

"53 vo 


1-.' 

V 


fr| 


- 3 


'53 \o 


1-f 




."tl <L» 


OX 


as 


Art 




pX 








% 


5 




£2 






% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


6 1 17 


Soy beans, ... 


6.6l 


41-31 


8.3 


91.7 


6.1 


37-9 


6118 


Soy beans, 


6.55 


40.94 


8.8 


91 .2 


6.0 


37-4 


6119 


Soy beans, 


6-54 


40.88 


8.4 


91 .6 


6.0 


37-4 


6120 


Soy beans, ... 


6.92 


43.25 


8.3 


91-7 


6-3 


39-° 




Average (10), 


6.67 


41.71 


3.3 


91.7 


6.1 


38.5 




Average all analyses (45), 


6.18 


38.64 


8.3 


91.7 


5.9 


37.1 


6043 


White flint corn, 


1. 71 


10.69 


11. 8 


88.2 


1.5 


9 4 


6044 


White flint corn, 




74 


10.88 


15. 1 


84.9 


1.5 


9 


3 


6045 


White flint corn, 




56 


9-75 


13.4 


86.6 


i-4 


8 


4 


6046 


White flint corn, 




57 


9. Si 


14.7 


85.3 


i-3 


8 


4 


6047 


White flint corn, 




68 


10.50 


14.4 


85.6 


i-4 


9 





6048 


White flint corn, 




66 


10.38 


13.9 


86.1 


i-4 


8 


9 


6049 


White flint corn, 




83 


11.44 


15. 1 


84.9 


1.6 


9 


7 


6050 


White flint corn, 




69 


10.56 


15.6 


84.4 


1-4 


8 


9 


6051 


White flint corn, 




69 


10.56 


16.4 


83.6 


1-4 


8 


8 


6052 


White flint corn, 




73 


10.81 


15-5 


84.5 


1-5 


9 


1 


6053 


White flint corn, 




57 


9.81 


15.7 


84.3 


1-3 


8 


3 


6054 


White flint corn, 




70 


10.62 


16.8 


83.2 


i-4 


8 


8 


6055 


White flint corn, 




55 


9.69 


' i5-o 


85.0 


i-3 


8 


3 


6056 


White flint corn, 




55 


9.69 


14.5 


85.5 


1-3 


8 


3 


6 057 


White flint corn, 




66 


10.37 


18.5 


81.5 


i-4 


8 


4 


6058 


White flint corn, 




61 


10.07 


i5.4 


84.6 


1-4 


8 


5 


6059 


White flint corn, 




70 


10.62 


16.9 


83.1 


1-4 


8 


8 


6060 


White flint corn, 




62 


10. 12 


16.6 


83.4 


1-4 


S 


4 


6061 


White flint corn, 




60 


10.00 


14.2 


85.8 


1-4 


s 


6 


6062 


White flint corn, 




67 


10.44 


14.9 


85.1 


1-4 


8 


9 


6140 


White flint corn, 




79 


11. 19 


11. 7 


88.3 


1.6 


9 


9 


6141 


White flint corn, - • 




79 


11. 19 


12.7 


87.3 


1.6 


9 


8 


6142 


White flint corn, 




46 


9- r 3 


12.9 


87.1 


i-3 


7 


9 


6143 


White flint corn, 




53 


9-56 


12. 8 


87.2 


1-3 


8 


3 


6144 


White flint corn, 




60 


10.00 


11. 2 


88.8 


i-4 


8 


9 


6145 


White flint corn, 




60 


10.00 


11. 3 


88.7 


1-4 


8 


9 


6146 


White flint corn, 




7S 


11. 12 


13.6 


86.4 


1-5 


9 


6 


6147 


White flint corn, 




61 


10.06 


11. 3 


88.7 


1-4 


8 


9 


6148 


White flint corn, 




70 


10.63 


11. 9 


88.1 


i-5 


9 


4 


6149 


White flint corn, 




73 


10.81 


13. s 


86.2 


i-5 


9 


3 


6150 


White flint corn, 




63 


10. 19 


10.3 


89-7 


1-5 


9 


1 


6151 


White flint corn, 




79 


11. 19 


10.4 


89.6 


1.6 


10 





6152 


White flint corn, 




65 


10.31 


12.6 


87.4 


1-4 


9 





6i53 


White flint corn, 




5S 


9-37 


11. 5 


88.5 


1-4 


8 


8 


6i54 


White flint corn, 




65 


10.31 


11. 1 


88.9 


1.5 


9 


2 


6i55 


White flint corn, 




75 


10.94 


13-5 


86.5 


1.5 


9 


4 


6156 


White flint corn, 




82 


11.37 


12.7 


87.3 


1.6 


9 


9 


6i57 


White flint corn, ' 




85 


11.56 


14.6 


85.4 


1.6 


9 


9 


6158 


White flint corn, 




86 


11.63 


14-5 


85.5 


1.6 


9 


9 


6159 


White flint corn, 




S 4 


11.50 


13. s 


86.2 


1.6 


9 


9 




Average (40), 


1.68 


10.48 


13.8 


86.2 


1.4 


9.0 




Average all analyses (213), 


1.83 


11.44 


18.0 


82.0 


1.4 


9.0 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 219 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

REPORTED BY C. S. PHEEPS. 



The meteorological observations made under the directions 
of the Station during 1899 were similar to those of previous 
years. The Station equipment at Storrs consists of the ordi- 
nary instruments for observing temperatures, pressure of the 
air, humidity, rainfall, snowfall, and velocity of the wind, sim- 
ilar to those in use by the Weather Service of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. In addition to the records made 
at Storrs, the rainfall for the summer season (May 1 to Octo- 
ber 31) has been recorded by ten farmers in different parts of 
the State in cooperation with the Station. 

The total precipitation for the year (38.3 inches) was 6.8 
inches below the average at Storrs for the past eleven years, 
and about 10 inches below the general average for Connecticut, 
as computed from the records of the New England Meteorologi- 
cal Society's observers, who have made observations covering 
periods of from five to thirty years. The rainfall was especially 
deficient for April and May, and for June up to the middle of the 
month. The deficiency in the rainfall during this period greatly 
reduced the yield of hay so that the crop was one of the lightest 
for many years. The rainfall for the balance of the growing 
season was ample and most other crops gave normal yields. 

The average temperature for February was unusually low, 
while for March and April it was about normal. The spring 
opened favorably for farm work and most crops were planted 
earlier than usual. The last killing frost in the spring occurred 
May 4. The temperature for June was somewhat above the 
normal, but for the balance of the summer it was about the 
average. The growing season was shorter than usual, light 
frosts occurring September 7 and 14, and quite severe frosts 
September 15 and 16. The growing season from the time of 
the last severe frost in the spring to that of the first in the fall 
was only 134 days, while the average growing season at Storrs 



220 



STORRS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



for the past twelve years has been 146 days. An unusually severe 
freeze occurred October 2, and another October 3, small pools of 
water being frozen over one-third of an inch in thickness and 
potatoes which were not harvested were considerably frozen. 

With the exception of the severe freeze just referred to the 
fall months were mild and very favorable for the harvesting of 
crops. The first snow occurred November 14, but remained 
on the ground only a few days, and the fields were bare most 
of the time until the close of the year. 

Through the kindness of the New England Meteorological 
Society we are able to publish the rainfall records from ten of 
their stations in Connecticut. Table 53 gives the rainfall as 
recorded for the six months ending October 31 for twenty-one 
localities in the State, and Table 54 gives the summary of 
observations made by the Station at Storrs. 



Table 53. 
Rainfall during six months ending October 31 , 18 pp. 





Observer. 


Inches per Month. 


LOCALITY. 










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V 










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a 


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Canton, 


G. J. Case, - 


2.09 


6.44 


6.83 


3.00 


4.83 


2.5025.69 


Clark's Falls, 


E. D. Chapman, - 


2.30 


2.74 


5.00 


2.96 


2.93 


1.87 17.80 


Colchester, 


S. P. Willard, 


2. 11 


2.82 5.384.2I 


3-47 


1 .21 19.20 


Cream Hill, - 


C. L. Gold, - 


i-75 


3.396.70 1. 1 1 


4.21 


1.67 18.83 


Falls Village, 


M. H. Dean, 


2.68 


3.997.09 


.88 


4.82 


1. 63! 2 1. 09 


Gilead, 


A. C. Gilbert, 


1. 71 


3-49|4. 30 


3-37 


3-53 


2.00 18.40 


Hartford, 


Prof. S. Hart, 


1. 71 


3.07|6.23 


1.92 


3.60 


2.98 19.51 


Lebanon, 


E. A. Hoxie, 


3.10 


3-58|5.43 


4.58 


6.29 


2.25 25.23 


Madison, 


J. D. Kelsey, 


2.69 


2. 585.10I .55 


3.24 1. 51 15.67 


New Haven, 


Weather Bureau, - 


2.52 


2.59 


4-i7i .65 


3.33 ! i.78 15.04 


Newington, - 


J. S. Kirkham, 


1. 41 


1.88 


6-99 i-35 


3-27 ! 2.43|i7-33 


New London, 


Weather Bureau, - 


2.52 


2.60 


5-292.59 


4.32 1.87 19.19 


North Franklin, - 


C. H. Lathrop, 


1.84 


3-57 


4.82 4. 12 


5.252.3021.90 


Norwalk, 


G. S. Comstock, - 


2.C5 


3.06 


5-91 -37 


4.80 1 .42117.61 


Southington, 


Lumen Andrews, - 


1-75 


2.23 


5.62 .45 


4.132.35 16.53 


South Manchester, 


K. B. Loomis, 


2.22 


2.21 


4-73 1-36 


3.02 2.66 16.20 


Storrs, - - - 


Experiment Station, 


1.27 


3.72 


5-55 3-27 


3.31I1.54I18.66 


Voluntown, - 


Rev. C. Dewhurst, 


1.52 


2-59 


4.58 2.22 


8.41 1. 43(20. 75 


Waterbury, - 


N. J. Welton, 


2.07 


2.32 


6.02 1 .03 


5.30J2.42J19.16 


West Simsbury, 


S. T. Stockwell, - 


2.04 


6.71 


6.60 3.79 


4.29 1.8725.30 


Winchester, - 


W. L. Wetmore, - 


1.66 


2.62 


6. 19 1 .44 


3.37 1.67,16.95 




Average, - 


2.05:3.25 


5.642.15 


4.271.97 19.34 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



221 





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INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Analyses of feeding stuffs, - 209 

Armsby, H. P., - - - - - - 11 

Atwater, W. O., - 2, 12, 69, in, 124, 142, 168 
Available nutrients and fuel values of 

common food materials, - - - in 

Availability, discussion of term, - - 69 

of food materials, - - 73 

coefficients, - 83, 86, 104, no 

Bacteria, dairy, bibliography, - - - 67 

classification, - - 13, 26 

description of species, - 32 

Bacteriology, dairy, ----- 8 

Beach, C. L., - - - - - 7, 12 

Benedict, Francis G., - - - - 2, 209 

Bovine tuberculosis, - - - - 9, 150 

Bowen, S. O., ------ 2 

Brome grass, analyses, - 211, 219 

Bryant, A. P., - - - - 73, in, 143 

Calves, feeding with milk of tuberculous 

COWS, ------- 15S 

Carbohydrates, fuel value, - - - 104 

heats of combustion, 94, 96 

Conn, H. W., - - - - 8, 12, 13 

Connecticut Agricultural College, Trustees, 2 
Hospital for the Insane, die- 
tary studies in, - - 142 
Composition of common food materi- 
als, - - - - in, 113 

of crops, experiments on 

the effect of fertilizers 

upon, 7, 168 

Corn, fertilizer experiments, - 174 

soil test experiments, - - - 200 

stover, analyses, - - - 213, 216 

flint (grain), analyses, - - 215, 218 

Cow pea fodder, analyses, - - 212, 216 

Cow peas, fertilizer experiments, - - 18S 

Cows, study of dairy, - - - - 12 

tuberculous, ----- 150 

Cream, ripening, - - - - - 12 

Dairy bacteriology, ----- 8 

bacteria, bibliography, - - - 67 
classification, - - 13, 26 
description of species, - 32 
Dietaries of college students and of mem- 
bers of families of professional men, 124 
Dietary studies, ------ 10 

with college students and 

professional men, - 124 
in Connecticut Hospital 

for Insane, - 142 



PAGE. 

Digestibility, discussion of term, - - 69 
Digestion experiments, - - - - 10 
Director's report, - - - . . 7 

Ensilage corn, analysis, - 212, 217 

Esten, W. M., S, 22 

Executive Committee, report, 4 

Fats and oils, heats of combustion, 92, 93 

fuel value, - 104 

Feeding stuffs, analyses, - - - 9, 209 
Fertilizers, effects upon yield and com- 
position of crops, - 7, 216 
field experiments, - - - 168 
Flint, G. W., - - - - - - 2, 4 

Food and nutrition of man, 9 

materials, availability, 73 

available nutrients, - - - - in 

fuel value, ----- 73, m 

composition, ----- m 

Frisbie, Martin M., ----- 2 

Fuel value, -------98 

discussion of term, - - 69 

of food materials, - - - 73 
factors, - - - - 104, no 

Gold, T. S., - - - - - - 2, 4, 5, 6 

Hagemann, Prof., - - • - - - 11 
Halladay, Edmund, ----- 2 

Hawk, Philip B., - - - - - - 2 

Henry, E. S., ------ 2 

Holman, William D., - - - - - 2 

Hopson, George A., ----- 2 

Jenkins, E. H., - - - - - - 2 

Keniston, Dr. J. M., ----- 142 

Kirkpatrick, Herbert, - - - - 2 

Lounsbury, Gov. George E., - - - 2, 4 
Nitrogen factors for determination of 

protein in food materials, 76 
special fertilizer experiments, 169 
Nutrients available in common food ma- 
terials, ----- in 

availability, - - - 73, 86, SS 
factor for heats of combustion 

and fuel value, - - 104, no 

heats of combustion, - - 88 

proportion of, iu average diet, So 

Nutrition of man, ----- 9 

Officers of the Station, ... - 2 
Orchard grass, analyses, - - - - 211 

Mayo, N. S., ------ 157 

Meadow fescue, analyses, - - - 211, 216 
Metabolism experiments, - - - - 10 

Meteorological observations, - - 7, 2I 9 
Miles, Henry C, - - - - - - 5. 6 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Milk of tuberculous cows, - - 150 

Milner, R. D., ------ - 124 

Osborne, T. B., ------ 77 

Page, Dr. C. W., ------ 142 

Paris Exposition, exhibit of Storrs Sta- 
tion, ------- 11 

Phelps, C. S., - - 2, 150, 168, 208, 219 
Plot experiments, ----- 7 

Pot experiments, ------ 8 

Potatoes, soil tests with fertilizers, - - 201 

Protein, heat cf combustion, - 88, 92, 104 

sources and uses, - - - - 74 

proportion of proteids and non- 

proteids, ----- 75 

nitrogen factor, - - - 76, 79 
fuel value, ----- 104 

Respiration calorimeter, - - - - 11 

Ritthausen, Prof., ----- 77 

Rubner, factors for fuel value, - - 107 

Sherman, H. C, - 143 

Simonds, W. E-, - - - - - 2, 4, 5, 6 

Singleton, F. E., - - - - - - 2 

Soil improvement, an experiment on, - 205 
test experiments, - - - - - 197 



PAGE. 

Soy bean fodder, analysis, - - 212, 216 

seed, anatyses, - 215, 217 

Soy beans, fertilizer experiments, - - 193 
soil test experiments, - - 199 
Storrs Station, Executive Committee, - 2 
exhibit at Paris Exposi- 
tion, - - - - 11 

officers, - - - - 2 

publications for year 1899- 
1900, - - - - 12 

Stover, corn, analyses, - 213, 216 

Tangl, Prof., ------ n 

Timothy, analyses, - 212, 216 

Treasurer's report, ----- 5 

Trustees of Connecticut Agricultural Col- 
lege, ------- 2 

Tuberculosis, bovine, - - - . - 9, 150 
Tuberculous cows, and the use of their 

milk in feeding calves, - 150 

Wait, Prof. C. E., ----- 85 

Wells, H. E., ------ 143 

Wiley, H. W., - - - - - - 77 

Woods, Prof. Charles D., - - - - 100 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE STATION. 



The publications of the Station will be mailed to all citizens 
of Connecticut, and to Granges, Farmers' Clubs, and other 
agricultural organizations, who ask for them, and so far as 
circumstances permit, to those who apply from other States. 

Requests for publications should be addressed to 

STORRS agricultural 

Experiment Station, 

Tolland County. STORRS, CONN. ■ 




University of 
Connecticut 

Libraries